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BULLETIN 

OF 

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

VOLUME 3 



Published for the John Rylands Library at 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS (H. M. McKechnie, Secretary) 

12 LIME GROVE, OXFORD ROAD, MANCHESTER 

LONGMANS, GREEN & COMPANY 

LONDON : 39 PATERNOSTER ROW 

NEW YORK: 443-449 FOURTH AVENUE, AND THIRTIETH STREET 

CHICAGO : PRAIRIE AVENUE AND TWENTY-FIFTH STREET 

BOMBAY: HORNBY ROAD 

CALCUTTA: 6 OLD COURT HOUSE STREET 

MADRAS : 167 MOUNT ROAD 

BERNARD QUARITCH 
II GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, LONDON, W 



BULLETIN 



OF 



THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

MANCHESTER 



EDITED BY 

THE LIBRARIAN 



VOLUME 3 

ANUARY, 1916 — April, 1917 ^ 



Manchester: THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

London : LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., and BERNARD QUARITCH 

New York, Chicago, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras 
LONGMANS, GREEN & CO. 

1916-1917 



V.3 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Library Notes and News . . . . . . 1, 135, 343 

Steps towards the Reconstruction of the Library of the University 

of Louvain ; by the Editor 229, 408 

Classified List of Accessions to the Library ... 78, 278, 443 

Harris (J. Rendel). The Origin of the Cult of Apollo. Illustrated . 10 

The Origin of the Cult of Artemis. Illustrated . . .147 

The Origin of the Cult of Aphrodite. Illustrated . . . 354 

Hereford (C. H.). National and International Ideals in the English 

Poets 382 

Mingana (A.). Baghdad and After 404 

Poel (William). Some Notes on Shakespeare's Stage and Plays. 

Illustrated 215 

Smith (G. Elliot). The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Civilization 

in the East and in America. Illustrated 48 

Tout (T. F.). The English Civil Service in the Fourteenth Century 185 

List of Trustees, Governors, and Principal Officers .... vi 



THE TRUSTEES, GOVERNORS, AND PRINCIPAL 
OFFICERS OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 

TRUSTEES. 

WILLIAM CARNELLEY. 

The Right Hon. LORD COZENS-HARDY OF LETHERINGSETT, P.C. 

GERARD N. FORD, J.P. 

Sir ALFRED HOPKINSON, K.C., B.C.L., LL.D., etc. 

WILLIAM A. LINNELL. 

Sir GEORGE WATSON MACALPINE, J.P., LL.D. 

Sir THOMAS THORNHILL SHANN, J.P. 

Sir EVAN SPICER, J.P. 

Sir ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, Litt.D., LL.D. 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNORS.* 



WILLIAM CARNELLEY. 
GERARD N. FORD, J.P. 
CHARLES HAROLD HEREFORD, M.A. 

Litt.D. 
Sir ALFRED HOPKINSON, K.C., B.C.L., 

LL.D. 
L. E. KASTNER. M.A. 



Sir GEORGE WATSON MACALPINE, 

J.P., LL.D. 
HENRY PLUMMER, J.P. 
Sir THOMAS T. SHANN, J.P. 
THOMAS F. TOUT, M.A., F.B.A. 
CHARLES E. VAUGHAN, M.A., Litt.D. 



CO-OPTATIVE GOVERNORS 

The Rev. ROBERT MACKINTOSH, M.A., 

D.D. 
The Rev. J. T. MARSHALL, M.A., D.D. 
The Rev. JAMES HOPE MOULTON, 

M.A., D.LiTT., D.D., Th.D., etc. 
Sir ALEXANDER PORTER. J.P. 



A. S. PEAKE. M.A., D.D. 
The Rev. F. J. POWICKE, M.A., Ph.D. 
The Rev. J. E. ROBERTS, M.A., B.D. 
The Rt. Rev. Bishop J. E. WELLDON, 
D.D. 



HONORARY GOVERNORS.t 



The Right 


Hon. 


LORD 


COZENS- 


HARDY 


OF 


LETHERINGSETT, 


P.C. 








The Rt. Rev 


The 


BISHOP 


OF LIN- 


COLN, D.D. 







CANON H. D. RAWNSLEY, M.A. 
Sir a. W. WARD, Litt.D., LL.D. 
The LORD MAYOR OF MANCHESTER. 
The MAYOR OF SALFORD. 
Sir WILLIAM VAUDREY, J.P. 



Chairman of Council 
V ice-Chairman . . . 
Hon. Treasurer 
Hon. Secretary 
Librarian 
Sub-Librarian ... 
a ssis tant-l ibraria n 
Ass.stanT'Sbcrbtary. 



Sir GEORGE WATSON MACALPINE, J. P., LL.D. 

WILLIAM CARNELLEY. 

Sir THOMAS T. SHANN, J.P. 

GERARD N. FORD, J.P. 

HENRY GUPPY, M.A. 

GUTHRIE VINE, M.A. 

JULIAN PEACOCK. 

JAMES JONES. 



The Representative and Co-optative Governors constitute the Couocil. 
f Honorary Governors are not Members of the Council. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS OF 
THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 

1. The use of the Library is restricted to purposes of research and re- 
ference, and under no pretence whatever must any Book, Manuscript, 
or Map be removed from the building. 

2. The Library is open to holders of Readers' Tickets daily, as follows : 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
Tuesdays and Fridays, from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. Saturdays, from 10 
a.m. to 2 p.m. 

The Library will be closed on Sundays, Good Friday, Christmas Day, 
New Year's Day, Bank Holidays, and the whole of Whit-week. 

3. Persons desirous of being admitted to read in the Library must apply 
in writing to the Librarian, specifying their profession or business, 
their place of abode, and the particular purpose for which they seek 
admission.* 

4. Every such application must be made at least two clear days before 
admission is required, and must bear the signature and full address 
of a person of recognised position, whose address can be identified 
from the ordinary sources of reference, certifying from personal know- 
ledge of the applicant that he or she will make proper use of the Library. 

5. If such application or recommendation be unsatisfactory, the Librarian 
shall withhold admission and submit the case to the Council of 
Governors for their decision. 

6. The Tickets of Admission, which are available for twelve months, are 
not transferable, and must be produced when required. 

7. No person under eighteen years of age is admissible, except under a 
special order from the Council of Governors. 

8. Readers may not write upon, damage, turn down the leaves, or make 
any mark upon any Book, Manuscript, or Map belonging to the 
Library ; nor may they lay the paper on which they are writing upon 
any Book, Manuscript, or Map. 

9. The erasure of any mark or writing on any Book, Manuscript, or Map 
is strictly prohibited. 

10. No tracing shall be allowed to be made without express permission of 
the Librarian. 

U. Books in the Open Reference Shelves may be consulted without any 
formality, but after use they are to be left on the tables instead of 
being replaced on the shelves. 

12. Other books may be obtained by presenting to the Assistant at the 
counter one of the printed application slips properly filled up. 

♦ Forms of Application for Reader's Ticket may be had on application to the 
Librarian. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 

13. Readers before leaving the Library are required to return to the 
Assistant at the counter all Books, Manuscripts, or Maps for which 
they have given tickets, and must reclaim their tickets. Readers are 
held responsible for such Books, Manuscripts, or Maps so long as the 
tickets remain uncancelled. 

14. Books of great value and rarity may be consulted only in the presence 
of the Librarian or one of his Assistants. 

15. Readers before entering the Library must deposit all wraps, canes, 
umbrellas, parcels, etc., at the Porter's Lodge in the Vestibule, and 
receive a check for same. 

16. Conversation, loud talking, and smoking are strictly prohibited in every 
part of the building. 

17. Readers are not allowed in any other part of the building save the 
Library without a special permit. 

18. Readers and visitors to the Library are strictly forbidden to offer any 
fee or gratuity to any attendant or servant. 

19. Any infringement of these Rules will render the privilege of admission 
liable to forfeiture. 

20. The privilege of admission is granted upon the following conditions : — 

(a) That it may at any time be suspended by the Librarian. 
{b) That it may at any time be withdrawn by the Council of 
Governors. 

21. Complaints about the service of the Library should be made to the 
Librarian immediately after the occurrence of the cause for complaint, 
and if written must be signed with the writer's name and address. 

22. All communications respecting the use of the Library must be ad- 
dressed to the Librarian. 

HENRY GUPPY. 

N.B. — It is earnestly requested that any Reader observing: a defect 
in or danias:e to any Book, Manuscript, or Map will point out 
the same to the Librarian. 



ADMISSION OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC AND VISITORS. 

The general public are admitted to view^ the Library on Tuesday 
and Friday afternoons between the hours of two and six, and 
on the second Wednesday of each month between the hours 
of seven and nine in the evening:. Visitors to Manchester 
from a distance, at any other time when the Library is open, 
will be admitted for the same purpose upon application to 
the Librarian. 



i\'^' 



BULLETIN OF 

THE JOHN RYLANDS 

LIBRARY 

MANCHESTER 

Vol. 3 JANUARY-MARCH, 1916 No. 1 

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS. 

AT the January meeting of the Council of Governors the sixteenth 
annual report was presented, in which the work of the library 
during the past year was reviewed. As the circulation of 
this report is restricted to the governing body of the library it may not 
be out of place in these pages briefly to summarize such portions of 
the information which it contains as are likely to be of interest to our 
readers. 

As we looked forward at the commencement of the year it was 
not unnatural to anticipate a decline in the library's THE YEAR 
activities. We had become obsessed by the war ; it 
had entered into every phase of our work, and at times it seemed to 
overshadow, if not actually to obscure all our visions of usefulness. 
It is therefore with feelings of relief, as we look back, that we find our 
gloomy forebodings have not been realized. 

Libraries, museums, and art galleries have been marked down as 
victims of municipal and state retrenchment to an extent which 
astonishes all who care for the intellectual future of England, and we 
are grateful to the Editor of the " Saturday Review " for the strong 
and timely protest which he raised against this mistaken policy. " It 
will not materially help the country financially to economize in things 
of the mind, or in any of the things which give a genuine grace and 
dignity to life. The financial results of such economy are small, and 
they are tremendously outweighed by the irreparable loss to the country 
of intellectual force, and of all means by which a nation's spirit is kept 
alive and fresh. Those who think literature a mere luxury to be cut 
down with as little compunction as petrol are exceedingly ill-advised. 
They can have very little idea as to what precisely it is we are fighting 
to preserve. The nation which is starved in mind and fancy is as 
little likely to survive the searching test of war as the nation which is 
starved for bread and cheese." 



2 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Libraries are the keepers of the forces which more than any 
other can effectively fight against and resist the intellectual enslave- 
ment which may be described as the roots from which the present 
world conflagration has sprung. The fruits of the world's thought 
upon our shelves are a never- failing store of weapons calculated 
to help the public to assert that freedom to think, to choose, and to 
believe for themselves if militarism is to be prevented from becoming 
the pattern to which the whole world is made. Another direction in 
which the libraries of the country can help at this time is to provide 
avenues of escape from too much thinking about the war. 

Fortunately, the governors have had no illusions of the kind 
referred to ; they have realized their responsibility, not only to ** carry 
on,'* but also to open out, wherever possible, new avenues of service, 
and with most encouraging results. The number of readers in the 
library not only has shown no decline, but has actually shown an 
increase, with this difference from former years that there have been 
fewer male readers, for obvious reasons, whilst the lady readers have 
increased to such an extent, that at times the seating capacity of the 
library has been taxed to the point of congestion, and the need for 
increased accommodation, to which we look forward, is once more 
emphasized. 

By the approaching completion of the new building which should 
be ready for occupation towards the end of the present year, or at the 
commencement of 1917, not only will the congestion in this respect 
be relieved, but the sorely needed additional accommodation for book 
storage will be available, to the relief of the overcrowded bookshelves. 

At the meeting of the Council held in December, 1914, the 
Governors resolved to give some practical expression THE 
to their deep feelings of sympathy with the authorities of STRUCTION 
the University of Louvain, in the irreparable loss which lo JwUN 
they had suffered through the destruction of the Univer- LIBRARY, 
sity buildings and the famous library. It was further decided that this 
expression of sympathy should take the form of a gift of books, to 
comprise a set of the publications of the library, together with a selec- 
tion from the stock of duplicates, which have gradually accumulated 
in the library, through the purchase en bloc from time to time of large 
and special collections. 

A list of upwards of two hundred volumes was drawn up to 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 3 

accompany the offer, when it was made to the Louvain authorities 
through the medium of Professor Dr. A. Carnoy, at that time resident 
in Cambridge, who, in gratefully accepting the gift, stated that " this 
was one of the very first acts which tend to the preparation of our 
revival ". 

Since the University was, as it remains for the present, dismembered 
and without a home, we gladly undertook to house the volumes, 
which thus formed the nucleus of the new library, until such time as 
the new buildings should be ready to receive them. At the same time 
it was felt that there must be many other libraries, and similar institu- 
tions, as well as private individuals, who would welcome an opportunity 
of sharing in this expression of practical sympathy. An appeal, there- 
fore, was made in the pages of the " BULLETIN," which met with an 
immediate and encouraging response from all classes of the community, 
not only in this country, but in many parts of the world, thanks to 
the valuable assistance rendered by the Press, in giving to our appeal 
a publicity it would have been impossible to secure in any other way. 

Already upwards of 6000 volumes have been either actually 
received or definitely promised, and each day brings with it fresh 
offers of assistance. We feel encouraged, therefore, to entertain the 
hope that the new library, which is already rising phcenix-like from 
the ashes of the old one, will be richer and more glorious than its 
predecessor, and we are anxious that the agencies through which this 
is to be accomplished should be as widely representative as possible. 

A careful register of the names and addresses of the donors of the 
various works, vrith an exact record of their gifts, has been instituted 
for presentation v^th the library. This vsdll serve as a permanent 
record of the widespread desire to give tangible proof to the people 
of Belgium of the sympathy so widely felt with them in the calamities 
that have befallen them, and also of the high and affectionate regard 
which their heroic sacrifices have inspired. 

This is an excellent beginning of the new library, yet, when it is 
realized that the collection of books so insensately destroyed at Louvain 
numbered nearly a quarter of a million of volumes, it will be evident 
that very much more remains to be done if the work of replacement 
is to be completely successful. 

It is with the utmost confidence that we renew our appeal for help, 
and in doing so we desire to ask those of our readers who may be 



4 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

desirous of participating in our scheme, to be good enough, in the first 
instance, to forward to the Librarian of the John Rylands Library a 
list of the works which they propose to present, so that the register 
may be examined with the object of obviating a needless duplication 
of gifts. 

We have been compelled through considerations of space to hold 
over the record of contributions received since December last, but we 
shall furnish the particulars in our next issue. 

Since our appeal was issued, a committee has been formed, under 

the leadership of Viscount Bryce, as President of the interna- 

British Academy, to co-operate with the Institut de louvain 

France in the formation of an International Committee COMMIT- 

TEE 
with the ultimate aim of the restoration of the University 

of Louvain and its library. Invitations were issued to the learned 
societies and principal libraries throughout the country to appoint 
delegates to assist in the realization of this aim, and Sir Alfred 
Hopkinson, K.C., with the Librarian were appointed to represent 
this library. The inaugural meeting was held at Burlington House 
in December last, when steps were taken to form a small executive 
committee to consider ways and means. This executive committee has 
since been formed, with Lord Muir Mackenzie as Chairman, to work 
in connection with the French Committee, and is now considering the 
best way of organizing the movement effectively. 

The efforts which have been employed throughout the year ta 
develop the resources of the library along lines which GROWTH 
hitherto have been productive of such excellent results, coLLEC- 
and at the same time to reduce the number of lacunae TIONS. 
upon its shelves, have again met with most gratifying success. In this 
respect the officials have to acknowledge the valuable assistance which 
they have received from readers, who in the course of their investiga- 
tions have been able to call attention to the library's lack of very im- 
portant authorities. In most cases these deficiencies have been 
promptly supplied, whilst in the case of works of rarity, which are not 
so readily procurable, steps have been taken to obtain them with the 
least possible delay. Suggestions of this nature, which tend to the 
improvement of the library, are not only welcomed, but they are in- 
vited, and receive prompt and sympathetic attention. 

It may not be out of place again briefly to refer to the help and 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 5 

guidance which the officials are constantly called upon to render 
to readers and students, not only by personal attention in LIBRARY 
the library itself, but also in response to requests received 
through the post. Such service cannot be reduced to any reliable 
statistical statement, but they bear fruit in the grateful acknowledg- 
ments of indebtedness to the library, which constantly find expression 
in the footnotes and prefaces of published works. 

Notwithstanding the absence of the six members of the staff who 
have joined His Majesty's Forces, the service of the library has been 
maintained at its regular level of efficiency, thanks to the loyal co- 
operation of the remaining members, who from various causes are in- 
eligible for military service. 

The additions to the library by purchase and by gift since the 
presentation of the last report number 3060 volumes, of T^^i^c^'^^^ 
which 2670 were acquired by purchase, and 390 by SIGNS, 
gift. 

The acquisitions by purchase contain fewer works of current 
publication than usual, by reason of the fact that there has been 
something like a pause in authorship since the war began, except in 
war books. Many prominent scholars have exchanged the peaceful 
pursuit of literature for the service of the King, and in several cases 
have already given the last pledge of loyalty to their country. We 
have therefore been able to pay greater attention to the acquisition of 
some of the older works, in which the library is still deficient. 

The printed books include many rare and interesting items, amongst 
which are the following : The rare original editions of three of Sir 
William Alexander's works : " Doomes-day," 1614, " Paraenesis to 
the Prince," 1604, and " Aurora, '* 1604 ; Mexia's "The Forests or 
collection of Histories,** 1571 ; Joshua Silvestre*s " Lachrymae lachry- 
marum,** 1613 ; Richard Brathwaite*s " Whimsies,** 1631 ; the earliest 
publication of King Edward VIth*s reign towards the reformation of 
ecclesiastical affairs : " Injunctions given by . . . Edward VI. . . .*' 
1547 ; Henry Jacob's '* Defence of the Churches of England,** 1599 ; 
Increase Mather*s "... Trials of New England Witches . . ." 
1693 ; a collection of tracts and broadsides relating to the Popish 
Plot, 1679-1681 ; "BreviariumCarmelitanum,** 1480; theoriginal 
edition of Florio*s translation of the " Essays of Montaigne,** 1603 ; 
the original edition of John Haringtons translation of "Orlando 



6 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Furioso** of Ariosto, 1591 ; John Florio's "Second Fruitcs . . . 
and Gardine of Recreation/* 1 591 ; also a large selection of importaint 
works upon the history of British India, made with the help of Professor 
Ramsay Muir ; a collection of books on Eastern archaeology, including 
an important group of works on the history of Ceylon, from the library 
of Professor Rhys Davids, etc. 

The manuscripts include : *' The original record of the Royal 
receipts and expenses in Ireland for the year of 20 James I." 1622, 
in 4 vols. ; a collection of eighty volumes of records, of which the out- 
standing item is a volume of the fifteenth century ** Cartulary of 
Fountains Abbey,'* which was lost sight of for a very long time, and 
was unknown to Dugdale, Dodsworth, and the later editors of the 
** Monasticon Anglicanum, * the volume is in a perfect state of preser- 
vation, and retains its interesting fifteenth century stamped binding ; 
the other volumes in the collection consist for the most part of seven- 
teenth century transcripts of State Papers, but include some original 
documents, which may prove to be of considerable historical importance, 
including an "Ancient Rent Roll of Oswestry,** "Book of Offices 
under the Crown,** " Statutes of Savoy Hospital,** etc A collection 
of eighty Pali manuscripts on palm leaf, metallic lacquer, or paper, 
including a number of very rare and unpublished texts, together with 
a small group of unknown works from the Bali Island beyond Java, 
in Bali character, from the library of Professor Rhys Davids. A 
large collection of memoranda, reports, and letters relating to the East 
India Company, mostly covering the middle of the nineteenth century, 
with a quantity of material dealing with the earlier history of the 
Company. The collection seems to have been made by John Charles 
Mason (1796-1881) who held the office of Marine Secretary of the 
Indian Government, and was for many years employed at the East 
India House, upon confidential duties under the Committee of Secrecy. 
A number of " Court Rolls *' of the time of Queen Elizabeth, and a 
" Legal Commonplace Book ** of a Preston solicitor, also of the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. 

These are but a few of the works, taken almost at random, but 
they suffice to furnish some idea of the importance of the accessions 
which are constantly being obtained. 

In the following list of donors, we have fresh proof of the sustained 
practical interest in the library, and we take this op- GIFTS TO 
portunity of renewing the thanks, already expressed in THE LIBRARY. 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 



another form, for their generous gifts, at the same time assuring them 
that these expressions of interest and goodwill are a most welcome 
source of encouragement to the governors. 



Miss E. M. Barlow. 

The Right Hon. Earl Beauchamp, 

K.G. 
R. Benson, Esq. 
J. H. Benton, Esq. 
W. K. Bixby, Esq. 
The Rev. D. P. Buckle. 
Dr. Isak Collijn. 
G. G. Coulton, Esq. 
F. A. Crisp, Esq. 
The Mary Baker Eddy Fund. 
The Rev. G. Eyre Evans. 
The Rev. H. A. Folkard. 
Sir H. G. Fordham. 
The Rev. Canon J. T. Fowler. 
S. Gaselee, Esq. 
R. Griffin, Esq. 
The Rev. Professor J. Gwynn. 
J. J. Hess, Esq. 
C. H. St. John Hornby, Esq. 
Charles Hughes, Esq. 
Sydney Humphries, Esq. 
W. H. A. Jacobson, Esq. 
R. Jaeschke, Esq. 
C. Janet, Esq. 
The Executors of the late Thomas 

Kay, Esq. 
T. W. Koch, Esq. 
Monsieur Paul Lacombe. 



Dr. Wickham Legg. 

The Rev. E. Le Mare. 

H. C. Levis, Esq. 

The Librarian. 

Monsieur J. B. Martin. 

The Rev. R. M. Martin, O.P. 

F. R. Marvin, Esq. 
Rai Biraj Narain. 
Dr. Axel Nelson. 
Lieut-Col. J. P. Nicholson. 
Julian Peacock, Esq. 

A. Philip, Esq. 

Mrs. Reeves, per the Rev. J. B. 

McGovern. 
Monsieur Seymour de Ricci. 
Prince Paul Z. Riedelski. 
H. Laing Roth, Esq. 
Visconde de Sautarem. 
C. L. H. Smith, Esq. 
O. S. Straus, Esq. 
A. Swann, Esq. 
Mrs. M. A. Tanner. 

G. Thomas, Esq. 
Dr. Paget Toynbee. 
J. Urquhart, Esq. 
Mrs. Watson. 

J. H. Watson, Esq. 

The Rev. Dr. W. T. Whitley. 

O. U. Wihl, Esq. 

G. A. Wood, Esq. 



Wm. Lees, Esq. 

British and Foreign Bible Society. 
Cairo. The Khedivial Library. 
Cambridge. Magdalene College. 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 



8 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 

Chicago University Library. 

Chicago. John Crerar Library. 

Copenhagen. Det Store Kongelige Bibliothek. 

Cornell University Library. 

Durham University Library. 

Groningen. Rijks-Universiteitbibliotheek. 

Habana. Biblioteca Nacional. 

Humanitarian League. 

International Institute of Agriculture, U.S.A. 

Jamaica. Institute of Jamaica, Kingston. 

Japanese Government Railways. 

London. British Museum. 

London. Middle Temple Library. 

Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society. 

Manchester Museum. 

Manchester University Press. 

Manchester. Victoria University. 

Saint Andrews University Library. 

South Australia Public Library. 

Stubbs* Publishing Co. 

Testimony Publishing Co. 

Toronto. Provincial Museum. 

Utrecht. Rijks Universiteitsbibliotheek. 

Washington. Congressional Library. 

Washington. Surgeon- GeneraFs Office Library. 

Washington University Library, St. Louis, Mo. 

Worcester, Mass. Clark University Library. 

Yale University Library. 

Interest in the public lectures, which have come to be regarded a . 
one of the established institutions of Manchester, has con- LECTURES 
tinued unabated throughout the year, in spite of the war. monstra- 
Eight evening and two afternoon lectures have been TIONS. 
arranged, thanks to the help so ungrudgingly given, by such scholars 
as Dr. Rendel Harris, Principal Burrows, Professors Herford, 
Ramsay Muir, Richard Moulton, Peake, Tout, Elliot Smith, and 
Mr. Walter Poel. On each occasion the lecture-room has been well 
filled with a most appreciative audience. 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 9 

A number of special lectures and demonstrations to teachers, 
students, Sunday School workers, and craftsmen, have also been given 
during the year, with a view to assist them in obtaining a better know- 
ledge of the contents of the library, and how it can serve them in 
their respective studies and work. 

In connection with the Tercentenary of the Death of Shakespeare, 
which is to be commemorated in the week following terceN- 
Sunday, the 23rd of April, arrangements have been SHAKE^ ^^ 
made for the delivery of three lectures ; one by Mr. SPEARE'S 
William Poel on ** The Globe Play-house," and two 
by Professor Richard G. Moulton, on " Shakespeare as a Dramatic 
Artist," and ** Shakespeare as a Dramatic Thinker ". 

It is also the intention to arrange for the occasion a special exhibi- 
tion illustrating the work of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, and 
to issue one of our usual illustrated handbooks, with a view to reveal, 
not only to students, but also to the general public, the wealth of 
material which is available to them in the library for the study of 
Shakespearian literature. 

We congratulate Dr. C. E. Vaughan, one of the Governors of the 
Library, upon the laborious piece of work which he p^„ vaughan'S 
has just brought to fruition, in the publication of " The EDITION OF 

TD v^ ]\Y7 '^ CI T D - • * ROUSSEAU. 

r^olitical Writings ot Jean Jacques Kousseau, m two 

octavo volumes, by the Cambridge University Press. This is the first 
time that the political writings of Rousseau have been brought together 
in this way. In establishing a correct text, furnished with due critical 
apparatus, and enriched by introductions which put the reader in the 
way of attaining a fair view of Rousseau's position in the history of 
political thought. Dr. Vaughan has rendered a service to scholar- 
ship, the value and importance of which it is impossible to overestimate. 
The publication is timely, for the influence of Rousseau is almost un- 
paralleled, and is always with us. The part which he played in 
shaping the French Revolution is generally recognized, but it is 
doubtful whether his influence upon the present war of nations and 
ideas is understood. This point Dr. Vaughan makes clear. Fichte 
was the disciple of Kant, and Kant of Rousseau. We are told that 
Fichte's works, embodying his theory of the absolute state, are "mani- 
festly the arsenal from which the later prophets of German nationalism 
. . . have drawn their heaviest artillery". 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO.^ 

By J. RENDEL HARRIS, MA., D.Litt., LL.D., DTheol., etc., 
HON. FELLOW OF CLARE COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 

IN a recent study of the origin of the Cult of Dionysos,'^ I at- 
tempted to show that the solution of this perplexing question 
(one of the most perplexing of all the riddles of the Greek Myth- 
ology) was to be found in the identification of Dionysos with the Ivy, 
and in the recognition that the identification with the Vine is a later 
development, a supersession of an early and less rational cult, if, indeed, 
we can call that a supersession which does not wholly supersede ; for> 
as is well known, the Ivy and the Vine go on their religious way to- 
gether, are seen in the same processions, climb over the same traditional 
buildings, and wreathe the same imperial and sacerdotal brows. In 
some ways the Ivy seems to have a more tenacious hold upon human 
regard and custom than the Vine : it behaves in religion as it does in 
nature, clmging more closely to its support in wall and tree than ever 
Vine can do, and giving a symbolic indication both by rootlet and 
tendril that wherever it comes, it has come to stay. It appears as 
the tattooed totem-mark upon the worshipper's bodies, the sign of an 
ownership which religion has affirmed and which time cannot dis- 
allow. 

Now this view that the Ivy is the fundamental and primitive cult- 
symbol in the worship of Dionysos was not altogether new : as I 
pointed out, it had been veiy clearly stated by Perdrizet in his Cultes 
et Mythes de Pangde : it had also been suggested by S. Reinach 
(from whom, I suppose, Perdrizet derived it) as the following passage 
will show : I had not noticed it when writing my paper : — 

" Le lierre, comme le taureau, le chevreau, le faon, est une 

^ A lecture delivered in the John Rylands Library, 12 Oct., 1915. 
2 Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. April. 1915. 



/- 




THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 1 1 

forme primitive de Dionysos^ dont il est reste Tattribut ; les Men- 
ades dechirent et machent le lierre comme un animal sacre, victime de 
o-7ra/oay/A09 ou de ve^pio-fio*; ; et Plutarque sait, sans le dire for- 
mellement (car il n'est pas homme a reveler les mysteres) que Teffet 
de cette manducation du lierre est de rendre les Menades evSeoi, 
de faire passer en elles la divinite " (Cultes, Mythes et Religions, 
ii. 105). 

This agrees very nearly with my own statement as to the meaning 
of the chewing of the Ivy by the Maenads : but if the identification 
of the Ivy as a primitive form of Dionysos is not new (I should say, 
of the Ivy as the primitive form), the reason for the identification is 
altogether new. As I pointed out, Perdrizet (and, I may add, S. 
Reinach) see the Ivy off the oak : when we see it on the oak, the 
whole process of the evolution of the cult becomes intelligible : the 
Ivy is sacred because it partakes of the sanctity of the oak ; both of 
them are sacred because they are animistically repositories of the 
thunder. A collateral proof of this may be found amongst the 
Lithuanian peoples : as Grimm points out, " the Lettons have named 
it (the ground-ivy) pekrkones from their god Pehrkon *\ This is the 
Thunder-god Perkim, The importance of this consideration is very 
great : in the nature of the case, there can be no intermediate link 
between the Ivy and the Oak : the Ivy is the last link ; whatever 
other creeping or climbing plants (Vine, Smilax, Clematis) may de- 
velop Dionysiac sanctity, they can only do so in a derivative and 
secondary manner : if the Cult of Dionysos is to be explained, it must 
be from the conjunction of Thunder, Oak, and Ivy as a starting-point. 
I am now proposing to discuss the origin of the Cult of Apollo, 
using the results already attained as a guide ; for, as I shall presently 
show, there is much that is common in the manner of genesis of the 
two cults in question, and the solution of one will help us to the 
solution of the other. 

Before, however, we proceed to the investigation of the ApoUine 
cult, it will be proper to make a few remarks on the Dionysos cult, as 
it is expounded in a volume which has appeared since my paper was 
written. I am referring to Miss Gladys M. N. Davis' work on the 
Asiatic Dionysos. The object of this laborious and learned work, 
in which the writer shows as great familiarity with Sanskrit literature 
as with Greek, is to show that the Greek Dionysos is not really Greek 



12 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

at all, but of Asiatic origin. Asiatic in Miss Davis' book means 
many things : it may mean the Ionic School in literature, it may mean 
the Phrygian School in religion, but the final meaning, with regard to 
which the other two are alternative and secondary, is that Dionysos 
is an Indo-Iranian product ; to understand it we must go to the 
Avesta and the Rig- Veda. The perplexing titles which Dionysos 
bears will all become clear from Sanskrit philology or Medo-Persian 
geography. The central point of the theory is that Dionysos is the 
Soma, the divine and divinising drink of our Aryan ancestors, which 
appears in Old Persian under the name of Haoma, and which 
when theomorphised is one of the greatest of the gods in the Indian 
Pantheon. 

The identification is not new : Miss Davis uses freely Langlois' 
Mdmoire sur la divinitd Vedique appeUe Soma^ and points out 
that Langlois was accepted in his identification by Maury in his 
Histoire des Religions de la Grecel^ She might also have re- 
ferred to Kerbaker, // Bacco India^io^ which would have had the 
advantage of supplying a more modern student of the theory than 
those writers who belong to a time when everything ancient was 
Indian, and when Sanskrit was the last word in philology. 

In any case, there was prima facie ground for re-opening the 
question of the Oriental origin of Dionysos ; for it must be admitted 
that we cannot completely explain the legendary exploits of Dionysos 
in India as religious creations whose motive is to be found in the 
campaigns of Alexander ; the opening verses of the Bacchae of 
Euripides are sufficient to suggest that Dionysos had some links with 
Persia and with Bactria at a much earlier date ; and whatever may 
be our story of the evolution of the cult, it will not be complete 
unless these pre- Alexandrine as well as the post- Alexandrine elements 
of Asiatic influence are taken into account. According to Miss Davis 
the Greeks were Medizing before the Persian war, not only in com- 
merce but in literature and religion. The proof of this Medism is 
the dithyrambic movement in poetry (closely associated with the 
Dionysian revels on the one hand, and with the Ionic School of 
poetry on the other), and the Bacchic movement in religion. At 

^ Acad, des Inscript. et Belles-Lettres, vol. xix. Paris, 1853. 

^ Paris. 1857. 

3 Mem. R. Acad, di Arch. Lett, e Belle Arti. Napoli, 1905. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 13- 

first sight, each of these supposed influences seems to be unlikely ; I 
am not expert in dithyrambic poetry and its extravagances, but it 
seems to be in the highest degree improbable that the Greeks, at the 
time when their literature was nearing its full- bloom, should have 
shown so little originality as to copy wholesale from the Persians the 
dithyrambic method, and that the Vedic poets are the proof that the 
dithyrambic method was there to copy : and I am sure that the major 
part of Miss Davis' parallels are unreal and her conclusions illusory. 
As, however, I am not really in a position to discuss the dithyrambic 
movement in Greek poetry, perhaps I have said more by way of 
criticism than I am entitled to say. So I pass on to make one or 
two remarks on the proposed identification of Dionysos wdth the 
Soma. 

In the first place, then, it follows from the proposed identification 
of Dionysos with Soma that Soma is the Ivy, or a primitive surrogate 
for the Ivy. In the next place, it may be granted that if the Proto- 
Aryans drank a beverage compounded from Soma- Ivy, the proceeding 
is one which belongs to the elementary strata of Aryan belief (it 
might even be pre- Aryan), and has nothing whatever to do with any 
possible loans contracted by the Greeks in the Persian period, which 
go under the comprehensive name of Medism. 

As far as I am concerned there is no need to deny Persian in- 
fluences in religion. To take a single instance, we know from Aris- 
tophanes that the Cock was a Persian importation, and that he actually 
bore the title nepcrt/co?. It is, however, equally clear that the Cock 
had a religious value in Persia, and was, in fact, the Persian Thunder- 
bird ; and it is in the character of the Thunder-bird that he takes his 
place in Sparta (displacing, no doubt, an original Woodpecker) and 
becomes the cult-bird of the Heavenly Twins, just as he was in Persia. 
So a religious symbol can be transplanted. That is not quite the 
same thing as transplanting a religion. If a religion appears to be 
transplanted, it will probably be found upon closer scrutiny, that it 
was in existence already. 

Is there, then, any probability that an equation can be made 
between the Soma-plant and the Ivy ? An equation, I say, not a 
transfer : in the case of such primitive matter, that supposition is un- 
necessary. Botanically, we cannot identify, for the Soma plant is 
still an unknown quantity. It was a mountain plant, and it was a 



14 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

creeping plant with long tendrils, and it grows on the rocks, and is 
also, apparently, a tree-climber ; its juice is yellow, and has intoxicat- 
ing value, either naturally or when subject to fermentation. This 
intoxicating quality makes it the drink of the gods and the medicine of 
immortality. Probably it is this intoxicating quality which causes it 
to be spoken of in terms borrowed from mead and the honey out of 
which it is made. 

Now it is clear that thus far there is nothing to forbid an identi- 
fication, or a quasi-identificalion of Soma with the Ivy : it might be 
the Ivy, or a first substitute for it.^ 

In the next place, there is a parallelism between the two cult- 
creepers, in that each of them is closely related to the Thunder-god 
and the Storm-gods. In the case of Bacchus, there was a tendency 
on the part of students to ignore this connection, although one would 
have supposed that the relation of Dionysos to Zeus and Semele, and 
the emphasis which the legend lays on his birth in a thunderstorm, 
would have been sufficient to establish it, to say nothing of the 
thunderous elements which turn up in the language of the Bacchae. 
Now that we see the Ivy on the Oak, we need not have any hesita- 
tion in connecting Dionysos with the Thunder. In the case of the 
Soma the same thing is true ; Soma is especially connected with the 
thundering Indra, and is actually said, in one case, to be the son of 
the Storm -god Parjanya. 

The mention of this latter god raises an interesting problem : for 
Parjanya is commonly held to be the equivalent of the Lithuanian 
(and Slavonic) Oak-and-Thunder god Perkun ; now we have already 
in our essay connected Dionysos with Perkun, through the title 
Perikionios which the Greeks gave him, a title which we suggested 
was a mere misunderstanding of a primitive Perkunios. We should 
thus have made connection between Dionysos and the Soma, through 
the common element of a primitive thunder-cult. If this can be 
maintained, it will be a result as illuminating as it is interesting. 

The chief objection to it comes from the standpoint of the com- 
parative philologian. In Hastings' Encyclop. for Religion and 

^ I have taken the yellow colour of Soma to be the colour of its juice : 
it should, however, be noted that some varieties of ivy have yellow 
berries: of. Theokr. id. i. 31, Kapiro) . . . KpoKoevTL^ and Plin. H.N. 
16, 147, semen . . . crocatum. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 15 

Ethics, under the article Aryans (a splendid summary of our 
present knowledge of our ancestors), Schrader objects to the identifica- 
tion of Parjanyas with Perkun, on the ground that the Sanskrit / 
cannot be equated with the Lettish k It is possible, however, that 
the objection is wrongly taken, and is still too much under the in- 
fluence of the belief that everything Sanskrit is primitive. The Norse 
equivalent of Perkun appears to be Fjbrgynn ; and this suggests a 
form Parganyas behind the extant Sanskrit deity. After all, the 
equation between the two Storm-gods (accepted by Usener and others 
in modern times ^) may be defensible. 

We must be prepared, on the other hand, for an adverse verdict 
on the point before us from the experts in comparative philology : so 
that it will be wise not to build too hastily on the equation between 
Perkun and Parjanyas, 

A further caution must be emphasised in regard to the assumed 
derivation of Perikionios as a title of Dionysos from Perkun or 
Perkunios, The identification has met with a good degree of ap- 
probation. Perikionios had, in any case, an uncanny and artificial 
appearance. There are, however, those who express hesitation or 
reserve. For example, Mr. A. B. Cook doubts whether the title 
Perikionios was used by anybody who had come into contact with 
Perkun-wor shippers, and thinks that Perikionios is quite explicable 
on its own merits without being regarded as a mere misunderstanding 
of a primitive Perkunios. 

This may be so, but on the other hand Mr. Cook admits that in 
Zetis (i. 24 1 , n. 15) he had been tempted to make a similar equation 
of Greek Pikoloos with the Lithuanian Pikulas. This last is a 
very interesting case on account of the suspicion which at once comes 
to one's mind that we are dealing with some survival of the ancestral 
Woodpecker. In the case of the Greek name, tti/co? stands out 
clearly enough : the Lithuanian name has never, as far as I know, 

^ Usener, Gotternamen, 97, says of Perkun : " Die bedeutende gotter- 
gestalt isl uralt : ind. Parjanyas : alt-nord Fjbrgynn, slav. Perun ". See 
J. Grimm, Klein, Schr, 2, 414 ff. Biihler in Benfey*s Orie^tt u. Occ. i. 
214. Zimmer. Ztsch.f, d, alt, 19, 164 ff. We may also compare Olden- 
berg, Veda, p. 226 n. : ** Der Name (Parjanyas) bekanntlich aus indog. 
Zeit. vgl. den litauischen Perkunas, den nordischen Gott und Gottinn 
Fjorgyn. Nach Hirt : Idg, Forschungen, i. 481, ware die Bedeutung 
* Elichengott *.*' 



16 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

been explained. When the Christian religion affected Lithuanian 
beliefs, it seems to be pretty clear that Pikulas became the name for 
the devil. For the bird-ancestry of the devil (as a dispossessed 
thunder-bird) there is not a little evidence ; the so-called cloven hoof 
is probably a bird's foot : so there is no impossibility in finding the 
Woodpecker in Pikulas, but the matter needs closer examination before 
we can speak definitely. 

Now let us take some further objections, and after we have 
stated them briefly we shall be able to go on to the problems of the 
Cult of Apollon. 

There seems to be no adequate evidence that Soma is a fire-stick. 
It is inherent in our theory of the sanctity of the Ivy as derived from 
the thunder and the oak, that the Ivy is a primitive fire-stick : we 
know, in fact, that this is actually the case. The first fire-sticks 
amongst the Greeks are made of Ivy, Oak, Laurel, etc. Apparently 
the Ivy holds the place of honour, which is just what we should not 
have expected, apart from its link with the thunder and lightning. 
If we were starting out to make fire by friction, ivy-wood is about the 
last thing which we should have dreamt of using. Its use is a suffi- 
cient proof that there was an occult reason for its use. 

Now let us turn to Soma. There is the same traditional pro- 
duction of fire, carried on religiously, among the Indians even to our 
own day ; but no sign that Soma was a wood capable of becoming 
a fire-stick. The fig-tree has a prominent place in this regard, as it 
seems to have a subdued place in Dionysian cults, but there is no 
sign of Soma-wood. The objection is a strong one. There is, how- 
ever, something to be said on the other side. In Indian myth. Soma 
is not only the companion of Indra, the thunder, and of Parjanya, 
the rain-storm ; it has also a close connection with Agni, the fire. It 
is possible, then, that the Vedic Soma is not the first form of the 
stimulant, but a later and more potent one, which has displaced the 
first cult-symbol, something in the same way as, let us say, the Vine 
becomes more effective than the Ivy. Or, in Vedic times, the primi- 
tive fire- stick might have disappeared. 

There are other objections arising from the want of agreement in 
the cult-use of the plants in question. We know that the Ivy is 
chewed by the Maenads, and that is about all that we do know : in 
the case of Soma we know minutely its preparation ; that it is crushed 



■ 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 17 

between two stones, compared to thunder-bolts, and so perhaps the 
stones are actual celts supplying one more thunder element to the 
ritual ; that the yellow juice is mixed with flour, etc., fermented and 
strained through a strainer of sheep's wool : but there is not a sugges- 
tion that Soma is chewed, nor a hint that Ivy is pulped and decocted 
and strained. Thus we seem to be in two different cult regions, and 
are tempted to conclude that Soma cannot be either the Ivy or 
Dionysos. Is there any way of avoiding this conclusion ? Let us 
study for awhile an analogous sacred drink, the Kava of the Poly- 
nesian and Melanesian. Kava is the root of a pepper tree, the Piper 
Methysticum, out of which they make in the South Seas a mild 
intoxicant with a soapy taste. The method of its preparation varies 
somewhat in different islands. The root is chewed by a chief who, 
when he has macerated a portion, squeezes the juice of the portion 
which he has chewed into a bowl, where it is mixed with water, 
strained through cocoa-fibre, and then drunk out of small cocoa-shells 
which are filled with great ceremony to the men of the company out 
of the large Kava-bowl. In some of the more civilised islands (Samoa, 
for instance) the Kava is not chewed ; it is grated ; a rough grater 
is made in Samoa by driving some nails into a piece of tin ; the 
grated root is then mixed with water and strained ; in Samoa the 
preparation is made by the hands of the prettiest girl in the village, 
who mixes the drink and strains it with great deliberation and care. 
She is the priestess of the occasion ; but if you were to tell the 
natives in one of the less civilised islands that you had seen a woman 
making Kava, they would be consumed with laughter.^ 

Here we have a case analogous in some respects to the brewing 
of Soma : and it suggests that in the pre-Vedic history of Soma, the 
plant was chewed and not pounded ; we easily attach too much 
antiquity to things Vedic. Suppose we conjecture that the Soma 
was chewed by the Brahmans, and so made potable : we should 
then have restored parallelism with the action of the Maenads with 
the Ivy. Yes ! it will be said, but you must also have an ivy-drink 
prepared. Your Maenads must be as elementary in their dietetic 
prologues as the South Sea islanders. Who shall say they were not ? 
The whole process is a sacrament, and they might have just as re- 
ligiously prepared a drink-god as chewed a leaf-god. So let us say 

^ See Rivers, Hist. Melanesian Society, i. 82. 
2 



18 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

that if hypothesis be allowed free play, it is not impossible that Soma 
might be that ivy, with a somewhat more highly evolved method of 
preparation. 

It is interesting to be able to point out that we have, even in 
England, suspicious traces of the survival of an ivy* drink. Professor 
Lake reminds me that in Lincoln College, Oxford, they drink Ivy- 
beer on Ascension day ; i.e. beer in which ivy-leaves have been 
steeped overnight. Mr. Lake says that ** it always seemed to me to 
be a very unpleasant drink ". In Gerard's Herball, p. 707, we find 
further traces of the same custom : — 

" The women of our northern parts, especially about Wales and 
Cheshire do tun ^ the herb ale-hooue into their Ale, but the reason 
thereof I know not ; notwithstanding without all controversie, it is 
most singular against the griefes aforesaid ; being tunned up in Ale 
and drunke, it also purgeth the head from rheumaticke humours 
flowing from the braine.'* Ale hoof e is a popular name given to the 
ground-ivy and is commonly taken to be a corruption of the Dutch 
ei'loof ox ivy-leaf. If so it is a modification induced by the fact that 
the ivy is drunk in ale. It is interesting to observe that the ivy has 
medical value, according to old Gerard. That point should be care- 
fully noted. There is not a trace of it in the Oxford custom, which 
is attached to the beating of the bounds in two Oxford parishes.^ 

^ For the use of this word, nearly in our times (I believe it is still in 
use in Lancashire), we may take White, Selborne (Garden Kalendar for 
1768) : " Tunned the raisin- wine and put to it 10 bottles of elder syrup,** 
etc. 

^ The following is the account of the Ivy-ale given in Clark's History 
of Lincoln College^ p. 209 : " On Ascension day, the parishioners of St. 
Michael's, and, till recently, the parishioners of All Saints', beat their 
bounds. To enable this to be done, since the line of the boundary passes 
in at Brasenose gate and out of Lincoln gate, a dark obscure passage, left 
for the purpose through Brasenose buildings into Lincoln, is opened for 
that morning. By old custom, a lunch is provided for the parishioners 
who have attended the vestry. Formerly St. Michael's lunch was set in 
the buttery as being in that parish, All Saints' in the Hall, as in their own 
ground. For this lunch a tankard of ground-ivy ale is prepared — i.e. of 
ale in which ground-ivy has been steeped overnight. If the manciple has 
been too generous in his allowance of the herb, the flavour is too marked 
for modern taste. The origin of this * cup ' I have never seen explained. 
I have heard a religious origin conjectured for it, that it was emblematic of 
the * wine mingled with gall *." 




THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 19 

In drawing attention to the use of ivy-ale in the beating of bounds 
at Oxford, we must not forget that the beating of bounds is a very 
early and very religious act. It is recognised as being closely related 
to the Roman ceremony of the Ambarvalia, when on the 29th day 
of May the farms and fields undergo lustration with processions and 
prayers. 

" Of all the Roman Festivals," says Warde Fowler, ** this is the 
only one which can be said with any truth to be still surviving. 
When the Italian priest leads his flocks round the fields with the ritual 
of the Litania major in Rogation week he is doing very much what 
the Fratres Arvales did in the infancy of Rome, and with the same 
object. In other countries, England among them, the same custom 
was taken up by the Church, which rightly appreciated its utility, 
both spiritual and material ; the bounds of the parish were fixed in 
the memory of the young, and the wrath of God was averted by an 
act of duty from man, cattle, and crops." (!) 

In view of the antiquity and wide diffusion of these customs, 
practised for the purification of a community and the averting of evil 
therefrom, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the drinking of ivy 
is itself a part of the religious ceremony and has preservative value. 
And this means that it must make for itself a place in the materia 
medica, which owes so much in its earlier stages to the knowledge of 
the magical virtue of plants and animals. 

We are able to show that this drinking of ivy steeped in ale or 
steeped in wine has a very definite place in early medicine ; so that 
we need not any longer think of it as surviving only in the customs of 
an Oxford college. We have already shown the use of ground-ivy 
in ale from Gerard's Herball (a.D. 1 597) ; the same Herball will 
tell us that (p. 708) " the leaves of Ivie, fresh and greene, boiled in 
wine, do heale olde ulcers, and perfectly cure those that have a 
venemous and malitious quality joined with them ; and are a remedie 
against burnings and scaldings. Moreover the leaves boiled with 
vinegar are good for such as have bad spleenes ; but the flowers and 
fruit are of more force, being very finely beaten and tempered with 
vinegar, especially so used they are commended against burnings." 

There is more to the same effect, borrowed apparently from 
Dioscorides, perhaps through the medium of Dodonaeus, who in his 
Stirpium Historiae writes as follows : — 



20 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

" Hedera . . . viridis autem, foliis eius in vina decoctis, ulcera 
grandia conglutinat, quaeque maligna sunt, ad sanitatem reducit : turn 
igne factas exulcerationes cicatrice includit. Porro cum aceta cocta 
folia lienosis prosunt. Flores autem validiores sunt, ut ad laevorem 
redacti cum cerato ambustis conveniant. 

We have, then, in the Oxford custom a survival of early medicine 
as well as of early religion. The two are not very far apart in their 
origins. 

Before leaving this point, let me say something about kava itself : 
for kava also lies at the heart of a problem, the problem of the origin 
of the Melanesians. Its importance lies in the consideration that all 
Polynesians and Melanesians drink kava, though they vary somewhat 
in the manner of its preparation. Then they brought the kava with 
them at some stage of the migration from Indonesia into Melanesia. 
In the same way, the Melanesians, as iar to the S.E. as the Solomon 
and Santa Cruz Islands, chew the betel leaf, for the most part as in 
Southern India and Ceylon, with the accompaniment of lime and areca- 
nuts. Mr. Rivers, who has recently made such a careful study of 
Melanesian society, has come to the conclusion ^ that ** Melanesian 
culture is complex, having arisen through the settlement of two immi- 
grant peoples, named after their use of kava and betel, among an 
earlier population possessing the dual system of society " (i.e. society 
in two exogamous groups, each group only marrying with the 
other). 

Now Rivers suggests, the following sequence of migrations r 
" First, a people possessing the dual organisation of Society ; next, 
an immigrant people who introduced the use of kava, and were the 
founders of the secret organisations of Melanesia ; third, a people who 
introduced the practice of head-hunting and betel-chewing ; and 
lastly, relatively recent influences, from Polynesia and Micronesia," ^ 

According to Rivers, kava differs from betel in that it is used over 
a more restricted area of the world than the widely diffused betel 
(ii. 255) ; its use is " limited to Polynesia and Micronesia, Melanesia, 
including the Admiralty Islands, and New Guinea, and there can be 
little doubt that it is within this area that we must look for the origia 
of the practice ". 

^ History of Melanesian Society^ ii. 575. ^ Ibid. ii. 290. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 21 

Rivers then goes on to suggest that kava-chewing may be an early 
form of betel-chewing, the betel pepper being replaced by the kava 
pepper, and the change from the leaf to the root being the result of 
an observation made upon a rat who was seen to chew the root and 
to behave abnormally in consequence. This tradition was told him 
by a native of the island of Pentecost and confirmed in another 
quarter. So we should have, first, betel-leaf chewing followed by 
kava-root chewing, then as the result of a fresh immigration, more 
betel- leaf chewing by a later generation, and so Melanesian manners 
are explained. 

There is, however, a difficulty in accepting this order of events. 
It ignores the fact that kava-drinking is a religious act, associated with 
the chief events of life, while betel-chewing appears to be nothing of 
the kind. Mr. Rivers admits that (ii. 146) "the drinking of kava is 
a prominent feature of the ritual of such occasions as birth, initiation, 
and death, and on these occasions kava is offered to the dead with 
the accompaniment of a prayer ". 

There is another objection to Mr. Rivers' statements : if kava is 
derivative from betel, the practice of chewing is earlier than the 
custom of grating the root. Certainly, we should say ; but Mr. 
Rivers strangely thinks that chewing kava is the more recent custom : 
(ii. 247) ** in the Banks and Torres Islands the root is chewed, but 
in the New Hebrides, which we have every reason to regard as a 
region of more archaic culture, there is no chewing *'. 

Probably when we know more about the inhabitants of Indonesia 
and the Malay States, we may find the origin of kava on the main- 
land, without reference to the betel -pepper at all. At present we do 
not know the story of the Melanesians sufficiently, before they reached 
Melanesia. Arguing from language and from the presence of many 
Aryan roots in the Melanesian vocabulary, Dr. George Brown, who 
is one of the best skilled of Melanesian missionaries, came to the 
conclusion that while the people are Turanian, they have been 
mixed with elements from an Aryan migration : and I believe Dr. 
Codrington was of the same opinion. Some day we shall know 
more about the origin of these great migrations, from India and else- 
where into Malaysia and thence to Indonesia, by which the South 
Seas were peopled, and perhaps we shall also know the origin of 



22 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

kava-drinking : the discovery will be a chapter in the history of 
religion. 

And now let us come to the origin of the Cult of Apollo. Our 
reason for discussing this as a pendant to the study of the Cult of 
Dionysos, lies in the proved mythological consanguinity of the two 
gods. They exchange characters and titles, they overlap in function. 
To some extent this overlapping of function characterises the whole 
Olympic Pantheon : the gods encroach upon one another to such an 
extent that Lucian represents Zeus as laying down restrictive laws, 
and insisting that Asklepios shall not meddle with oracles nor 
Athena with medicine. 

But the relation between Dionysos and Apollo is much closer 
than that which would be expressed by occasional exchange or in- 
vasion of one another's functions. Sometimes their very names seem 
to be alternative, so that it is not easy to tell which deity is involved 
in a statement. In a line preserved from the Likymnios of Euri- 
pides ^ we have an address to 

Se'crTTora, <f)L\6Sa(f)ve Ba/c;^€, iraiav " XttoWov evXvpe. 

Here Bacchus is invoked who loves the laurel (Daphne) (which one 
would have supposed to be an Apolline title), and is equated with 
the Paian Apollo. A similar transfer of title is found in a fragment 
of /Eschylus,^ where Apollo is spoken of as 

6 KLacrev<; 'AttoWojp, 6 Ba/c^€U9, 6 fjLavTL<;. 

Here Apollo has the ivy for his cult symbol, just as in the previous 

fragment Dionysos had the laurel. 
Each of these transfers invites the 
hypothesis that in some sense 
Dionysos is Apollo. 

In the same way Apollo ap- 

Plate I.— Coin of Alabanda in Caria. pears on the coins of Alabanda 

in Caria as Apollo Kto-o-to9, and sometimes the goat of Dionysos 

is added, or the reverse of the coin bears the ivy-crowned head of 

^ ^f^ag^' ed." Nauck, 477. 

"Fr. 341. It should, however, be noted that BaAc^ei/? is Nauck's 
emendation for ^aiccrLo^ or Kaffaios in the passage of Macrobius (Sat. 
i. 18, 6), from which this and the preceding fragment are derived. The 
observed identity of the two gods is due to Macrobius. 





THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 23 

Dionysos, if indeed it is Dionysos and not a variant of Apollo. It 
has also been pointed out that at the festival of the Hyacinthia, ivy- 
crowns are worn ; but this festival certainly belongs to the cycle of 
Apollo. 

The conjectural equivalence becomes a positive statement in the 
rhetorician Menandros, who tells us that at Delphi the names Apollo 
and Dionysos are alternatives : — ^ 

MiOpav ere YlepcraL XeyovcnVj '^Q.pov AiyuTrrtot, av yap et? kvkKov 
rag wpa? ctyets, Aiovvcrov ©iq^aloi, Aekcfyol Se SlttXtj rrpocr'qyopia 
Tt/jCcDcriJ', ^ KiroWoiva /cat Liovvcrov Xeyovres- 

We knew from other sources that Delphi was almost like a common 
sanctuary to the two deities. Plutarch had, in fact, told us that 
Dionysos was almost as much at home in Delphi as Apollo.^ The 
same identification is suggested for Apollo and Dionysos at Rhodes 
and elsewhere, with the addition of Helios ; for, according to Dio 
Chrysostom, it was said roi/ [xev 'AttoWo) kol tov '^HXlov kol rov 
^i6vv(Tov elvai rov avrovy and this is confirmed by Rhodian coins 
which show Helios ( = Apollo) crowned with ivy and grapes in the 
Dionysiac manner. 

There must, surely, be some underlying reason for these common 
titles and sanctuary, and for the confusion of the personalities of the 
deities in question. 

Then there is a curious parallelism in the rituals of the two gods, 
for if the priestess of Apollo chews the laurel for her inspiration, the 
same thing can be said of the ivy-chewing Maenads, whatever be the 
meaning of the inspiration sought. 

We may refer at this point to a curious case of Bacchic madness, 
in which the inspired women eat the ivy, the smilax, and the laurel, 
of which the first two belong to the ritual of Dionysos, and the third 
to the ritual of Apollo. Antoninus Liberalis records the story of 
certain maidens who were turned into night-birds. He calls them 

^ Menand. Rhet. ed. Sprengel, iii. 446 ^. 

^ Plut. 'De Ei. ap. Delphos, 9. tov Aiowaov w rcov JeXcpcov ovSev 
rJTTOv rj TO) ^AttoWcovl fjuerecmv. 

A good illustration of this may be found in the archaic Greek mirror, 
figured by Miss Harrison in Themis^ p. 142, where the two gods stand 
face to face, with the solar disk between them. Here also we have Apollo, 
Dionysos, and Helios in conjunction. 



24 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Minyades, and says they left their father's house, and as Bacchants 
on the mountains fed on ivy, smilax, and laurel, until Hermes touched 
them with his rod and transformed them into birds. 

It seems lawful to conclude that the chewing of ivy by the 
Maenads, and the chewing of laurel by the Pythian priestess are ritual 
rites of the same significance, and, as was stated above, the intention 
is the absorption of the god by the worshippers. The cults involved 
are parallel. 

Pursuing the investigation a little further, we come to an impor- 
tant discovery by Mr. A. B. Cook,^ that the laurel which we are 
accustomed to regard as so characteristically ApoUine, had been substi- 
tuted for the oak, even at Delphi itself. This time it is Ovid that 
lets the cat out of the mythological bag. Mr. Cook sums up the 
matter as follows : " The oldest of the Apolline myths is the story 
of the god*s fight with Python at Delphi. Ovid {Met. i. 445 . . .), 
after telling it, adds that to keep in memory this signal victory the 
Pythian games were instituted and that * whoever had won with hand 
or feet or wheel received the honour of oaken foliage (aesculeae . . . 
frondis) ; the Imirel as yet was not, and Phoebus crowned his brows, 
fair with their flowing tresses, from the nearest tree *. It appears, then, 
that the laurel had been preceded by the oak at Delphi." " After 
having shown the priority of the Delphic oak to the Delphic laurel, 
Ovid goes on to tell the story of Daphne. We can read back the 
myth into its original elements. When we give Apollo oak- sanctity, 
we begin to understand the meaning of his consanguinity with 
Dionysos. The laurel, then, is surrogate for the oak. The sun-god 
is, in some way, connected with the Thunder, and wath the Sky, be- 
fore he becomes the patron and spirit of the orb of day. We can find 
occasional traces of the thunder in the traditions of Apollo. Some- 



^ European Sky-God, i. p. 413. 

^ Ovid, Met. i. 445 sqq. :— 

** Neve operis famam possit delere vetustas, 
Instituit sacros celebri certamine ludos 
Pythia perdomitae serpentis nomine dictos. 
His iuvenum quicumque manu pedibusve rotave 
Vicerat, aesculeae capiebat frondis honorem. 
Nondum laurus erat, longoque decentia crine 
Tempera cingebat de qualibet arbore Phoebus. 
Primus amor Phoebi Daphne Peneia. . . ." 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 25 

times his arrows are said to be lightnings : thus Pausanias (iii. 1 , 6) 
says that Aristodemus died by a lightning- stroke, whereas ApoUo- 
dorus (ii. 1 73) explains his death as due to an arrow of Apollo, and 
so not by sunstroke, if the two traditions are the same. And that 
Apollodorus means us to understand that Apollo's arrow is the light- 
ning, appears from another passage (i. 1 39) where 
^AttoWcov . . . To^evo-as rqi ySeXet eU Trjv 6aka(T(Tav KaTTjCTT pa\\fev . 
Mr. A. B. Cook offers a further suggestion of Apollo's connection 
with the lightning, in the observation that " two of the sun's steeds, 
according to the oldest tradition, were named Bronte and Sterope, 
thunder and lightning," and remarks acutely that "the Sun-god has 
much in common with the thunder-god ".^ 

He also points out a singularly apposite parallel in the Babylonian 
theology, with its close inter-relation of Shamash (the Sun-god) and 
Ramman (the Thunder-god) as Shamash- Ramman. " These two 
conceptions of storm-god and sun-god, which to our way of thinking 
seem diametrically opposed, are in point of fact by no means incom- 
patible. * In many mythologies, says Dr. Jastrow, the sun and the 
lightning are regarded as correlated forces. At all events, the 
frequent association of Shamash and Ramman cannot have been 
accidental.' " ^ 

These very luminous comments show us the direction in which 
to look for the solution of our problem. It is the original Sky-god 
( = oak-god) that has shown the two faces, one bright and one dark. 
Dionysos stands to Apollo in the ratio of the dark sky to the bright. 
More exactly, they are both Sky-gods, but Dionysos belongs to the 
dark sky with traces of the bright sky. With Apollo it is the con- 
verse order. ELach is a child of Zeus, but Dionysos is on the 
thunder-side of the house, Apollo on the sunshiny side. But as we 
have shown, they are not so very far apart ; Apollo does sometimes 
handle the thunder.^ 

^ In replacing the Delphic laurel, as we shall presently do, by a previous 
cult-oak, we may have to replace the laurel-maiden by an oak-maiden. Is 
she Dryope ? or is Dryope another name for the woodpecker ? We are 
in the oak-area for certain. Probably Dryope is really an oak-maiden, and 
it is Dryops, her father, that is the woodpecker. Mr. Cook points out 
that after Dryope had visited the temple of Apollo, she was carried off by 
the Hamadryads, who caused a poplar to spring up in her place. Note 



26 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

We can take a further step in the investigation. Each of the 
two gods is concerned in the production of fire, and their vegetable 
symbols show that each of them may be described as a fire-stick. 
We have already explained that the ivy became a fire-stick, because 
such fire-sticks are naturally made out of wood which has been re- 
cognised as containing the sacred fire, the lightning, and which are 
able under friction to give out again the fire which they have con- 
cealed. It is well known that our ancestors made fire by friction of 
oak-wood. For instance, as Frazer points out,^ '* perpetual fires, 
kindled with the wood of certain oak-trees, were kept up in honour 
of Perkunas ; if such a fire went out it was lighted again by friction 
of the sacred wood ". He goes on to observe that " men sacrificed 
to oak-trees for good crops, while women did the same for lime- 
trees ; from which we may infer that they regarded oaks as male 
and lime-trees as female *\ The sex distinction in firewoods arose 
by natural analogy, the boring-stick being regarded as male, the other 
as female. That is, the lime-tree is the female conjugate of the oak 
in the making of sacred fire. The sex of the stick is not constant ; it 
is defined by the relative hardness of two kinds of woods : ivy might 
be male, for example, to laurel ; it might be female to oak.' It is 
not the case in the first definition that the ivy is male to the oak, be- 
cause it clasps and rings the oak. As a matter of fact its embrace 
might be interpreted in quite the opposite sense. Shakespeare makes 
the ivy feminine in Midstmimer Night's Dream : — 

The female Ivy so 
Enrings the barky fingers of the Elm. 

(Act IV. so. i.) 

the suggestion of the poplar as a surrogate for the oak. I am inclined to 
suggest that the original name of Dryops was Dryopikos (the Oak-Picus), 
which was wrongly taken to be an adjective. We get a similar form in 
the EpinaL Glossary ^ 648 : fina = marsopicus (i.e. Picus Martins). 

"" Magic Art, ii. 366. 

^ The wood of the plane-tree, for instance, is male to the wood of the 
birch. Thus when the Russian peasants make the givoy agon or living 
fire, the proceeding is described as follows : ** Some men hold the ends 
of a stick made of the plane-tree, very dry and about a fathom long. This 
stick they hold firmly over one of birch, perfectly dry, and rub with 
violence, and quickly, against the former ; the birch, which is somewhat 
softer than the plane, in a short time inflames ** (E. B. Tylor, Researches 
into the Early History of Mankind^ p. 259). 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 27 

But these sexual specifications are mere poetic imaginings ; primitive 
man was occupied with a more practical view of things ; he wanted 
to find out which woods made fire, and to construct for himself a 
scale of relative hardness of the sacred woods out of which fire could 
be made. If he used two pieces of the same wood, one piece was 
male and the other female. If he used oak and ivy, one kind of wood 
was male and the other female. 

Now recall our observation that the laurel at Delphi was a 
surrogate for the oak. The natural suggestion is that at Delphi, the 
laurel as a fire-stick has replaced some earlier wood. It may have 
been that oak and oak have been replaced by oak and laurel : the 
laurel will be the softer wood and is female. Now we begin to see 
daylight on some mythological amours : there is the case of 

Dionysos and Caroea (Miss Nult) : 
and Apollo and Daphne (Miss Laurel). 

It is the fire-sticks that explain the mythology. 

On this showing, Apollo would be some kind of wood : we have 
nearly shorn him of his sunbeams. We are to look for his origin in 
the vegetable world, just as we found Dionysos hiding away behind 
the ivy. In what direction shall we look ? Our first suggestion 
would be that we should look oak-wards ; for we have come to 
suspect that the oak, in the worship of Apollo, had anterior sanctity 
to the laurel. The analogy of the Dionysian cult suggests that we 
look for one of the parasites of the oak. Now the singular thing 
about the oak-cult is that the oak contains within itself the differentia- 
tion of the cult of the Sky, into bright sky and dark sky, to which we 
were just now alluding. The ivy is the symbol of the thunder, the 
mistletoe is the symbol of the sunshine : but even in the mistletoe 
there are suggestions of thunder and lightning, as, for instance, when 
Balder is killed by an arrow that is made from a piece of mistletoe. 
Shall we say, then, that Apollo, who is the bright sky with sug- 
gestions of thunder is the mistletoe ? There is something to be said 
for the solution, though perhaps the real answer is not quite so 
simple. 

Mistletoe in Greek is ifo9 ; and its solar value is attested by 
the story of Ixion, the mistletoe-man, who goes round and round in 
Hades on a solar wheel. But Apollo himself is a mistletoe-man» 



28 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

There was a town in the island of Rhodes called 'I fiat, and this 
town of Ixiai, or Mistletoe-town, worshipped Apollo under the title 
of "1^609 'AttoXXwi/, or the Mistletoe- Apollo. The parallel with 
the Ivy-Dionysos worshipped at Acharnai, is obvious. We shall 
make the suggestion, then, that Apollo is either the mistletoe, or 
something connected with mistletoe : only, as in the case of ivy, 
it should be the mistletoe on the tree, deriving its sanctity from 
the oak, in which the Sky dwells animistically as sunshine or as 
thunder. 

Assuming, then, the connection of Apollo with the mistletoe we 
have to examine into the distribution of the mistletoe and the trees 
upon which it appears. We are told by Frazer (G.B. xi.) to dis- 
tinguish between the Vis cum Album, which seldom grows on oaks, 
but most commonly on apple-trees, or poplars, and the Loranthus 
Europaeus, which attacks chiefly oaks. Suppose we find the mistle- 
toe growing freely on some other tree than the oak, say on a poplar 
or a pine, vnll it not be a natural conclusion that it has brought with 
it the sanctity of the oak, of which the parasite has become the 
carrier ? And if we were right in detecting at Delphi an original 
Oak-Apollo, will it not follow that we may also expect to come 
across cases of a Poplar- Apollo, or of an Apollo of the apple-tree ? 
Whichever kind of mistletoe is the original Golden Bough, it is clear 
that in England we chiefly know the mistletoe on the apple-tree, 
while in Brittany one is constantly reminded of its presence on the 
poplar. So we will make quest of the various forms in which Apollo 
may appear. 

First of all we ask for traces of poplar sanctity and of association 
of the tree with Apollo. Here again we are indebted to the in- 
vestigations of Mr. A. B. Cook, who, without making use of the 
mistletoe as a link, had detected a transfer of the Oak- Apollo to the 
Poplar-Apollo. He states his case as follows in the European 
Sky-god i^^^AX"^^ :— 

" We have seen him as an oak-god. It remains to see him as 
a poplar-god. A Roman coin of Alexandria Troas shows Apollo 
^fjLLT/0€vs standing before a poplar-tree with a tripod in front of 
him. Another coin of Apollonia lUyria, struck by Caracalla, re- 
presents the statue of Apollo inside his temple, behind which appear 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 29 

the tops of three poplar- trees.^ Apollo, then, in several of the most 
primitive cults, was connected with the oak or poplar, the alyevpos, 
a word which meant ' oak ' before it meant * poplar \" 

(He compares aesculus = aegsculus^ 

Finally, Mr. Cook argues that the name Apollo in its primitive 
form Apellon, is to be explained by a gloss of Hesychius that 
aTTeXXdr ' oly^ipo% 6 icm elSo? Sii^Spov, i.e. Apellon, a poplar, a 
kind of t7^ee. We shall return to this derivation later. 

We have now shown that there is some reason for the belief in a 
vegetable- Apollo, connected with the oak, and its surrogates the 
poplar and the laurel. In the case of the laurel, the connection is 
probably through the fire-stick, in the case of the poplar through the 
mistletoe. Next let us ask whether there is any probability that the 
mistletoe carried its sanctity to the apple-tree. Is that also to be 
described as a vegetable- Apollo ? Shall we look for an apple- 
Apollo as another form of the mistletoe- Apollo, and comparable 
with the Ivy Dionysos ? From inscriptions found at Epidaurus, we 
actually recover what looks like an Apollo of the apple-tree in the 
form Apollo MaX.eaTT79 (from ftaXea, an apple-tree). Usener makes 
the parallel for us with Dionysos orvAcectrTys from o-v/cea, and §€1^8/31x179 
from SeVSpoi/. The word can only mean a god of the apple-tree : 
that is, it is derived from yJr\kov (Latin malunz),^ As, however, 
Maleates is thrown into the Asklepios-cult by its occurrence in 
Epidaurus, attempt has been made to derive it in a geographical 
sense, from Malea, supposed to be a centre of Asklepios worship. 
The name is, however, too widely diffused for this, or similar^ 
location. 

It turns up again, without the attached Apollo, in an inscription, 
T&jt MaXearat, from Selinus ; ^ and in the temple of Asklepios at 
Athens sacrifice was made first to Maleates and then to Apollo. 
Thus the three deities Apollo, Maleates, and Asklepios are again in 
connection with one another. Usener thinks that the two cults of 
Apollo and Maleates have been fused ; they are almost united in the 

^ The identification of the numismatic trees is not quite certain. 

^ It cannot come from firjKov a sheep, for this has no form fiaXou cor- 
responding to it in dialect. 

^ The inscription is IGA. 57. Note also the term MaXocjiopo^ (? for 
Demeter) in the temple of Apollo at Selinus (Roscher Lex., ii. 2306). 



30 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Athenian ritual. It would be simpler to say that the Cult of Apollo 
the Healer has reached Athens on two different lines.^ 

This is not the whole of the evidence : there are traces of an 
Apollo MaXo€t9, which must surely be related to Apollo Maleates ; 
in an inscription from Lesbos (IGI. ii. 484) we find as follows : — 

T€ 'Ay3T€/Al8o9 Kol 'AtToXXwI^O? 

MaX(oe)rro9 ap^t^opov koX t€- 
poKOLpvKa TOiv yep€0)v. 

It seems then, natural to conclude that we have evidence to warrant 
us in a belief in an Apollo of the Apple-tree." 

With regcurd to the occurrence of both Apollo and Maleates at 
Athens, Famell justly observes * that *' two sacrifices to the same 
divinity under different names are not infrequently prescribed in the 
same ritual code ". He thinks, however, that the objection made on 
the ground of quantity holds : ** the verses of Isyllos have this value, 
if no other, that they prove that the first vowel in Makedrq^; was 
short ; we must abandon ... the supposition that the term could 
designate the * god of sheep ' or the * god of the apple-tree ' '*. So 
he looks for a geographical explanation either from Cape Malea at the 
South of Laconia, or an obscure place of the same name in Arcadia. 
The solution does not seem to me to be satisfactory : it does not ex- 
plain the duplication of Apollo and Maleates, nor find ground for the 
diffusion of the title ; it leaves Apollo Maloeis still in obscurity, and 
loses sight of the parallel with Dionysos Sukeates. Probably some 
other explanation may be found of the short vowel in the Paean of 
Isyllos : the progression of the accent in Maleates might have something 
to do with it. 

The actual passage in Isyllos is as follows : — 

^ The inscription is CIA. ii. 3, n. 1651. We should consult for the 
foregoing Wilamowitz, Isyllos, pp. 87, 89 ff., and Preller- Robert, Gk. 
Myth. i. 252. The latter says the cult exists at Sparta as well as Epi- 
daurus, and suggests a Thessalian origin. (?) 

^ The inscription will be found in Conze, Tab. XVIII. 1 . Bechtel, 
Dialekti7ischr. n. 255. Hoffmann, n. 168. Gruppe objects to the apple- 
tree, apparently on the ground that the first a in MaXedrrj^; is short. But 
,vide infra. 

^ Cults, iv. 237. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 31 

ovSe /ce 0€(To-aXta9 eV TpLKKrj TreipadeLTj'; 
€t9 aBvTov /caTa/3a9 ^Ao-kXtjitCov, el fxr) i(j> ayvov 
TrpcoTov 'AttoXXwi/o? l3o)fxov dvcrai^; MaXeara. 
Isyllos himself derives the epithet Maleates from an eponymous 
MaXo9, whose name he scans with a long alpha in the very same 
line in which MaXeara is introduced, as follows : — 

7rp(0T0<; MaXo9 erev^ev ^ A.Tr6Wo)vo% MaXeara 

TTiere is, therefore, no reason against our scanning the end of the line 
as 

^(ofxov 6vcraL<; MaXeara 

with spondaic ending and synizesis of the vowels (compare the 
spondaic ending of the first of the lines quoted above). 

There seems to be no reason for ruling out the form MaXearTys in 
the way that Gruppe and Farnell get rid of it. Moreover, there are 
other possible explanations, though perhaps none is so probable as the 
one which is given above. 

We must not forget that we have definite proof that the apple- 
tree was sacred at Delphi to the god Apollo. That comes out from 
a passage in Lucian's Anacharsis ^ where Solon explains that the 
prizes in athletic contests are " At Olympia a wreath of wild olive, 
at the Isthmus one of pine, at Nemea of parsley, at Pytho some of the 
god's sacred apples ". It will be difficult to ignore this bit of evi- 
dence ; Farnell (p. 134) admits that " the laurel, the plane-tree, the 
tamarisk, even the apple-tree, are sacred to him," and that " some of 
his appellatives (!) are derived from them ". 

The statement of Lucian may be illustrated (as Mr. A. B. Cook 
suggests to me) from a Delphian coin which shows the 
apples on the victor's table. We shall refer presently 
to the silver dish from Corbridge on the Tyne, con- 
taining, perhaps, a variant version of the Judgment 
of Paris, with the scene laid at Delphi, and Apollo, 
on that supposition, in the place of Paris. In this re- PLATTn^^oiN 
presentation, we have the apple depicted on the altar °^ Delphi. 
of the god. On one altar we have certainly the Delphic apple : on 
the other we either have two apples, with a flame between them, or as 

^Anacharsis, 9. 





32 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Mr. A. B. Cook thinks, two fire-fenders evolved out of a pair of archaic 
ritual horns. One apple suffices me for the desired cult-symbol. As 
to the meaning of the silver dish from the North of England, we shall 
have more to say presently. 

To Mr. Cook I am also indebted for a couple of valuable confir- 
mations of the theory of a cult-relation between Apollo and the 
apple. 

The first is from the coins of Eleutherna in Crete, which have on 
one side a nude Apollo standing, with a round object in his right hand 
and a bow in his left.^ This round object is commonly taken to be a 
stone ; but Mr. Cook is almost certain, from a copper 
coin of Eleutherna in his own possession, showing Apollo 
with an apple in his hand, that the round object referred 
to is an apple." 

Plate hi. — The next piece of evidence is more difficult to inter- 

EUTHERNAiN P^et. There was a famous sanctuary of Apollo, near 
Crete. Klazomenai, known as the Grynaean grove. The name 

was apparently derived from Grynos, an oak-stump, and is suggestive 
of the original connection of Apollo with the oak-tree. In this 
Grynaean grove was a tree bearing apples, which was the centre of a 
dispute between Mopsos and Colchas, who divined the number of apples 
on the tree. Note the connection of the sacred apple-tree with the 
sanctuary of Apollo.^ 

To the foregoing we may, perhaps, add the story which Antoninus 
Liberalis tells of the metamorphosis of the virgin Ktesulla into a 
white dove. This young lady was dancing at the Pythian festival by 
the altar of Apollo, and a certain Hermochares became enamoured 
of her, and sent a declaration of love inscribed on an apple. We see 
again the prominence given to the apple at Delphi, in the Pythian 
Festival, not only to the apple as the symbol of the god, but as a means 
of divination. Apparently what Hermochares did was to write on 
the apple the oracular statement that " You will wed an Athenian 
named Hermochares " ; then he opened negotiations vydth the young 
lady's father, being previously unknown to either. This custom of 

^ Svoronos, Nutnismatique de la Crete ancienne. Macon, I890s» 
p. 138 f., pi 12, 18 f. 

^Cf. B.M. Cat. Crete, pi. 8, 12 f. 

''Myth. Vat, i. 194. Serv. in Verg. Ed, 6, 72. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 33 

writing an oracle upon an apple for subsequent elucidation is well 
known to us from the Judgment of Paris, with its apple inscribed 
To the Fair, Divination by apples still survives in out-of-the-way 
corners. An old English custom is to peel an apple spirally, and 
throw the skin over your head without breaking it. The fate and 
shape of the projected apple- paring will tell your fortune in love, and 
reveal by its curves the name of your true lord or lady. Here it is in 
verse from the poet Gay : — ^ 

This mellow pippin which I pare around 
My shepherd's name shall flourish on the ground. 
I fling th* unbroken paring o'er my head, 
Upon the grass a perfect L is read. 

L stands for Lubberkin the desired shepherd. 

My lady friends tell me they still practise this method of divination, 
which commonly results in an oracular S for their shepherd's name. 

To the previous reasoning an objection may be made that the 
action of Hermochares in throwing the apple is nothing more than a 
conventional love-token. For example, here are cases of such love- 
apple throwing from the Greek Anthology : — 
No. 78. 

Tw fJirj\(p l3dX\(o ere • crv S' et ^ev eKovcra (ptXets /le, 

Sefa/xeVTy ttJs crr^q Trapdevliqf; />t€TaSo9 * 
ei S' ap' 6 /u,T7 yiyvoiTO voei^, tovt avro Xa^ouo-a, 
cTKexpai Trjv a>pTjv a»9 6\lyo^/^o^'t09. 

No. 79. 

MrjXov iy(o • ^akXet fxe (f)iko)v ere rts • aXX' iTTLvev(Tov, 
aavOiinrrj • /cdyo) koX crv fiapaivofieOa. 

In each of these epigrams the apple is the love-token thrown ' by the 
man at the woman, with the warning that rejected love means fading 
beauty, the apple being in that case the symbol of decay which 
answers to the roses in the lines : — 

Gather the roses while you may, 
Old time is still a-flying, etc. 

No doubt the custom of love-making by apple-throwing existed. At 

1 Gay, T/ie Shepherd: s Week. (The custom referred to is not con- 
fined to the British Isles ; I have noted it in Norway and in Mesopotamia. 
It is a very old folk-custom.) 



34 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

the same time, this does not quite meet the case of Hermochares and 
Ktesulla at the Pythian Festival. Here the apple is sacred as well 
as amatory, and we naturally expect an oracle. The custom for the 
gods to write decrees and oracles on fruit is not confined to Greek 
life. For example, in a painting on one of the rooms in the Memnonium, 
Rameses the second is seen seated under a persea-tree, on the fruits of 
which the supreme deity as Ra-Tum, the goddess of wisdom, and the 
sacred scribe (Thoth) are writing the name of the Pharaoh. Again, 
at Medinet Habou, Thothmes HI is led before the tree of life by 
Hathor and Thoth, and on the fruits of the tree the god Amon-Ra is 
seen to be inscribing a sacred formula.^ 

So here again we have the custom of writing oracles on fruits : 
and we infer that if the love-passage between Hermochares and 
Ktesulla had been a mere case of apple-throwing there would have 
been no reference to an inscription and no allusion to the Pythian 
Festival," nor to the temple of Artemis into which the apple was 
thrown. 

Here is another interesting confirmation of the connection between 
Apollo and the apple, and the diviner's art. In a Patmos scholion 
to a passage in Thucydides the object of which is to explain the title 
MaXdet? as applied to Apollo, we are told that there was a young 
woman, a daughter of Teiresias, whose name was Manto ; when she 
was dancing one day, she lost a golden apple out of her necklace, and 
being sad over its loss she vowed that if she ever found it, she would 
establish a shrine in honour of Apollo ; this actually happened, and 

^ Joret, Les Plantes dans C Antiquitc, i. 262. 

'-^For further reference with regard to apple-throwing see Gaidoz, 
La requisition (T amour et le symbolisme de la pomme (ficole pratique des 
sciences historiques et philologiques, 1902). B. O. Foster, Notes on the 
Symbolism of the Apple in Classical Antiquity^ in Harvard Studies in 
Classical Antiquity, x. 39 ff. For the foregoing and other references I am 
not a little indebted to/ Mr. A. B. Cook. Gaidoz shows that in the Irish 
story of Condla the Red, a fairy throws the hero an apple. He now goes 
without food or' drink for a month, living only on the magic apple, which 
grows again as fast as it is eaten. See also Vergil, Eel. 3, 64, for apple- 
throwing by the nymph Galatea : — 

Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella, 
Et fugit ad salices, et se cupit ante videri. 

But this is from Theocritus. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 35 

Apollo was worshipped accordingly under the title of Apollo 
Maloeis. Note the recurrent features in the story : the young lady is 
a priestess of Apollo ; while her name (Manto) and her parentage 
(Teiresias) alike show that she is skilled in the art of the diviner. She 
is ornamented with a necklace of golden apples, to which it is natural 
to ascribe a religious significance ; they are symbolic of the ritual and 
of the god to whose service she is attached.^ 

We may be asked parenthetically at this point, whether, in view 
of the use of the apple for purposes of divination, and the occurrence 
of the apple as a sacred symbol in the Cult of Apollo, we ought not 
to regard the famous Judgment of Paris as a modification of a 
previous Judgment of Apollo, The name by which Paris is com- 
monly known in the Iliad is Alexandros, which need not be inter- 
preted martially, as the Defender of other men, but is capable of 
bearing the meaning dXeftfca/co?, which Macrobius says is given to 
Apollo, the Averter, i.e. of witchcrafts, poisons, etc. 

Now it is not a little curious that we actually are said to have 
an artistic version of the apple- judgment in which Apollo takes the 
place of Paris, and makes the interpretation of the oracle inscribed on 
his own apple. The representation in question is upon a silver dish to 
which we have already referred, found at Corbridge near the Roman 
Wall in the year 1 735. It will be found described by Professor Percy 
Gardner in ^^ Journal of Hellenic Studies for 1915, Pt. I, pp. 
66-75. It represents a scene at Delphi, wdth the three great god- 
desses of the judgment in the centre, flanked on the left by Artemis 
(who seems to occupy the position of Hermes) and on the right by 
Apollo, with his bow in one hand, and his lyre at his back. It is 
certainly surprising that the scene of the judgment should be laid at 
Delphi and not on Mt. Ida. Is it really d^ Judgment of Paris, as 

^ The passage is as follows (see Rev. de Phil, \, 1 85) : — 

MavTft) T) Tetpea-Lov irepi tov<; tottoi;? ')(($) pevova a 
TovTov^ firjXov 'xpvcrovv diro rov irepLhepaiov dircoXea-ev • 
eif^aro ovv, el evpoL, iepov thpixreiv rut deo), 
evpovaa he to firjXov to Iepov l8pv<raTo, fcal 
M.aXoei,<i AiroWeoi^ ivTevOev irap avTol'^ eTifiaTo. 

The same incident is referred to by Stephanos Byzantios, s.v. MaWoei^ 
(sic), who look his information from the Lesbika of Hellanikos : — 

MaWoet? • '-^ttoWg)!/ ev Aea^ta • koi o totto? tov Iepov MaWoec^, 
airo TOV fii]Xov ttj^ MavTov^, ft)9 'EXXaviKot; ev AeafftKotv irpcoTq). 



36 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

has been suggested ? Upon this Professor Gardner remarks as 
follows : — 

" The difficulty will be raised that the scene of judgment is not 
Ida but Delphi, and Apollo takes the place of Paris as judge. 
Apollo is certainly at home in his chief shrine. The Altar at his 
feet and the griffin indicate Delphi, and the fountain Castalia is 
symbolized by the vase to the left, where a rocky ground is clearly 
indicated. ... It seems paradoxical to cite as a representation of the 
Judgment of Paris a scene where Paris does not appear . . . and 
where Delphi and not Ida is set forth as the place of the event. But 
we are justified in doing this because we have proof in several of the 
vases of Italian origin, that in one of the versions of the myth current 
in Hellenistic times Paris was thus superseded by Apollo. 

" We have first a vase at Vienna of the fourth century B.C. on 
which, though Paris is present, the scene is shown to be Delphi, by 
the presence of Apollo leaning against his laurel, and a tripod. 
Later Paris disappears, as on an Apulian vase, where we have the 
three goddesses and Hermes, but no Paris, at Delphi, which is in- 
dicated by the sacred omphalos, and on either side of the omphalos 
we have figures of Zeus and Apollo. Apollo is seated as one at 
home, and Zeus is addressing him, evidently referring to him the 
point in dispute. . . . On another Italian vase, where the scene is 
still Delphi, as is shown by the presence of the omphalos, Zeus and 
not Apollo is seated on a throne as arbiter.** 

Professor Gardner suggests that these monuments do represent an 
actual shifting of the tradition which he takes to be a shifting from 
Paris, who actually judges, to Apollo who ought to judge. At all 
events, it is cleeu: that the Corbridge dish is not to be treated as con- 
taining a representation belonging to a silversmith of the third century 
A.D.,^ but as containing a tradition of a much earlier period. And 
the question arises whether, if the theme has rightly been identified, 
the real shifting of the tradition is not in the opposite direction to that 
assumed by Professor GcU'dner, in view of the fact which we have 
brought to light that the apple which, vrith its oracle, is the real 
centre of the tradition, belongs to Apollo and should naturally be 

^ ** It clearly is the work,** says Professor Gardner, " not of an in- 
ventive artist but of a long-established and well-trained school. In its 
fabric we can see the results of many generations of trained artificers.** 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 37 

subject to his interpretation. The objection to this will be the well- 
attested antiquity of the Paris tradition. It is a very strong objection, 
but not a vital one, in view of the known persistence of folk-lore 
variants side by side with the canonical forms of the legend. 

There is, however, a further possibility which may have to be 
reckoned with. Paris himself may be a duplicate Apollo who has 
either lost celestial rank or never quite attained to it, some primitive 
herb or herbalist, an dXeft(/)ap/xaK:o9, of the ApoUine order, just as 
Helen, whom he espouses, is suspect of being an original vegetable- deity. 
This would require that Paris also had an original apple-tree, on 
which oracles could be written. The problem is not yet capable of 
evaluation. I incline to believe that the solution lies in a displace- 
ment of Apollo (perhaps in his shepherd life) by the shepherd of 
Mt. Ida. To hold this opinion, it is not necessary to accept Professor 
Gardner's identification of the scene depicted on the Corbridge dish. 
That might be merely a group of Delphic deities, with associated 
cult-symbols, and need not have any historical or quasi-historical 
meaning. 

If we have found our apple-god, we must not leave the considera- 
tion of this part of the subject without venturing at least a suggestion 
as to the reason for finding the apple-god in the neighbourhood of 
Asklepios. It may have arisen from the simple fact that, to the 
ancients, mistletoe and ivy both had medical value. The mistletoe, 
in particular, was almost a panacea ; and ivy retained its medical 
value nearly to our own times, as we have seen above from Gerard's 
Herball, This is not in the least affected by the fact that both plants 
are medically worthless ! If one wants to see the value of mistletoe, 
let him visit the Ainu of Japan, and ask what they think of it. Here 
is a reference from Mr. Batchelor's book, The Ainu and their 
Folk-Lore (p. 222) :— 

"The Ainu, like many nations of Northern origin, hold the 
mistletoe in peculiar veneration. They look upon it as a medicine, 
good in almost every disease, and it is sometimes taken in food and 
at others separately as a decoction. . . . The mistletoe which grows 
upon the willow is supposed to have the greatest efficacy. This is 
because the willow is looked upon by them as being a specially 
sacred tree." 

That is a very good specimen of how primitive medicine is 



38 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

evolved. Perhaps Apollo owes his healing art to his connection 
with the mistletoe ! For it is not only in far distant Saghalien or 
Japan that the mistletoe is regarded as a panacea. Pliny (H.N. 
16, 44, 95) reports that the Druids called it in their language omnia 
sanantem: which, according to Grimm is the Welsh olhiach or all- 
heal} Thus East and West, which are supposed never to meet, are 
united in their medical judgment. 

The way to test this statement of the medical value of the mistle- 
toe is to consult the early medical writers, and the best way to ap- 
proach them is through the early Herbals, of which we have already 
given a striking example in the use of ivy and of ground-ivy. It 
must be remembered that the medicine of which we speak is coloured 
on the one hand by astrological influences (each herb having its own 
planet), and on the other by the doctrine of sympathies. 

Suppose, then, we turn to Culpepper's Herbal, and see what he 
says about mistletoe : — - 

'' {Mistletoe) Government and Virtues. This is under the 
dominion of the Sun, I do not question ; and can also take for granted 
that which grows upon oaks participates something of the nature of 
Jupiter, because an oak is one of his trees ; as also that which grows 
upon pear-trees and apple-trees participates something of his nature, 
because he rules the tree that it grows upon, having no root of its own. 
But why that should have most virtues that grows upon oaks I know 
not, unless because it is rarest and hardest to come by. . . . Clusius 
affirms that which grows upon pear-trees to be as prevalent, and 
gives order that it should not touch the ground after it is gathered ; 
and also saith that, being hanged about the neck, it remedies witch- 
craft." 

How redolent of antiquity this bit of folk-medicine is ! The 
mistletoe shows its solar virtue ; its connection with the sky-god 
through the oak in which the sky-god dwells ; and its transfer of its 
sanctity from the oak-tree to the apple, and it has, beside specific 
curative powers, the function of averting evil, in the comprehensive 
terms of witchcraft. Moreover, in a secondary sense, the sky-god 

^ The matter is discussed at length in Frazer, G.B. xi. 77 sqq. 

" I quote from the edition of 1815 (p. 1 16), the first edition is, I believe, 
1653. It follows Gerard and other Herbalists, but has many observations 
and bits of traditions of its own, some of them evidently of great antiquity. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 39 

and his power, resides in apple-tree and in pear-tree ; and Culpepper 
(or Clusius whom he quotes) might almost be a Druid in his care for 
the gathering of his medicine and his prohibition against its falling on 
the ground. It is just such a passage as the one we have quoted that 
brings out the parallelism between the mistletoe and the god Apollo, 
and helps us to see the latter as a projection from the former and from 
the tree on which it grows. 

Those persons who tried to explain Apollo as the Averter were 
certainly right in fact, whatever they might have been in philology, 
for it is an exact description of the functions of the mistletoe, as well 
as the primitive belief of the early worshippers of the god in Grecian 
lands : and we see again that the plant is the real healer and the god 
its reflection. 

It is very interesting to watch how medicine has evolved from the 
stage of the herbalist with his all-heal or panacea to that of the 
scientific man with his highly differentiated remedies. The progress 
of medicine has been phenomenally slow. In the eighteenth century 
it was still necessary in England to warn the domestic practitioner that 
the same herb would not cure all diseases or even the greater part of 
them. Here is an interesting passage from a medical herbalist, John 
Hill, M.D., a member of the Imperial Academy, who writes in the 
year 1 770 on the Virtues of British Herbs, with an account of 
the diseases that they will cure. 

P. viii : '* This knowledge is not to be sought for in the old 
Herbals ; they contain but a small part of it : and what they hold 
is locked up in obscurity. They are excessive in their praises ; and 
in saying too much they say nothing. All virtues are, in a manner y 
attributed to all Plants, and 'tis the skill alone of a Physician that 
can separate in those that have any, which is the true. Turn to the 
Herbals of Gerard, Parkinson, or the more antient Turner, and you 
shall find in many instances, virtues of the most exalted kind related 
to Herbs, which, if you were to eat daily as sallads, would cause no 
alteration in the body." If we may judge from early Greek or modern 
Ainu medicine, the mistletoe should come under the historical judg- 
ment which Dr. Hill enunciates. 

Now let us turn to the region of philology and see if we can find 
out the meaning of the name Apollo. 

According to Gruppe, Apollon is Ionic, but the Greek dialects 



40 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

show that there was originally an E in the place of O. Thus, we 
have, following Plato, the form 'AirXovu in Thessaly ; and we find 
'ATretXwi^ (which is clearly for ^AneXjcop) in Cyprus ; ^AnekXcov is 
reported for Dreros and Knossos. The earlier form is commonly 
held to be involved in the name of the Macedonian Month 'ATreXXato?. 
The Oscan form is Appellun (Usener, Gbtternamen^ 308), and 
the Etruscan is Aplu, Aphm, or Apulu} We need not spend 
time over the Greek attempts to explain a word of which they had 
lost the meaning. No one would now propose a derivation from 
airokvia or a7rdXXv/xt, or dTTcXaui/oi. The only ancient derivation 
which finds any favour to-day is Macrobius* explanation : ^ " ut 
Apollinem apellentem intellegas, quem Athenienses aXeft/ca/coi/ 
appellant ". This explanation of Apollo as the Averter^ from a lost 
Greek stem corresponding to the Latin pello is, I believe, the one that 
finds most favour to-day. 

But why should we not affirm a simpler solution, if we are to go 
outside the covers of the Greek lexicon ? The Greeks, and in part 
the Latins, had no primitive word for apple : malum and pomus 
are philologically afterthoughts. What hinders our saying that 
Apellon is simply ap)ple ? We should, then, understand at a glance 
the title Apollo Maleates, and the curious duplication of Apollo 
and Maleatesin the Asklepios cult in Athens. 

The professional etymologists do not know anything about the 
origin of our word apple. Skeat, in his Etym. Diet., gives us the 
following : — 

•* M.E. appel, apptl, 
A.S. aepl, aeppeL 

Icel. epli. 

Swed. dple^ apple. 

Dan. aeble. 

OHG. aphol, aphuL 

G. apfeL 

Irish, abhal. 

^ See Corssen, Sprache der Etrusker^ i. 820. 
Macrobius. Sat. i. 17, 14 ff. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 41 

Gael, ubhal, 

Welsh. afaL 

Bret, aval, 
cf. also 

Russ. jabloko. 

Lith. obolys, etc." 
and then remarks, " origin unknown : some connect it with Abella in 
Campania : cf. Verg. Aen. vii. 740. This is not satisfactory." 
Thus Skeat : but perhaps without doing justice to the Vergilian 
reference ; when Vergil speaks of maliferae vioenia Abellae, we 
need not derive apple from Abella, but it is quite conceivable that 
the city may be derived philologically from its fruit. We will return 
to this point presently. 

My suggestion, then, is that the name Apollo (Apellon) came 
from the North, the region of the Hyperboreans to which tradition 
refers the god ; and that it is the exact equivalent of the apple-tree. 
We are dealing wdth a borrowed cult, and with a loan-word. If this 
can be maintained without violence to philological considerations, it 
will harmonise exactly with the parallel case of Dionysos, and with 
the investigations which have led us to the hypothesis of an apple- 
tree god. It will explain what has sometimes caused perplexity, the 
want of any parallel to Apollo in the Northern religions. He is 
really there both as sacred apple-tree and as mistletoe, but is not 
personified, unless he should turn out to be Balder. 

It may, perhaps, be asked whether the interpretation suggested 
will not require one or two other re- interpretations. For example, 
the month Apellaeus in the Macedonian calendar is commonly in- 
terpreted as Apollo's month, on the analogy of Dios as the month of 
Zeus. There is, however, a possibility that it may mean apple- 
month, just as Lenaeon means vintage-month. I have not, however, 
as yet succeeded in finding an ancient calendar with an apple-month 
in it.^ The actual position of the month Apellaeus in the Macedonian 
calendar is also not quite clear. It may be September or October, 
but it may be later. At Delphi it appears to be the first month of 
the year and has been equated with June. 

^ There is an apple-month in Byzantium, by the name MaXo<f)6pi,o<; 
equated with the Attic-month Pyanepsion, i.e. September or October. 
See Bischoff, De fastis Gr. antiq.^ 374. 



42 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Another question that may be asked relates to that part of Italy^ 
on the Adriatic side, which goes by the name of Apulia. It is gener- 
ally held that this is a name given to the country by Greek colonists, 
who named it after their god. The form is very near to the Etruscan 
spelling (Aplu, Apulun), but we should have expected something 
more like ApoUonia if the god were meant. There is, moreover, a 
question whether it may not have been named apple-land, much in 
the same way as the Norse navigators gave the name of Vinland to 
the part of the American coast which they discovered, perhaps at a 
time when the wild grapes were ripe. There is another very interest- 
ing parallel that may be adduced in this connection. When King 
Arthur died, he was carried away to the islands of the blessed, to the 
island of Aval on or Avilion : the name is Celtic, very nearly the 
Breton form for apple.^ And it was an apple-country to which 
Arthur was carried, a fact which Tennyson has versified for us : — 

The island valley of Avilion, 

Where falls not rain, or hail or any snow, 

Nor ever wind blows loudly, but it lies 

Deep-meadowed, happy, fair with orchard-lawns. 

It is, then, quite possible that the name Apulia was given by 
Greek settlers, not from religious motives, but in harmony wath their first 
observations of the products of the country. Here, however, as in 
the case of the month Apellaeus, we are at present in the region of 
unsupported conjecture. 

We have inferred that Apollo is a loan-word in Greek derived 
from a Northern name for the apple. 

Now let us return to the point which came up in regard to the 
suggested derivation of apple from Abella in Campania. Our con- 
tention is that the derivation is in the reverse order, and that Abella 
is an apple-town, just as, for example, Appledore in N. Devon. 
The difficulty in the former supposition is that all the sound-changes 
in the various words for apple from Lithuania to Ireland are perfectly 
regular ; so that we should have to assume that the form Abal was 
borrowed by the Celts in one of their early Italian invasions and 
transferred to the Northern nations, before the characteristic sound- 
changes had been produced. It seems much easier to suggest that 

^ See Friend, Flowers and Flower-lore^ i. 1 99. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 4J 

the motion has been in the opposite direction, and that the Celts 
brought the word into Italy, instead of discovering the fruit there, and 
naming it after the place where they found it. In which connection 
we note that Vergil, who has spoken of the " walls of apple-bearing 
Abella," goes on to speak of the un-Italian martial habits of the people 
of Abel la, who follow the warriors of the North in their military 
customs : — 

Et quos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae, 
Teutonico ritu soliti torquere cateias. 

A en. vii. 740, 1. 

The original settlers of Abel la may conceivably have been Celts. 
O. Schrader puts the case as follows for the borrowing of the fruit 
by the Celts : — 

" As the names of most of our fruit trees come from the Latin : 
cherry (cerasus), fig (ficus), pear (pirus), mulberry (morus), plum 
(prunus), etc. — I would rather assume that the names of the apple 
... are to be derived from Italy, from a town of fruitful Campania, 
celebrated for the cultivation of fruit-trees, Abella, modern Avellcu 
Vecchia, Here the cultivation of another fruit, the nut, was so im- 
portant that abellana sc. mcx = nux. In the same way the Irish 
aball . . . may have come from malum abellanum- as the German 
i>firsch comes from malum^ persicum. . . . 

*' Attractive, however, as this derivation is, as regards the facts, 
I do not disguise from myself that phonetically the regularity with 
which Ir. b {aball), Dutch / (Eng. apple), H.G. // {apfel), Lith. b 
(obulas) correspond to each other, is disturbing in a set of loan-words. 
In Teutonic, especially, there seem to be no Latin loan-words which 
have been subjected to the First Sound- shifting. I assume, accordingly, 
that the Celts, as early as their inroad into Italy, took into their 
language a word corresponding to the Irish aball, which spread to the 
Teutons before the First Sound-shifting, and thence to the other 
Northern members of the Indo-Germanic family" {Prehistoric 
Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples, trans, by F. B. Jevons. 
Lond. 1890, p. 276). 

Some years later Schrader went further with the inquiry, and 
admitted that "it was possible that, after all, Abella might be 
originally related to the North European names for the apple, and 
that the place might be named after the fruit and not the fruit 



44 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

after the place " ^ {Jieal-Lexikon der indogervtanischen Al- 
tertums. Strassburg, 1901,43). 

It would seem to be involved in the preceding argument that the 
fundamental characteristic of the Cult of Apollo is to be sought in the 
region of medicine ; to put it in the language of mythology, that he 
was Paian before he was Apollo. Assuming that Paian or Paion 
is the proper term to be applied to a god of healing, as to Zeus, 
Asklepios, Apollo, or Dionysos, we have to look for the origin of the 
Healer in the plant that heals. Zeus and Asklepios will be healers 
through the links that bind them to the oak and the magic mistletoe : 
Dionysos will become medical because he is ivy, and ivy has great 
prominence in primitive medicine, for reasons which we have ex- 
plained. The case of Apollo considered as a healer who personifies 
a healing plant, may be a little more complex ; we have shown how 
he is connected with the mistletoe and the apple-tree ; and also with 
the laurel ; there are suspicions, however, that he may be also con- 
nected with the peony, or Paian-flower, of which folk-medicine has 
so much to say. Then there is the curious tradition that, in the 
country of the Hyperboreans, there was a sacred garden dedicated to 
Apollo, and a worship of the god the priesthood of which cult was 
in the hands of the family of Boreads. Was this garden merely an 
apple-orchard with mistletoe growing on the trees, or may it not be 
possible that the peony and other sacred plants with solar virtues may 
have been tended within its enclosures ? 

Our knowledge of this garden comes from a fragment of Sophocles 
(probably from the tragedy of Oreithyia), in which the poet speaks 
of the capture of the maiden Oreithyia by the god of the North Wind, 
who carries her away to the farthest bourne of earth and heaven, to 
the ancient garden of Apollo. Strabo, who is discussing the 
geographical distribution of the Goths and Germans, turns aside to 
speak contemptuously of those who mythologize about the Land at 
the Back of the North Wind, and the deeds that are done there, 
such as the capture of Oreithyia by Boreas. The lines of Sophocles 

^ Precisely the same conclusion is reached, but with a more positive 
statement, by Hoops in Waldbdume und Kulturpfldnzen in germanischen 
Alterthum (Strassburg, 1905, p. 477 ff.). Feist, on the other hand, thinks 
the question must be left undecided {Kultur, Ausbreitung und Herkunft 
der Indogermanen. Berlin, 1913, p. 190). 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO MS 

which he quotes are, however, of the first value to us. They show 
that Apollo was a Hyperborean god ; and that his sanctuary was in 
a garden. This was the kind of god that came in with one of the 
great migrations from the North. He brought his vegetable counter- 
parts with him ; certainly the sacred apple came South, as we have 
shown from the worship of Delphi, and perhaps some other sacred 
plants. In this far Northern land, in some Island of the Blest, the 
deity was under the priestly care of the Boread family ; ^ perhaps in 
the first instance the cult was presided over by priestesses. Snow- 
maidens, of whom the White maidens of Delos may be taken as the 
representatives. Their male counterparts are the Sons of Boreas. If 
we have rightly divined the meaning of the White maidens of the 
North, Hyperoche and Laodike, who were the primitive Delian 
saints, we must allow that the heroes Hyperochos and Laodikos, 
whose shrines are in the sacred enclosure at Delphi, are a pair of 
Boreads, who, further North and in earlier days, would have been the 
priests of the sanctuary. The actual passage of Strabo, with the 
fragment of Sophocles, to which we have been referring is as 
follows : 

Strabo, vii. p. 295. Nauck, Fragg. Trag. Gr. ed. 2, p. 333 : ovhe 
yap €L TLva HocjiOKXrjf; rpayooSel irepl rrj<; ^OpeiOvia^, Xiytov cw? dvap- 
irayelaa vtto Bopeov KO/jLiaOelrj 

virep T€ TTOVTOV irdvT iir' 6a')(^aTa ')(dov6<i 
vvtcro<; re irrjyaf; oupavov r* dvairrv^d^i, 
^oi^ov TToXaiov Kijirov, 
ovSev dv €LTj 7r/309 TO vvv, dXXd eariov. 

For KYJirov in the third line some editors propose to emend o"y]k6v^ 
because, as Miss Harrison says, they did not understand it ! Certainly 
the garden must stand, and it is the sacred garden of old-time, in the 
land of the Hyperboreans, to which ancient garden a modern garden 
at Delphi must have corresponded. 

We may confirm our previous observation that the ** garden of 
Apollo " was a real garden and probably a medical garden in the 
following way : — 

We learn from Aristides Rhetor that the goddess Hygieia, who 
is commonly looked upon as a feminine counterpart of Asklepios, but 

^ Diodore, 2, 47, /jLv6o\oyov(Tc 3' eV avrfj [ttj vrjcrco^ rrjv Ayro} 
yeyovivac ' Blo kol top 'AttoWco fMaXiara tojv dWojv OeSiv irap avroi^ 
TifmraL fcre. 



46- THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

who is in reality an independent young lady who lives next door to 
him and manages her own affairs, had such a medical garden as we 
have been speaking of. To these gardens the sons of Asklepios 
were taken to be reared after their birth. Nothing could be 
clearer, they were medical gardens. The first doctors must have 
been herbalists. This striking instance confirms us in our previous 
statements about the garden of Apollo.^ We see also the importance 
of folk-medicine in theology. The history of one overlaps the history 
of the other. 

There are also traces of sacred gardens belonging to Artemis, 
and to Hecate (who is in some points of view almost the feminine 
counterpart of Apollo and a double of Artemis). For the former 
we may refer to the garlands which Hippolytus gathers for the 
goddess from a garden into which none but the initiate may enter 
(Eur. Hipp, 73 sqq?^ : for the latter (a real witch's garden full 
of magic plants), we have the description and botanical summary in 
the Orphic Arg07iautika, 918 sqq. 

In the Corbridge dish, to which we were alluding just now, the 
foreground is occupied by "a meadow in which plants grow ". 
According to Percy Gardner, this meadow wath its associated plants 
and animals is conventional. The objection to this is that the fount 
of Castaly is not conventional ornament ; the animals represented 
are not conventional ; the stag and the dog belong to the huntress 
Artemis, the griffin belongs to Apollo. If, then, the cmimals are cult 
figures, what of the plants ? One of them appears to be a figure of 
a pair of mistletoe leaves, with the berries at the junction of the 
leaves ; '^ the other is, perhaps, the peony. I should, therefore, suggest 
that the meadow in question is the medical garden of Apollo. 

In conclusion of this brief study, it may be pointed out that we 
have emphasised strongly the Hyperborean origin of Apollo and his 
cult. There have been, from time to time, attempts to find the home 
of the god in more Southern regions, and with the aid of Semitic 
philology. The most seductive of such theories was one for which, 
I believe, Professor Hommel was responsible, that Apollo was a 

^ For the reference, see Aristides, vii. 1 , ed. Dindorf, p. 73 : oyi^^evk- 
vov<i Be avTov<i Tpe<f)€i 6 Trarrjp ev 'Tyi,eia<i K7]7rot<i. 

^ We should have expected a slip of bay-tree, but the bay-tree leaves 
do not come off from the stalk in pairs, as the mistletoe leaves do. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APOLLO 47 

Greek equivalent of Jabal or Jubal in the Book of Genesis : and the 
linguistic parallel between the names was certainly reinforced by the 
existence of Jubal's lyre, and by the occurrence of a sister in the 
tradition of the triad in Genesis. That such transfers are possible 
appears to be made out from the case of Palaimon, who is a Cor- 
inthian modification of Baal -yam, the Lord of the Sea. We are, 
however, satisfied as to the Northern origin of Apollo, just as we 
are satisfied, until very convincing considerations to the contrary 
are produced, of the Thracian origin of Dionysos. The argument 
of the previous pages proceeds from the known overlapping and 
similarity of the cults of the two deities in question. Neither can 
be detached from the Sky- father, nor from the oak and its surrogates. 
Each appears to be connected with the production of fire by means of 
fire- sticks ; in some respects this is the greatest of all human dis- 
coveries, and its history deserves a newer and more complete treatment. 
The connection of Apollo and Dionysos with the parasitic growths of 
the Sky-tree appears to be made out : and the parallelism between an 
ivy- Dionysos and a Mistletoe- Apollo has been exhibited, with support 
from inscriptions. A new field has been opened out in the connection 
between early medicine and early religion, and it has been suggested 
that Apollo's reputation as a Healer, and Averter, may have a simple 
vegetable origin. A similar medical divinisation occurs in the case of 
the goddess Panakeia, the daughter of Asklepios ; her name is a 
simple translation of a vegetable '* all-heal ". 

Nothing further has been brought out as to the meaning of the 
associated Cult of Apollo's twin sister Artemis, beyond the suggestions 
which have already been made on the side of Twin Cult in my book 
Boanerges. There is evidently much more research needed into the 
origin and functions of the Great Huntress. Our next essay will, 
therefore, deal with the origin of the Cult of Artemis ; we shall 
approach it from the side of the related Cult of Apollo, and bring 
forward, incidentally, some further and perhaps final proofs of the 
correctness of our identification of Apollo with the Apple-tree. 



THE INFLUENCE OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILI- 
ZATION IN THE EAST AND IN AMERICA.^ 

By G. ELLIOT SMITH, M.A.. M.D.. F.R.S.. PROFESSOR OF 
ANATOMY IN THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF 
MANCHESTER. 

IN the lectures (2) which in former years I have delivered at the 
John Rylands Library, I discussed the problems of the gradual 
diffusion of Egypt's influence to the neighbouring parts of Africa, 
Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean Islands and Coasts, which began 
at a very early historical period. On the present occasion I am calling 
attention to a mass of evidence which seems to prove that, towards the 
close of the period of the New Empire, or perhaps even a little later, a 
great many of the most distinctive practices of Egyptian civilization 
suddenly appeared in more distant parts of the coast- lines of Africa, 
Europe, and Asia, and also in course of time in Oceania and Amer- 
ica ; and to suggest that the Phoenicians must have been the chief 
agents in initiating the wholesale distribution of this culture abroad. 

The Mediterranean has been the scene of so many conflicts between 
rival cultures that it is a problem of enormous complexity and difficulty 
to decipher the story of Egyptian influence in its much-scored palimp- 
sest. For the purposes of my exposition it is easier to study its easterly 
spread, where among less cultured peoples it blazed its track and 
left a record less disturbed by subsequent developments than in the 
West Mr. W. J. Perry has shown that once the easterly cultural 
migration has been studied the more complicated events in the West 
can be deciphered also. 

The thesis I propose to submit for consideration, then, is {a) that 
the essential elements of the ancient civilizations of India, Further Asia, 
the Malay Archipelago, Oceania, and America were brought in suc- 
cession to each of these places by mariners, whose oriental migrations 



^ An elaboration of the lecture delivered in the John Rylands Library, 
on 10th March, 1915. The numbers in brackets refer to the notes at the 

end. 

48 




ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 49 

(on an extensive scale) began as trading intercourse between the Eas- 
tern Mediterranean and India some time after 800 B.C. (and contin- 
ued for many centuries [see (3) and (4)]) ; {d) that the highly complex 
and artificial culture which they spread abroad was derived largely 
from Egypt (not earlier than the XXI. Dynasty), but also included 
many important accretions and modifications from the Phoenician 
world around the Eastern Mediterranean, from East Africa (and the 
Soudan), Arabia, and Babylonia ; {c) that, in addition to providing 
the leaven which stimulated the development of the pre- Aryan civili- 
zation of India, the cultural stream to Burma, Indonesia, the eastern 
littoral of Asia and Oceania was in turn modified by Indian influences ; 
and ((/) that finally the stream, with many additions from Indonesia, 
Melanesia, and Polynesia, as well as from China and Japan, continued 
for many centuries to play upon the Pacific littoral of America, where 
it was responsible for planting the germs of the remarkable Pre-Colum- 
bian civilization. The reality of these migrations and this spread of 
culture is substantiated (and dated) by the remarkable collection of 
extraordinary practices and fantastic beliefs which these ancient mari- 
ners distributed along a well-defined route from the Eastern Medi- 
terranean to America. They were responsible for stimulating the 
inhabitants of the coasts along a great part of their extensive itinerary 
(a) to adopt the practice of mummification, characterized by a variety 
of methods, but in every place with remarkable identities of technique 
and associated ritual, including the use of incense and libations, a 
funerary bier and boat, and certain peculiar views regarding the treatment 
of the head, the practice of remodelling the features and the use of 
statues, the possibility of bringing the dead to life, and the wanderings 
of the dead and its adventures in the underworld ; (d) to build a 
great variety of megalithic monuments, conforming to certain well- 
defined types which present essentially identical features throughout a 
considerable extent, or even the whole, of the long itinerary, and in 
association with these monuments identical traditions, beliefs, and cus- 
toms ; {c) to make idols in connexion with which were associated ideas 
concerning the possibility of human beings or animals living in stones, 
and of the petrifaction of men and women, the story of the deluge, of 
the divine origin of kings, who are generally the children of the 
sun or of the sky, and of the origin of the chosen people from inces- 
tuous unions ; (d) to worship the sun and adopt in reference to this 

4 



50 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

deity a complex and arbitrary symbolism representing an incongruous 
grouping of a serpent in conjunction with the sun*s disc equipped with 
a hawk's wings (Fig. 1), often associated also with serpent- worship or 
in other cases the belief in a relationship with or descent from serpents ; 
(e) to adopt the practices of circumcision, tattooing, massage, piercing 
and distending the ear- lobules, artificial deformation of the skull, and per- 
haps trephining, dental mutilations, and perforating the lips and nose ; 
(/) to practise weaving linen, and in some cases to make use of Tyrian 
purple, pearls, precious stones, and metals, and conch-shell trumpets, 
as well as the curious beliefs and superstitions attached to the latter ; 
(g) to adopt certain definite metallurgical methods, as well as mining ; 
(^) to use methods of intensive agriculture, associated with the use of 
terraced irrigation, the artificial terraces being retained with stone 
walls ; {t) to adopt certain phallic ideas and practices ; (f) to make 
use of the swastika symbol, and to adopt the idea that stone implements 
are thunder-teeth or thunderbolts and the beliefs associated with this 
conception ; {k) to use the boomerang ; (/) to hold certain beliefs 
regarding ** the heavenly twins '* ; (m) to practise couvade ; (n) to 
adopt the same games ; and (o) to display a special aptitude for, 
and skill and daring in, maritime adventures, as well as to adopt a 
number of curiously arbitrary features of boat-building. 

Many of the items in this list I owe to Mr. W. J. Perry, to whose 
co-operation and independent researches the conclusiveness of the case 
I am putting before you is due. But above all the credit is due to j 
him of having so clearly elucidated the motives for the migrations 
and explained why the new learning took root in some places and not 
in others. 

That this remarkable cargo of fantastic customs and beliefs was 
really spread abroad, and most of them at one and the same time, is 
shown by the fact that in places as far apart as the Mediterranean and 
Peru, as well as in many intermediate localities, these cultural in- 
gredients were linked together in an arbitrary and highly artificial 
manner, to form a structure which it is utterly impossible to conceive 
as having been built up independently in different places. 

The fact that some of the practices which were thus spread 
abroad were not invented in Egypt and Phoenicia until the eighth 
century B.C. makes this the earliest possible date for the commence- 
ment of the great wandering. 



Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 




Fig. 4. 



Mi 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 51 



Fig. 1 . — The winged disc from the lintel of the door of an Egyptian 
temple of the New Empire Period (see note 23). 

Note the serpents* tails along the upper margin and the first stage of 
conventionalizing the body. 



Fig. 2. — The Assyrian winged disc. The figure in the winged circle 
is the god Ahuramazda. This illustrates the widespread custom of re- 
placing the disc by the dominant deity. 



Fig. 3. — A portion of the winged disc found on the lintel of the door 
of a temple at Ococingo in Chiapas, from a drawing by Waldeck, which is 
supposed by Bancroft (from whose book I have borrowed it) to be restored 
in part from Wal deck's imagination (Bancroft, *' The Native Races of the 
Pacific States," 1 875, Vol. IV, p. 35 1 ). Whether this is so or not, sufficient 
of the real design was reproduced by Stephens and Calderwood (** Inci- 
dents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan,** London, 1854, 
p. 384) to show that it is a winged disc, clearly modelled on the well-known 
Egyptian design. Fig. 1 , but reversed (upside down), as in a Syrian relief 
figured by Spamer (see Nuttall, op. cit, p. 428). Spinden, however, 
states that it is not the disc, but the *' Serpent-Bird ". The serpents of the 
Egyptian design have become transformed in the Mexican example into a 
conventionalized geometrical pattern. 



Fig. 4.— The " Serpent-Bird '* or " Feathered Snake ** god Kukulkan. 
from Tikal (after Maudslay and Joyce). A later and more highly 
** Americanized *' representation of the winged disc and serpents. The 
god*s face now replaces the disc, as in some of the Asiatic derivatives of 
the Egyptian design. The conventionalization of the serpent's "body" 
into a simple cross (the first stage of this process is found on the Egyptian 
monuments) is seen here as in the Ococingo design (Fig. 3). A striking 
confirmation of this interpretation is supplied by Maudslay, who has shown 
that the pattern below the cross (which I have identified as the snake's 
body) is really a very highly conventionalized serpent's head reversed. 
The original design for this head was a dragon presenting close analogies 
with those of both China and Babylonia. The artist has confused the head 
with the tail of the serpent and blended them into one design. Further 
modifications and transformations of the winged disc design are seen in 
America, as, for example, the stone relief at Chichen Itza, showing 
Kukulkan-Quetzacoatl (see Joyce, " Mexican Archaeology,*' 1914, Fig. 87, 
p. 367). 



52 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

In some of the earliest Egyptian graves, which cannot be much 
less than sixty centuries old, pottery has been found decorated with 
paintings representing boats of considerable size and pretensions. The 
making of crude types of boats was perhaps one of the first, if not 
actually the eeirliest, manifestations of human inventiveness : for 
primitive men in the very childhood of the species were able to use 
rough craft made of logs, reeds, or inflated skins, to ferry themselves 
across sheets of water which otherwise would have proved insuper- 
able hindrances to their wanderings. But the Egyptian boats of 4000 
B.C. probably represented a considerable advance in the art of naval 
construction ; and before the Predynastic period had come to a close 
the invention of metal tools gave a great impetus to the carpenter's 
craft, and thus opened the way for the construction of more ambitious 
ships. 

Whether or not the Predynastic boatmen ventured beyond the 
Nile into the open sea is not known for certain, although the balance 
of probability inclines strongly to the conclusion that they did so. 

But there is positive evidence to prove that as early as 2800 B.C. 
maritime intercourse was definitely established along the coasts of the 
Eastern Mediterranean, bringing into contact the various peoples, at any 
rate those of Egypt and Syria, scattered along the littoral. Egyptian 
seamen were also trafficking along the shores of the Red Sea ; and 
there are reasons ([5], p. 143) for believing that in Protodynastic times 
such intercourse may have extended around the coast of Arabia, as 
far as the Sumerian settlement at the head of the Persian Gulf, thus 
bringing into contact the homes of the world's most ancient civiliza- 
tions. 

More daring seamen were venturing out into the open sea, and 
extending their voyages at least as far as Crete : for the geographical 
circumstances at the time in question make it certain that Neolithic 
culture could not have reached that island in any other way than by 
maritime intercourse. 

The Elarly Minoan Civilization, as well as the later modifications 
of Cretan burial customs, such as the making of rock-cut tombs and 
the use of stone for building, were certainly inspired in large measure 
by ideas brought from Egypt. 

Long before the beginning of the second millennium B.C. the 
germs of the Egyptian megalithic culture had taken deep root, not 




1 



\ 



Fig. 6. — Bas-relief of Seti I presenting the figure of Truth to Osiris, from 

THE temple at AbYDOS. 







Fig. 7.— a similar relief 



FROM THE SANCTUARY SHOWN IN FiG. 5. 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 53 

only in Crete itself, but also throughout the /Egean and the coasts of 
Asia Minor and Palestine. 

In course of time, as the art of ship-building advanced and the 
mariners' skill and experience increased, no doubt more extensive and 
better-equipped enterprises were undertaken. [For a concise summary 
of the evidence see [3], pp. 1 20 et seq\ Instances of this are pro- 
vided by the famous expedition to the land of Punt in Queen 
Hatshepsut's reign (6) and the exploits of the Minoan seamen of Crete. 

Such commercial intercourse cannot fail to have produced a slow 
diffusion of culture from one people to another, even if it was primarily 
of the nature of a mere exchange of commodities. But as the various 
civilizations gradually assumed their characteristic forms a certain con- 
ventionalism and a national pride grew up, which protected each of 
these more cultured communities from being so readily influenced by 
contact with aliens as it was in the days of its uncultured sim- 
plicity. Each tended to become more and more conscious of its 
national peculiarities, and immune against alien influences that threat- 
ened to break down the rigid walls of its proud conservatism. 

It was not until the Minoan state had fallen cuid Egypt's dominion 
had begun to crumble that a people free from such prejudices began 
to adopt (7) all that it wanted from these hide-bound civilizations. To its 
own exceptional aptitude for and experience in maritime exploits it 
added all the knowledge acquired by the Egyptians, Minoans, and the 
peoples of Levant. It thus took upon itself to become the great in- 
termediary between the nations of antiquity ; and in the course of 
its trafficking with them, it did not scruple to adopt their arts and 
crafts, their burial customs, and even their gods. In this way was 
inaugurated the first era of really great sea-voyages in the world's 
history. For the trcifficking with these great proud empires proved 
so profitable that the enterprising intermediaries who assumed the con- 
trol of it, not only of bartering their merchandise one with the other, 
but also of supplying their wants from elsewhere, soon began to ex- 
ploit the whole world for the things which the wealthy citizens of 
the imperial states desired [P]. 

There can be no doubt that it was the Phoenicians, lured forth 
into the unknown oceans in search of gold, who first broke through 
the bounds of the Ancient East (8) and whose ships embarked upon 
these earliest maritime adventures on the grand scale. Their 



54 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

achievements and their motives present some analogies to those of the 
great European seamen of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries who 
raided the East Indies and the Spanish Main for loot. But the 
exploits of the Phoenicians must be regarded as even greater events, 
not only by reason of the earlier period in which they were accom- 
plished, but also from their vast influence upon the history of civili- 
zation in outlying parts of the world, as well as for inaugurating new 
methods of commerce and extending the use of its indispensable in- 
strument, gold currency (Perry, vide infra). 

Their doings are concisely set forth in the twenty-seventh chapter 
of the Book of Ezekiel, where Tyre is addressed in these words : 
" Who is there like Tyre, like her that is brought to silence in the 
midst of' the sea ? When thy wares went forth out of the seas, thou 
filledst' many peoples : thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with 
the multitude of thy riches, and of thy merchandise." 

Many circumstances were responsible for extending these wider 
ramifications of maritime trade, so graphically described in the rest of 
the same chapter of Ezekiel. As 1 have already explained, it was not 
merely the^desire to acquire wealth, but also the appreciation of the 
possibilities! of doing so that prompted the Phoenicians* exploits. 
Not being hampered by any undue respect for customs and conven- 
tions, they readily acquired and assimilated to themselves all the 
practical knowledge of the civilized world, whether it came from 
Egypt, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, or the /Egean. They were sprung 
from a pre-eminently maritime stock and probably had gained experi- 
ence in seamanship in the Persian Gulf : and when they settled on 
the Syrian Coast they were also able to add to their knowledge of such 
things all that the Egyptians and the population of the Levant and 
itgean had acquired for themselves after centuries of maritime ad- 
venture. But one of the great factors in explanation of the naval 
supremacy of the Phoenicians was their acquaintance with the facts 
of astronomy. The other peoples of the Ancient East had acquired a 
considerable knowledge of the stars, the usefulness of which, how- 
ever, was probably restricted by religious considerations. Whether 
this be so or not, there can be no doubt that the Phoenicians were 
not restrained by any such ideas from putting to its utmost practical 
application the valuable guide to navigation in the open sea which this 
astronomical learning supplied. 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 55 

They were only able to embark upon their great maritime enter- 
prises in virtue of the use they made of the pole-star for steering. This 
theme has been discussed in great detail by Mrs. Zelia Nuttall (9) ; 
and although 1 am unable to accept a great pait of her argument 
from astronomy, the evidence in substantiation of the use made of the 
pole-star for navigation, not only in the Mediterranean, but also by 
seamen navigating along the coasts of Asia and America, cannot be 
questioned. 

Within recent years there has been a remarkable reaction against 
the attitude of a former generation, which perhaps unduly exaggerated 
certain phases of the achievements of the Phoenicians. 

But the modern pose of minimizing their influence surely errs too 
much in the other direction, and is in more flagrant conflict with the 
facts of history and archaeology than the former doctrine, which its 
sponsors criticize so emphatically. Due credit can be accorded to the 
Egyptians, Minoans, and other ancient mariners, without in any way 
detracting from the record of the Phoenicians, whose exploits could 
heirdly have attained such great and widespread notoriety among the 
ancients without very real and substantial grounds for their reputation. 
TTie recent memoirs of Siret (10), Dahse (11), Nuttall (9), and the 
writer (M) have adduced abundant evidence in justification of the great- 
ness of their exploits. Professor Sayce says : " They were the inter- 
mediaries of the ancient civilizations " ; and that by 600 B.C. they had 
** penetrated to the north-west coast of India and probably to the 
island of Britain **. *' Phoenician art was essentially catholic ... it 
assimilated the art of Babylonia, Egypt, and Assyria, superadding 
something of its own. . . . The cities of the Phoenicians were the 
first trading communities the world has seen. Their colonies were 
originally mere marts and their voyages of discovery were taken in the 
interests of trade. The tin of Britain, the silver of Spain, the birds of 
the Canaries, the frankincense of Arabia, the pearls and ivory of India 
all flowed into their harbours '* (quoted by Mrs. Nuttall (9), op^ cit., 
p. 520). 

These were the distinctive features of the Phoenicians' activities, 
of which Mr. Hogarth (8, pp. 1 54- 1 59) gives a concise and graphic 
summary. But, as Mr. Perry has pointed out ( 1 2), they were led forth 
above all in search for gold. As he suggests, the Phoenicians seem to 
have been one of the first peoples to have assigned to gold the kind of 



56 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

importance and value that civilized people have ever since attached to 
it. It was no longer merely material for making jev/ellery : "it became 
a currency, w^hich made the foundation of civilization not only possible 
but inevitable, once such a currency came into being '* (Perry). 

The remarks addressed to Tyre in the Book of Ezekiel (XXVII. 9 
et seq^ give expression to these ideas : ** All the ships of the sea 
with their mariners were in thee to occupy thy merchandise. . . . 
Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of 
riches ; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded for thy wares. . . . 
Syria was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of thy handy- 
works : they traded for thy wares with emeralds, purple, and 
broidered work, and fine linen, and coral [probably pearls], and rubies ; 
they traded for thy merchandise wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and 
honey, and oil, and balm. . . . The traffickers of Sheba and Raamah, 
they were thy traffickers : they traded for thy wares with chief of all 
spices, and with all precious stones, and gold. . . . The ships of 
Tarshish were thy caravans for thy merchandise ; and thou was re- 
plenished, and made very glorious in the heart of the seas. Thy 
rowers have brought thee into great waters : the east wind has broken 
thee in the heart of the seas." 

The Phcenicians in fact controlled the commerce of most of 
the civilized world of that time ; and they did so mainly because of 
their superior skill and daring in seamanship, their newly realized ap- 
preciation of the value of gold, and their desire for precious stones and 
pearls, for which they began to ransack every country near and far. 
So thoroughly did they, and their pupils and imitators, accomplish 
thdr mission that only one pearl-field in the whole world (the West 
Australian site at Broome) escaped their exploitation (Perry, [ 1 2]). 

Many of their great maritime adventures have been -recorded by 
the ancient classical writers. The reality of others, for example, to 
India, which have not been specifically described, are none the less 
certain : not only was there most intimate intercourse between the 
Red Sea and India at the very time when the Phcenicians were dis- 
playing great activity in the Indian Ocean (M, p. 77 ; P, p. 210 and 
elsewhere), but the methods and the motives, no less than the cargoes, 
of these energetic and skilful mariners, whose exploits are celebrated in 
the Mahabharata, and whose achievements are indelibly impressed 
upon Indian culture, proclaim them unmistakably to be Phcenicians. 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 57 

(For a mass of detailed information on these matters see the notes 
in P.) 

In the course of this trading there was not only an interchange of 
the articles of commerce provided by the Mediterranean countries and 
India, as well as by all the intermediate ports of call, but also there 
is the most positive evidence, in the multitude of western practices 
which suddenly made their appearance in India, at the very time when 
this free trafficking became definitely established, in demonstration of 
the fact that the civilizations of the West were exerting a very potent 
cultural influence upon the Dravidian population of India. Many of 
the customs which made their first appearance in India at that epoch, 
such as mummification, the making of rock-cut temples, and stone 
tombs (and many others of the long list of practices enumerated 
ezurlier in the present discourse) were definitely Egyptian in origin. 

One of the most significant and striking of the effects of this mari- 
time intercourse with Egypt was the influence exerted by the latter in 
the matter of ship-building (see M, p. 77 ; and especially P, p. 52 
et seg., among many other references in the same work). 

The fact that such distinctively Egyptian practices were spread 
abroad at the same time as, and in close association with, many others 
equally definitely Mediterranean in origin (such as the use of Tyrian 
purple and of the conch-shell trumpet in temple services [21]), is 
further corroboration of the fact that the Phoenicians, who are known to 
have adopted the same mixture of customs, were the distributors of 
so remarkable a cultural cargo. 

This identification is further confirmed by the fact that additions 
were made to this curious repertoire from precisely those regions where 
the Phoenicians are known vigorously to have carried on their traffick- 
ing, such as many places in the Mediterranean, on the Red Sea littoral, 
Ethiopia, and Southern Arabia. 

In this way alone can be explained how there came to be associated 
with the megalithic culture such practices as the Sudanese Negro custom 
of piercing and distending the ear-lobules, the Armenian (or Central 
Asiatic) procedure for artificial deformation of the head, the method 
of terraced cultivation, which was probably a Southern Arabian modi- 
fication of Egyptian cultivation and irrigation on a level surface ; certain 
beliefs regarding the " heavenly twins " ; and perhaps such institutions 
as " men's houses ** and secret societies, and the building of pile-dwell- 



58 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

ings, and customs such as trephining, dental mutilations, and perforat- 
ing the lips and nose, which were collected by the wanderers from a 
variety of scattered peoples in the Ancient East. 

Mrs. Nuttall (9) has made a vast collection of other evidence relating 
mainly to astronomy, calendars, the methods of subdividing time, and 
questions of political and social organization, upon the basis of which 
she independently arrived at essentially the same conclusions as 1 have 
formulated, not only as regards the reality and the time of the great 
migration of culture, but also as to the identification of the Phoenicians 
as the people mainly responsible for its diffusion abroad. She failed to 
realize, however, that this easterly diffusion of knowledge and customs 
was merely incidental to commercial intercourse and a result of the 
trafficking. 

In addition to all these considerations I should like once more 
to emphasize the fact that it was the study of the physical character- 
istics of the people scattered along the great megalithic track — and 
more especially those of Polynesia and the Eastern Mediterranean — that 
first led me to investigate these problems of the migrations of culture 
and its bearers to the Far East ( 1 3). For one cannot fail to be struck 
with the many features of resemblance between the ancient seamen 
who were mainly responsible for the earliest great maritime exploits in 
the Mediterranean and Erythrean seas and the Pacific Ocean respec- 
tively. 

The remarkable evidence ( 1 2) brought forward at the recent meeting 
of the British Association by Mr. W. J. Perry seems to me finally to 
decide the question of the identity of the wanderers who distributed 
early Mediterranean culture in the East. 

His investigations also explmn the motives for the journeyings and 
the reasons why the western culture took root in some places and not 
in others. 

Throughout the world the localized areas where the distinctive 
features of this characteristic civilization occur — and especially such 
elements as megalithic structures, terraced irrigation, sun-worship, and 
practices of mummification — are precisely those places where ancient 
mine- workings, and especially gold-mines, or pearl-fisheries, are also 
found, and where presumably Phoenician settlements were established 
to exploit these sources of wealth. " But not only is a general agree- 
ment found between the distributions of megalithic influence and 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 59 

ancient mine-workings, but the technique of mining, smelting, and re- 
fining operations is identical in all places where the earliest remains 
have been found. . . . The form of the furnaces used ; the introduc- 
tion of the blast over the mouth of the furnace ; the process of refining 
whereby the metal is first roughly smelted in an open furnace and 
afterwards refined in crucibles ; as well as the forms of the crucibles 
and the substances of which they were made, are the same in all 
places where traces of ancient smelting operations have been discovered. 
. . . The conclusion to which all these facts point is that the search 
for certain forms of material wealth led the carriers of the megalithic 
culture to those places where the things they desired were to be found 
(Perry[I2]). 

The distribution of pearl-shell explains how their course was 
directed along certain routes : the situations of ancient mines provide 
the reason for the settlement of the wanderers and the adoption of 
the whole of the megalithic culture-complex in definite localities. 

From the consideration of all of these factors it is clear that the 
great easterly migration of megalithic culture was the outcome of the 
traffic carried on between the Eastern Mediterranean and India during 
the three or four centuries from about 800 B.C. onward, and that the 
Phoenicians were mainly responsible for these enterprises. The littoral 
populations of Egypt, Ethiopia, Arabia, the Persian Gulf, and India 
itself no doubt took a considerable part in this intercourse, for they all 
provided hardy mariners inured by long experience to such pursuits ; 
but for the reasons already suggested (their wider knowledge of the 
science and practice of seamanship) the Phoenicians seem to have 
directed and controlled these expeditions, even if they exploited the 
shores of the Mediterranean, Red Sea, Arabia, and farther East for 
skilled sailors to man their ships. That such recruits played a definite 
part in the Phoenician expeditions is shown by the transmission to the 
East of customs and practices found in localized areas of the coasts of 
the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and especially of Ethiopia, Arabia, 
and the Persian Gulf. It is probable that expert pearl-fishers were 
recruited on the shores of the Red Sea and gold-miners in Nubia and 
the Black Sea littoral. 

The easterly migration of culture rolled like a great flood along 
the Asiatic littoral between the end of the eighth and the beginning of 
the fifth century B.C. ; and there can be no doubt that the leaven of 



60 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

western culture was distributed to India, China, Japan, Indonesia, 
and possibly even further, mainly by that great wave. But for long 
ages before that time, no doubt a slow diffusion of culture had been 
taking place along the same coast- lines ; and ever since the first great 
stream brought the flood of western learning to the East a similar in- 
fluence has been working along the same route, carrying to and fro 
new elements of cultural exchange between the East and West. 

The " Periplus of the Erythrean Sea " (3) reveals to us how 
closely the old routes were being followed and the same kind of 
traffic was going on in the first century of the Christian era ; the 
exploits of other mariners, Egyptian, Greek, Arabic, Indian, and 
Chinese (4), show how continuously such intercourse was maintained 
right up to the time when Western European adventurers first intruded 
into the Indian Ocean. The spread of Brahmanism, Buddhism, 
and Islam are further illustrations of the way in which such migrations 
of new cults followed the old routes (compare [20]). 

In the light of such knowledge it would be altogether unjustifiable 
to assume that the geographical distribution of similar customs and 
beliefs cJong this great highway of ancient commerce was due ex- 
clusively to the great wave of megalithic culture before the sixth cen- 
tury B.C. There is evidence of the most definite kind that many of 
die elements of western culture — such, for example, as Ptolemaic 
and Christian methods of embalming — were spread abroad at later 
times (M). 

Nevertheless there is amply sufficient information to justify the con- 
clusion that many of the fundamental conceptions of Indian, Chinese, 
Japcmese, and American civilization were planted in their respective 
countries by the great cultural wave which set out from the African 
cocLst not long before the sixth century B.C. 

One of the objections raised even by the most competent ethnolo- 
gists against the adoption of this view is the assumption involved in 
such a hypothesis that one and the same wave carried to the East a 
jumble of practices ranging in dates from that of Predynastic Egypt 
to the seventh century B.C. — that at, or about, the same time the in- 
spiration to build megalithic monuments fashioned on the models of 
the Pyramid Age and others imitating New Empire temples reached 
India. 

But the difficulties created by this line of argument are largely 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 61 

illusory, especially when it is recalled that the sailors manning the 
Phoenician ships were recruited horn so many localities. It is known 
that even within a few miles of the Egyptian frontiers — Nubia, for 
instance — many customs and practices which disappeared in Egypt 
itself in the times of the New, Middle, or Old Empires, or even in 
Predynastic times, persist until the present day. The earliest 
Egyptian method of circumcision (which Dr. Rivers calls ** incision**) 
disappeared in Egypt probably in the Pyramid Age, but it is still 
practised in East Africa ; and no doubt it was the sailors recruited 
from that coast who were responsible for transmitting this practice to the 
East. When the first British settlement was made in America it in- 
troduced not only the civilization of the Elizabethan era, but also 
practices and customs that had been in vogue in England for many 
centuries ; and no doubt every emigrant carried with him the tra- 
ditions and beliefs that may have survived from very remote times in 
his own village. So the Phoenician expeditions spread abroad not 
only the Egyptian civilization of the seventh century B.C., but also the 
customs, beliefs, and practices of every sailor and passenger who 
travelled in their ships, whether he came from Syria, or the /Egean, 
from Egypt or Ethiopia, Arabia or the Persian Gulf. The fact that 
many extremely old Egyptian practices, which had been given up for 
centuries in Egypt itself, had survived elsewhere in the Mediterranean 
area and in Ethiopia explains how a mixture of Egyptian customs, 
distinctive of a great variety of different ages in Egypt itself, may have 
been distributed abroad at one and the same time by such mixed 
crews. 

In her great monograph Mrs. Nuttall refers to ** the great intel- 
lectual movement that swept at one time, like a wave, over the ancient 
centres of civilization ** ; and she quotes Huxley's essay on ** Evolu- 
tion and Ethics " with reference to the growth of Ionian philosophy 
during ** the eighth, seventh, and sixth centuries before our era " as 
** one of the many results of the stirring of the moral and intellectual 
life of the Aryan-Semitic population of Western Asia ** ; but Huxley 
was careful to add that "the Ionian intellectual movement is only one 
of the several sporadic indications of some powerful mental ferment 
over the whole of the area comprised between the /Egean and 
Northern Hindustan " (Nuttall [9], op. cit„ p. 526). She cites other 
evidence that points to the seventh century B.C. as about the time of 



62 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

the extension of Mediterranean influence to India [and Indian influence 
to the west] through the intermediation of the Phoenicians. 

It was not, however, merely to India that this diffusion extended, 
but also to China and Mexico. In the light of my own investigations 
I am inclined to re-echo the words of Mrs. Nuttall : *' As far as I 
can judge, the great antiquity attributed, by Chinese historians, to the 
establishment of the governmental and cyclical schemes, still in use, 
appears extremely doubtful. Referring the question to Sinologists, I 
venture to ask whether it does not seem probable that the present 
Chinese scheme dates from the lifetime of Lao-tze, in the sixth 
century B.C., a period marked by the growth of Ionian philosophy, 
one feature of which was the invention of numerical schemes applied 
to * divine politics * and ideal forms of government " (op. cit,, pp. 533 
and 534). 

To this I should like to add the query, whether there is any real 
evidence that the art of writing was known in China before that time ? 
The resecurches of Dr. Alan Gardiner ( 1 4) make it abundantly clear 
that the art of writing was invented in Egypt ; and further suggest 
that the idea must have spread from Egypt at an early date to 
Western Asia and the Mediterranean, where many diversely specialized 
kinds of script developed. Discussing the cultural connexion between 
India and the Persian Gulf " at the beginning of the seventh (and 
perhaps at the end of the eighth) century B.C., *' my colleague Professor 
Rhys Davids adduces evidence in demonstration of the fact that the 
written scripts of India, Ceylon, and Burma were derived from that of 
** the pre-Semitic race now called Akkadians ** (" Buddhist India,** 
p. 116). 

Dr. Schoff, however, in his remarkable commentary on the 
** Periplus of the Erythrean Sea," claims a Phoenician origin for the J 
Dravidian alphabet (P., p. 229). 

If then the knowledge of the art of writing reached India with the 
great wave of megalithic culture, it might be profitable to inquire 
whether the development of Chinese writing was really as ancient as 
most Sinologists assume it to be, or, on the other hand, may not its 
growth also have been stimulated by the same '* great intellectual 
ferment ** which is recognized as having brought about the new de- 
velopment in India ? There is, of course, the possibility that the 
knowledge of writing may have reached China overland even before 
it is known to have reached India (20). 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 63 

Professor Rhys Davids also calls attention {op, cit,, pp. 238 and 
239) to ** the great and essential similarity " between the " details of 
the lower phases of religion in India in the sixth century B.C., with 
the beliefs held, not only at the same time in the other centres of civi- 
lization—in China, Persia, and Egypt, in Italy and Greece — but 
also among the savages of then and now"; with reference to **a 
further and more striking resemblance " he quotes Sir Henry Maine's 
observation that " Nothing is more remarkable than the extreme few- 
ness of progressive societies — the difference between them and the 
stationary races is one of the greatest secrets inquiry has yet to pene- 
trate" ("Ancient Law," p. 22). 

But is it not patent that what we who have been brought up in 
the atmosphere of modern civilization call *' progress," is the striving 
after an artificial state of affairs, like all the arts and crafts of civiliza- 
tion itself, created by a special set of circumstances in one spot, the 
Ancient East ? There is no inborn impulse to impel other people to 
become ** progressive societies" in our acceptation of that term : in the 
past history of the world these other communities only began to 
** progress " when they had been inoculated with the germs of this arti- 
ficial civilization by contact with the peoples of the Eastern Mediter- 
ranean area. 

My colleague does not view the problem in this light. For him 
it is the most " stupendous marvel in the whole history of mankind ** 
that the four great civilizations which grew up in the river basins of 
the Nile and the Euphrates, the Ganges and the Yellow River — 
through real and progressive civilizations, whose ideas and customs 
were no doubt constantly changing and growing — maintained merely 
*' a certain dead level, if not a complete absence of what we should 
call philosophic thought," and " did not build up any large and general 
views, either of ethics, or of philosophy, or of religion " ; but then 
"suddenly, and almost simultaneously, and almost certainly indepen- 
dently, there is evidence, about the sixth century B.C., in each of these 
widely separated ' centres of civilization, of a leap forward in specu- 
lative thought, of a new birth in ethics, of a religion of conscience 
threatening to take the place of the old religion of custom and magic ". 

But Professor Rhys Davids' opinion that this profound transfor- 
mation occurred '* almost certainly independently " is hard to reconcile 
with the fact, which he clearly explained earlier in the same book. 



64 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

that for more than a century before the time of this "stupendous 
marvel '* India had been in touch with the older civilizations of 
the West (pp. 70 and 1 1 3 et seq). All of the difficulties of this, 
the most '* suggestive problem awaiting the solution of the historian of 
human thought ** (p. 239), disappear once the extent of this cultural 
contact with the West is fully realized. 

The evidence to which I have called attention here, and elsewhere 
(M), makes it appear unlikely that these momentous events in the history 
of civiUzation were independent one of the other ; to me it seems to 
prove definitely and most conclusively that they were parts of one 
connected movement. The *' powerful ferment" of which Huxley 
speaks was due to the action upon the uncultured population of India 
(and in turn also those of China, Japan, and America) of the new 
knowledge brought from the Eastern Mediterranean by the Phcenidan 
mariners, or the passengers who travelled with them in their trading 
expeditions. 

To quote Mrs. Nuttall again : "Just as the older Andean art 
closely resembles that of the early Mediterranean, an observation 
made by Professor F. W. Putnam (1899), so the fundamental 
principles, numerical scheme, and plan of the state founded by the 
foreign Incas in Peru, resembled those formulated by Plato in his 
description of an ideal state " ([9], pp. 545-6). As one of the results 
of their intimate intercourse with Egypt the Phoenicians had adopted 
many of the Egyptian customs and beliefs, as well as becoming pro- 
ficient in its arts and crafts. Perhaps also they recruited some of 
their seamen from the Egyptians who had been accustomed for long 
ages to maritime pursuits. In this way it may have come to pass 
that, when the Phoenicians embarked on their great over-sea expe- 
ditions, they became the distributors of Egyptian practices. They 
did not, of course, spread abroad Egyptian culture in its purest form : 
for as middlemen they selected for adoption, consciously as well as 
unconsciously, certain of its constituent elements and left others. 
Moreover, they had customs of their own and practices which they 
had borrowed from the whole Eastern Mediterranean world as well 
as from Mesopotamia. 

The first stage of the oriental extension of their trafficking ( 1 5) was 
concerned with the Red Sea and immediately beyond the Straits of 
the Bab-el- Mandeb. [In his scholarly commentary on " The Peri- 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 65 

plus of the Erythrean Sea/* Dr. Schoff gives, in a series of explanatory 
notes, a most illuminating summary of the literature relating to all these 
early trading expeditions. The reader who questions my remarks on 
these matters should consult his lucid digest of an immense mass of 
historical documents.] In the course of their trading in these regions 
the travellers freely adopted the practices of the inhabitants of the 
Ethiopian coast and southern Arabia— customs which in many cases 
had been derived originally from Egypt and had slowly percolated 
up the Nile, and eventually, with many modifications and additions, 
reached the region of the Somali coast. Whether this adoption of 
Ethiopian customs was the result merely of intercourse with the natives 
in the Sabaean and East African ports, or was to be attributed to the 
actual recruiting of seamen for the oriental expeditions from these 
regions, there is no evidence to permit us to say : but judging from the 
analogies of what is known to have happened elsewhere, it is prac- 
tically certain that the latter suggestion alone affords an adequate 
explanation of the potent influence exerted by these Ethiopian prac- 
tices in the Far Elast. For such a complete transference of customs 
and beliefs from one country to another can occur only when the 
people who practise them migrate from their homeland and settle in 
the new country. It is, of course, well recognized that from the eighth 
century onward, if not before then, there has been some intercourse 
between East Africa and India, and the whole of the intervening lit- 
toral of Southern Asia (see Schoff's commentaries on the Periplus). 

For reasons that I have explained elsewhere (5) it is probable that, 
even as early as the time of the First Egyptian Dynasty maritime 
intercourse was already taking place along the whole Arabian coast, 
and even linking up in cultural contact the nascent civilizations develop- 
ing in the Nile Valley and near the head of the Persian Gulf. No 
doubt the following twenty-five centuries witnessed a gradual develop- 
ment and oriental extension of this littoral intercommunication : but 
from the eighth century onward the current flowed more strongly and 
in immeasurably greater volume. The western coast of India was 
subjected to the full force of a cultural stream in which the influences 
of Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean world, Ethiopia, Arabia, and 
Babylonia were blended by the Phoenicians, who no doubt were 
mainly responsible for controlling and directing the current for their 
own pecuniary benefit (see especially 12 ; and M, p. 77 et se^.). 

5 



66 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

This easterly stream, as I have already explained above, was re- 
sponsible for originating in India and Ceylon, at about the same time, 
temples of New Empire Egyptian type, dolmens which represent the 
Old Empire type, rounded tumuli which might be regarded as 
Mycenean, and seven-stepped stone Pyramids as Chaldean, modifica- 
tions of Egyptian Pyramids ; and if the monuments farther east are 
taken into consideration, the blended influences of Egypt, Babylonia, 
and India become even more definitely manifested. In studying the 
oriental spread of Egyptian ideas and practices it must constantly be 
borne in mind that it was the rare exception rather than the rule for 
the influence of such things to be exerted directly, as for example when 
Cyrus definitely adopted Egyptian funerary customs and methods of 
tomb-construction (M, p. 67). His successors even employed Egyptian 
craftsmen to carry out the work. In most cases an alien people, the 
Phoenicians, were responsible for transmitting these customs to India and 
the Further E-ast, and not only did they modify them themselves, but in 
addition they, or the crews of their ships, carried to the East the influ- 
ence of Egyptian practices which had been adopted by various other 
alien peoples and had suffered more or less transformation. In this 
way alone is it possible to explain how large a part was played in this 
easterly migration of culture by the customs of Ethiopia. For many 
centuries the effects of Egyptian civilization had been slowly percolat- 
ing up the Nile amongst a variety of people, and ultimately, with 
many additions and modifications, made themselves apparent among 
the littoral population of East Africa. Such Ethiopian transforma- 
tions of Egyptian ideas and customs form a very obtrusive element in 
the cultural wave which flowed to India, Indonesia, and Oceania (M). 

It is instructive to compare the outstanding features of tomb and 
temple-construction in Egypt with those of the Asiatic and American 
civilization. In Egypt it is possible to study the gradual evolution of 
the temple and to realize in some measure the circumstances and ideas 
which prompted the development and the accentuation of certain 
features at the expense of others (2). 

For example, the conception of the door of a tomb or temple as 
symbolizing the means of communication between the living and the 
dead was apparent even in Protodynastic times, and gradually became 
so insistent that by the time of the New Empire the Egyptian temple 
has been converted into a series of monstrously overgrown gateways or 



^^ 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 67 

pylons, which dwarfed all the other features into insignificance. The 
same feature revealed itself in the Dravidian temples of Southern India ; 
and the obtrusive gateways of Further Asiatic temples, no less than 
the symbolic wooden structures found in China and Japan (Torii), are 
certainly manifestations of the same conception. 

Among less cultured people, such as the Fijians, who were unable 
to reproduce this feature of the Egyptian and Indian temples, the 
general plan, v^thout the great pylons or gopurams, was imitated ( 1 6). 
The Fijians have a tradition that the people who built these great 
stone enclosures came across the sea from the West (M, p. 29). 

Other features of the Egyptian temples of the New Empire period, 
which were widely adopted in other lands, were the placing of colossal 
statues alongside the doorway, as in the Ramesseum at Thebes, the 
construction of a causeway leading up to the temple, flanked with 
stones, carved or uncarved, such as the avenue of sphinxes at Karnak, 
and the excavation of elaborate rock-cut temples such as that at Abu- 
Simbel. In the temples of India, Cambodia, China, and America 
such features repeatedly occur ([17], p. 153). 

A whole volume might be written on the evidence supplied by 
Oriental and American Pyramids of the precise way in which the in- 
fluences of Egypt, Babylonia, and the itgean were blended in these 
monuments. 

In the Far East and America the Chaldean custom obtained of 
erecting the temple upon the summit of a truncated Pyramid. In 
Palenque and Chiapas, as well as elsewhere in the Isthmus region of 
America, many temples are found thus perched upon the tops of 
Pyramids. In design they are essentially Egyptian, not only as re- 
gards their plan, but also in the details of their decoration, from the 
winged disc upon the lintel (Figs. 3 and 5), to the reliefs within the 
sanctuary (23). For in the Palenque temples are depicted scenes (such 
as the one shown in Fig. 7) strictly comparable to those found in the 
New Empire Theban temples (compare, for example, Fig. 7 with the 
relief from temple of Seti I at Abydos, Fig. 6). 

I need not enter into the discussion of mummification and the very 
precise evidence it affords of the easterly spread of Egyptian influence, 
for I have devoted a special memoir (M) to the consideration of its 
significance. I should like to make it plain, however, that it was the 
data afforded by the technique of the ezurliest method of embalming 



68 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

that is known to have been adopted in the Far Elast which led me to 
assign the age of the commencement of its migration to a time probably 
not earlier than the eighth century B.C. ; and that this conclusion was 
reached long before I was aware of all the other evidence of most varied 
nature (mentioned in the writings of Vincent Smith [17], Rhys- Davids, 
Crooke, Nuttall, Oldham, and many others) which points to the same 
general conclusion. As several different methods of embalming. Late 
New Empire, Graeco- Roman, and Coptic, are known to have reached 
India it is quite clear that at least three distinct cultural waves pro- 
ceeded to the East : but the first, which planted the germs of the new 
culture on the practically virgin soil of the untutored East, exerted an 
infinitely profounder influence than all that came after. 

In fact most of the obtrusive elements of the megalithic culture, 
with its strange jumble of associated practices, beliefs, and traditions, 
certainly travelled in the first great wave, somewhere about the time 
of, perhaps a little earlier or later than, the seventh century B.C. 

Although in this lecture I am primarily concerned with the de- 
monstration of the influence exerted, directly or indirectly, by Egyptian 
culture in the East, it is important to obtain confirmation from 
other evidence of the date which the former led me to assign to 
the great migration. I have already referred to the facts cited by 
Mrs. Nuttall in proof of her contention that Ionian ideas spread 
East and ultimately reached America. Since her great monograph 
was written she has given an even more precise and convincing 
proof of the influence of the Phoenician world on America by des- 
cribing how the use of Tyrian purple extended as far as Mexico in 
Pre-Columbian times (18). The associated use of conch-shell 
trumpets and pearls is peculiarly instructive : the geographical distri- 
bution of the former enables one to chart the route taken by this spread 
of culture, while the latter (the pearl-fisheries) supply one of the motives 
which attracted the wanderers and led them on until eventually they 
reached the New World. 

Professor Bosanquet has adduced evidence suggesting that Pur- 
pura was first used by the Minoans : in Crete also the conch-shell 
trumpet was employed in the temple services. No doubt the 
Phoenicians acquired these customs from the Mycenean peoples. 

In his monograph (19) on "The Sacred Chank of India " ( 1 9 1 4) 
Mr. James Hornell has filled in an important gap in the chain of dis- 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 69 

tribution given by Mrs. Nuttall. He has not only confirmed her 
opinion as to the close association of the conch-shell trumpet and 
pearls, but also has shown what an important role these shells have 
played in India from Dravidian times onward. His evidence is 
doubly welcome, not only because it links up the use of the Chank 
with so many elements of the megalithic culture and of the temple 
ritual in India, but also because it affords additional confirmation of 
the date which I have assigned for the introduction of the former into 
India (see M, especially pp. 117 et seq\ 

In India these new elements of cuhure took deep root and de- 
veloped into the luxurious growth of so-called Dravidian civiHzationi 
which played a great part in shaping the customs and practices of the 
later Brahmanical and Buddhist cults. From India a series of migra- 
tions carried the megalithic customs and beliefs, and their distinctively 
Indian developments, farther east to Burma, Indonesia, China, and 
Japan ; and, with many additions from these countries, streams of 
wanderers for many centuries carried them out into the islands of the 
Pacific and eventually to the shores of America, where ' there grew 
up a highly organized but exotic civilization compounded of the 
elements of the Old World's ancient culture, the most outstanding 
and distinctive ingredients of which came originally from Ancient 
Egypt. 

I do not possess the special knowledge to estimate the reliability 
of M. Terrien de Lacouperie's remarkable views on the origin of 
Chinese civilization (20), some of which seem to be highly specula- 
tive. But there is a sufficient mass of precise information, based upon 
the writings of creditable authorities, to discount in large measure the 
wholesale condemnation of his opinions in recent years. Whatever 
justification, or lack of it, there may be for his statements as to the 
early overland connection between Mesopotamia and China, his 
views concerning the later maritime intercourse between the Red 
Sea, Persian Gulf, India and Indo-China, and China are in remark- 
able accordance with the opinions which, in the absence of any 
previous acquaintance with his writings, I have set forth here, not 
only as regards the nature of the migration and the sources of the 
elements of culture, but also the date of its arrival in the far east and 
the motives which induced traders to go there. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that Asiatic civilization reached 



70 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

America partly by way of Polynesia, as well as directly from Japan, 
and also by the Aleutian route. 

The immensely formidable task of spanning the broad Pacific to 
reach the coasts of America presents no difficulty to the student of 
early migrations. "The islands of the Pacific were practically all 
inhabited long before Tasman and Cook made their appearance in 
Pacific waters. Intrepid navigators had sailed their canoes north and 
south, east and west, until their language and their customs had been 
carried into every corner of the ocean. These Polynesian sailors had 
extended their voyages from Hawaii in the North to the fringe of the 
ice-fields in the Far South, and from the coast of South America on 
the East to the Philippine Islands on the West. No voyage seems to 
have been too extended for them, no peril too great for them to 
brave." 

Mr. Elsdon Best, from whose writings (21)1 have taken the above 
quotation, answers the common objection that the frailness of the early 
canoes was incompatible with such journeys. ** As a matter of fact 
the sea- going canoe of the ancient Maori was by no means frail : it 
was a much stronger vessel than the eighteen-foot boat in which Bligh 
and his companions navigated 3600 miles of the Pacific after the 
mutiny of the ' Bounty \" 

Thirty generations ago Toi, when leaving Raratonga to seek the 
islands of New Zealand, said, ** I will range the wide seas until I reach 
the land-head at Aotearoa, the moisture- laden land discovered by 
Kupe, or be engulfed for ever in the depths of Hine-moana *'. 

It was in this spirit that the broad Pacific was bridged and the 
civilization of the Old World carried to America. 

When one considers the enormous extent of the journey, and the 
multitude and variety of the vicissitudes encountered upon the way, 
it is a most remarkable circumstance that practically the whole of the 
complex structure of the megalithic culture should have reached the 
shores of America. Hardly any of the items in the large series of 
customs and beliefs enumerated at the commencement of this lecture 
failed to get to America in pre-Columbian times. The practice of 
mummification, with modifications due to Polynesian and other 
oriental influences ; the characteristically Egyptian elements of its 
associated ritual, such as the use of incense and libations ; and beliefs 
concerning the souFs wanderings in the underworld, where it under- 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION 71 

goes the same vicissitudes as it was supposed to encounter in Pharaonic 
times [New Empire] — all were found in Mexico and elsewhere in 
America, with a multitude of corroborative detail to indicate the in- 
fluence exerted by Ethiopia, Babylonia, India, Indonesia, China, 
Japan, and Oceania, during the progress of their oriental migration. 
The general conception, no less than the details of their construction 
and the associated beliefs, make it equally certain that the megalithic 
monuments of America were inspired by those of the ancient East ; 
and while the influences which are most obtrusively displayed in 
them are clearly Egyptian and Babylonian, the effects of the accretions 
from the /Egean, India, Cambodia, and Eastern Asia are equally un- 
mistakable. The use of idols and stone seats (22), beliefs in the pos- 
sibility of men or animals dwelling in stones, and the complementciry 
supposition that men and animals may become petrified, the story of 
the deluge, of the divine origin of kings, who are regarded as the chil- 
dren of the sun or the sky, and the incestuous origin of the chosen 
people — the whole of this complexly interwoven series of characteristic- 
ally Egypto- Babylonian practices and beliefs reappeared in America in 
pre-Columbian times, as also did the worship of the sun and the beliefs 
regarding serpents, including a great part of the remarkably complex 
and wholly artificial symbolism associated with this sun and serpent- 
worship. Circumcision, tattooing, piercing and distending the ear- 
lobules, artificial deformation of the head, trephining, weaving linen, 
the use of Tyrian purple, conch-shell trumpets, a special appreciation 
of pearls, precious stones, and metals, certain definite methods of 
mining and extraction of metals, terraced irrigation, the use of the 
swastika-symbol, beliefs regarding thunder-bolts and thunder- teeth, 
certain phallic practices, the boomerang, the beliefs regarding the 
" heavenly twins,** the practice of couvade, the custom of building 
special " men's houses ** and the institution of secret societies, the art 
of writing, certain astronomical ideas, and entirely arbitrary notions 
concerning a calendrical system, the subdivisions of time, and the 
constitution of the state — all of these and many other features of pre- 
Columbian civilization are each and all distinctive tokens of influence 
of the culture of the Old World upon that of the New. Not the 
least striking demonstration of this borrowing from the old world is 
afforded by games (M, p. 1 2, footnote). 

When in addition it is considered that most, if not all, of this 



72 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

variegated assortment of customs and beliefs are linked one to the other 
in a definite and artificial system, which agrees with that which is 
known to have grown up somewhere in the neighbourhood of the 
Elastem Mediterranean, there can no longer be any reasonable doubt 
as to the derivation of the early American civilization from the latter 
source. 

All the stories of culture-heroes which the natives tell corroborate 
the inference which I have drawn from ethnological data. 

When to this positive demonstration is added the evidence of the 
exact relationship of the localities where this exotic Old World culture 
took root in America to the occurrence of pearl-shell and precious 
metals, the proof is clinched by these unmistakable tokens that the same 
Phoenician methods which led to the diffusion of this culture-complex 
in the Old World also were responsible for planting it in the New 
(Perry [12]) some centuries after the Phoenicians themselves had 
ceased to be. 

In these remarks I have been dealing primarily with the influence 
of Ancient Egyptian civilization ; but in concentrating attention upon 
this one source of American culture it must not be supposed that I 
am attempting to minimize the extent of the contributions from Asia. 
From India America took over the major part of her remarkable 
pantheon, including practically the whole of the beliefs associated 
with the worship of Indra (24). 



NOTES. 

(1) In the strict sense, the statement set forth here is not a report of 
the lecture delivered at the Rylands Library, although it deals with 
essentially the same body of facts and expounds the same inferences. The 
lecture was an ocular demonstration of the facts to which I am endeavouring 
to give literary expression here. By means of a large series of photographic 
projections of tombs, temples, and other objects scattered broadcast in 
Egypt, Asia, and America, together with maps to illustrate the geographical 
distribution of particular features, the attempt was made to appeal directly 
to the common sense of the audience in support of the proposition that 
the fundamental constituents of all civilizations spread from one centre. 
In setting forth the argument here 1 have in mind a different audience and 
am making use of a good deal of evidence to which no reference was made 
in my lecture. Much of it, in fact, has come to my knowledge since the 
lecture was delivered. 

In collecting the material for the purposes of my discourse at the 
Rylands Library 1 found that it was impossible to tell the whole 
story in one hour. The evidence derived from the study of tombs 
and temples in the different countries was therefore communicated to 
the Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society, and has been published 
in the form of an abstract (** Oriental Tombs and Temples*') in that 
Society's " Journal ". The vast collection of data relating to the practice 
of mummification, and the customs and ideas associated with it, was pre- 
sented to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society and published 
in their *' Memoirs ". It has since been issued in book form by the Manchester 
University Press under the tide, "The Migrations of Early Culture". 
As 1 shall have occasion in the present discourse repeatedly to make use 
of the statements of fact, and especially the bibliographical references 
contained in that memoir, it will save trouble if I adopt the letter ** M " as 
a form of brief reference to it. 

In the Rylands lecture I made use of the general results set forth in 
the other two discourses and, with the addition of new evidence, dealt 
with the broader aspects of the problem. 

(2) The former lectures have not been published as such, but most 
of the materials employed will be found in my book *'The Ancient 
Egyptians," 1911 ; my contributions to the British Association Reports 
for 1911-15 (see "Man," 1911, p. 176; 1912, p. 173; 1913, p. 193). 
and the article on " The Evolution of the Rock- cut Tomb and Dolmen," 
published in the Essays and Studies presented to William Ridgeway, 
Cambridge, 1913, p. 493. The general statement with which the present 
discourse begins is the abstract of the address which I delivered at the 
recent meeting of the British Association in opening the discussion on 

73 



74 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

"the Influence of Ancient Egyptian Civilization on the World's Cul- 
ture **. 

(3) " The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea : Travel and Trade in the 
Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century ** : Translated from the 
Greek and annotated by Wilfred H. Schoff, Longmans, Green & Co., 1912. 

This scholarly work is so packed with historical facts and critical 
digests of a vast mass of literature relating to early maritime expeditions 
and other matters intimately related to the subject of my lecture that I 
shall have to refer to it repeatedly. It will save constant repetition of the 
title if I adopt the letter *' P'* as a concise form of reference to it 

(4) Chau lu-kua : His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi, Translated from 
the Chinese and annotated by Friedrich Hirth and W. W. Rockhill, 191 1. 

(5) "The Ancient Egyptians/* op. cit. supra, p. 143. 

(6) As the study of the geographical distribution of mummification origin- 
ally formed the foundation of my argument it is important to note in this 
connexion that these earliest maritime expeditions were largely inspired by 
the desire to obtain the aromatic materials and wood for the purposes of 
embalming, preparing incense, and making coffins. 

(7) The readiness of the Phoenicians to accept the beliefs and practices 
of all these ancient civilizations was no doubt due, in part, to the fact that 
at different times Phoenicia formed part of the dominions of each of the 
ancient empires in turn, so that its inhabitants naturally came into possession 
of a composite culture and grew accustomed to a free trade in the arts of 
civilization as well as in merchandise. 

(8) In this discourse I have used the phrase " Ancient East " in the 
sense defined by Mr. Hogarth in his book with that title. 

(9) Zelia Nuttall, ** TTie Fundamental Principles of Old and New World 
Civilizations : a comparative research based on a study of the Ancient 
Mexican Religious, Sociological, and Calendrical Systems," " Archaeological 
and Ethnological Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, **^ 
Vol.11. March, 1901. 

A large part of Mrs. NuttalFs great treatise is devoted to the con- 
sideration of this astronomical knowledge and its influence of its acquisition 
upon the history of civilization, and especially the phase of it with which 
I am concerned here. The initial part of her argument credits primitive 
mankind with powers of observation and scientific inference which I cannot 
believe : but even if her speculations concerning the origin of the swastika 
be put aside as incredible, it cannot be denied that she has brought forward 
a sufficiently imposing collection of unquestionable data to demonstrate the 
important part played by a knowledge of the stars as an aid to navigation 
by the Phoenicians, and also by all the peoples whom both she and I 
suppose to have derived their knowledge of seamanship from them. 

(10) Siret, '* Les Cassiterides et I'Ejnpire Colonial des Pheniciens,** 
" L Anthropologies 1908, p. 129; 1909, pp. 129 and 283; and 1910, 
p. 281. 

(11) Dahse, ** Ein Zweites Goldland Salomos,** ** Zeitsch. f. Ethn.,**^ 
1911, p. I. 



NOTES 75 

(12) W. J. Perry's contribution to the discussion on ** The Influence of 
Ancient Egyptian Civilization on the World's Culture/' at the Manchester 
meeting of the British Association, 191 5, since published in the Proceedings 
of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society under the title " The 
Geographical Distribution of Megalithic Monuments and Ancient Mines ". 

Although 1 am wholly responsible for the form of this (Rylands) 
address, a great deal of the information made use of was collected by Mr. 
Perry, and most of the rest emerged in the course of repeated conversations 
with him. 

(13) See "The Ancient Egyptians," p. 61 ; also my article on "The 
Influence of Racial Admixture in Egypt," the " Eugenics Review," Oct., 
1915. 

(1 4) Alan H. Gardiner, " The Nature and Development of the Ancient 
Egyptian Hieroglyphic Writing," "Journal of Egyptian Archaeology," 
Volume II, Part II, April, 1915: also " Fresh Light upon the Origin of 
the Semitic Alphabet," a communication made at the British Association 
meeting at Manchester, September, 1915. In the latter Dr. Gardiner 
gave an account of a newly discovered method of writing from Sinai 
which is certainly earlier them 1 500 B.C. : it is a proto-Semitic script 
inspired by the Egyptian method of writing and it makes it no longer 
possible to doubt that Phoenician, Greek, and Sabaean letters, no less than 
Minoan, were borrowed from, or modelled upon, the Egyptian hieroglyphic 
system of writing. 

(15) The views which I am setting forth here are, as a matter of fact, 
substantiated by linking together the evidence collected in a large series of 
scattered areas by leading scholars. It is a commonplace of scientific 
inquiry that the man who devotes himself with the greatest concentration 
of mind to the investigation of some isolated or localized subject of research 
may be blind to the precise relation of his work to wider problems. He 
may become so obsessed by the difficulties which he encounters as to fail 
to realize the progress of the whole campaign. During the last few months 
it must have been the experience of all of us stay-at-home people to find 
that, without possessing any expert military knowledge, the scraps of news 
which come to us from all sides have made us more fully acquainted writh 
the progress of the war than many of the soldiers who are actually 
participating in the fighting in some one spot. So the untrained on-looker 
in the ethnologists* great battle may see most of the fight and see it more 
clearly than many of those whose attention is riveted on their own special 
difficulties. 

(16) Lorimer Fison, "The Nanga, or Sacred Stone Enclosure, of 
Wainimala, Fiji,'* '* The Journal of the Anthropological Institute," Vol. 
XIV, 1885, p. 14. 

(17) "The Imperial Gazetteer of India, the Indian Empire," Vol. II, 
Historical, New Edition, 1903. 

(18) Zelia Nuttall, "A Curious Survival in Mexico of the Purpura 
Shell-fish for Dyeing," Putnam Anniversary Volume, 1909. 

(19) James Hornell, "The Sacred Chank of India," Madras, Govern- 
ment Press, 1914. 



76 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

(20) Terrien de Lacouperie, ** Western Origin of the Elarly Chinese 
Civilization/* 1894, Asher & Co., London. 

(2 1 ) Report of a lecture delivered by Mr. Elsdon Best to the Wellington 
Philosophical Society in New Zealand, July, 1915. 

(22) The peculiar custom of providing stone seats in tombs or for 
councils of special solemnity (in association with burial places) which pro- 
bably developed out of certain Egyptian conceptions ([MJ, p. 43), is seen 
in its most typical form in a tomb of the First Late Minoan period excavated 
at Isopata by Sir Arthur Evans in 1910, as well as in Etruscan sites. Mr. 
Perry has shown that this custom also occurs in precisely those places (be- 
yond the limits of the Ancient East) where the megalithic culture is seen in 
its fully developed form — for example, in India only in those localities where 
megalithic monuments occur, as also in the selected spots in Indonesia and 
Oceania. But the practice attained its greatest development in Ecuador, 
where enormous numbers of such seats, many of them curiously suggestive 
of Old World design, have been found (see Saville's ** Antiquities of 
Manati, Ecuador," Preliminary Report, 1907, pp. 23 et seq., and Final 
Report, 1910, pp. ^'^etseq?^. 

The use of conch-shell trumpets in certain temple services, which also 
is to be referred to Minoan times in Crete, has been recorded in India, 
Oceania, and America ; and in itself is a very clear demonstration of the 
transference of a peculiar custom from the Mediterranean to America. 

(23) The winged disc with a pair of serpents (Fig. 1 ) is the commonest 
and most distinctive symbol of the Ancient Egyptian religion, and is con- 
standy found carved upon the lintels of the great doors of the temples. It 
appeared in a great variety of forms in Egypt and was widely adopted and 
distributed abroad, especially by the Phoenicians (see Count d*Alviella, 
*• The Migration of Symbols," 1894, p. 204 et seq,). It is found in Pales- 
tine (*' The Sun of righteousness with healing in his wings," Malachi IV. 
2), Asia Minor, Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia, as well as in Carthage, 
Cyprus, Sardinia, and elsewhere in the Mediterranean. In modified forms 
it occurs in India and the Far East, and ultimately it reappears in America 
in a practically complete form (Figs. 3 and 4) and in precisely homologous 
situations, upon the lintels of doors in sun-temples (Fig. 5). But the curious 
feature of these American winged discs is that they are invariably reversed ; 
and the body of the serpent) which even in the Egyptian models is often con- 
ventionalized into a lattice-like pattern, is now replaced by a geometrical 
design (Fig. 3). This only becomes intelligible when it is compared with 
the (reversed) Egyptian original. In most instances (as, for example. Fig. 
4) the design is still further modified in a characteristically American 
manner : but if one disregards the ornate embellishments, the distinctive 
features of the severer Egyptian-like pattern of Fig. 3 leave no doubt as to 
the homologies. The face of the god takes the place of the sun's disc, as 
so often happens in the Old World varieties (compare Fig. 2, and especially 
William Hayes Ward's monograph, ** The Seal Cylinders of West Asia," 
Carnegie Institute, Washington, 1910, pp. 211-252 and 395-6; and the 
series of treatises on the History of Art by Perrot and Chipiez). Spinden 
[*• A Study of Maya Art," Cambridge (Mass.), 1913, p. 196] states that 



NOTES 77 

the *' Serpent Bird ** and not the disc is represented at Ococingo (Fig. 3) : 
but this is by no means fatal, as he imagines, to the views set forth here. 
That this *' Serpent Bird '* or ** Feathered Snake *' occurs in temples of the 
Sun completes the proof of the identity with its Egyptian prototype. 

In fact all the associations of these winged discs in Mexico and Central 
America — the Egyptian- like temples, perched upon the tops of Pyramids ; 
the sanctuaries (Fig. 5) embellished with designs (Fig. 7) essentially identi- 
cal with those found in analogous Egyptian temples (Fig. 6) ; and the 
nature of the gods worshipped, and their various attributes — are eloquent 
of the source of their inspiration in the Old World. These temples with 
their embellishments in fact afford a remarkable demonstration of the 
blended influences of Egypt, Babylonia, India and China, with those of 
America. 

Incidentally they supply the most striking corroboration of the views set 
forth by Dr. Rivers (** * Conventionalism * in Primitive Art," Report Brit. 
Association, 1912, p. 599) that the transformation of a naturalistic into a 
geometrical design is not usually due to simplification, but to a blending of 
different cultural influences. The American development of the winged 
disc, for example, is essentially geometrical, but enormously more compli- 
cated and richly embellished than the original. 

(24) " Pre-Columbian Representations of the Elephant in America,** 
*• Nature," December 16, 1915. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS TO 
THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 

The classification of the items in this list is in accordance with 
the main divisions of the ** Dewey Decimal System," and in the 
interest of those readers, who may not be familiar with the system, it 
may be advisable briefly to point out the advantages claimed for this 
method of arrangement. 

The principal advantage of a classified catalogue, as distinguished 
from an alphabetical one, is that it preserves the unity of the subject, 
and by so doing enables a student to follow its various ramifications 
with ease and certainty. Related matter is thus brought together, and 
the reader turns to one sub- division and round it he finds grouped 
others which are intimately connected with it. In this way new lines 
of research are often suggested. 

One of the great merits of the system employed is that it is easily 
capable of comprehension by persons previously unacquainted with it. 
Its distinctive feature is the employment of the ten digits, in their 
ordinary significance, to the exclusion of all other symbols — hence the 
name, decimal system. 

The sum of human knowledge and activity has been divided by 
Dr. Dewey into ten main classes — 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. These 
ten classes are each separated in a similar manner, thus making 1 00 
divisions. An extension of the process provides 1 000 sections, which 
can be still further sub-divided in accordance with the nature and 
requirements of the subject. Places for new subjects may be provided 
at any point of the scheme by the introduction of new decimal points. 
For the purpose of this list we have not thought it necesscuy to carry 
the classification beyond the hundred main divisions, the arrangement 
of which will be found in the " Order of Classification " which 
follows : — 

78 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 79 

ORDER OF CLASSIFICATION. 



General Works. 


500 


Natural Science. 


Bibliography. 


510 


Mathematics. 


Library Economy. 


520 


Astronomy. 


General Cyclopedias. 


530 


Physics. 


General Collections. 


540 


Chemistry. 


General Periodicals. 


550 


Geology. 


General Societies. 


560 


Paleontology. 


Newspapers. 


570 


Biology, 


Special Libraries. Polygraphy. 


580 


Botany. 


Book Rarities. 


590 


Zoology. 


Philosophy. 


600 


Useful Arts. 


Metaphysics. 


610 


Medicine. 


Special Metaphysical Topics. 


620 


Engineering. 


Mind and Body. 


630 


Agriculture. 


Philosophical Systems. 


640 


Domestic Economy. 


Mental Faculties. Psychology. 


650 


Communication and Commerce. 


Logic. 


660 


Chemical Technology. 


Ethics. 


670 


Manufactures. 


Ancient Philosophers. 


680 


Mechanic Trades. 


Modern Philosophers. 


690 


Building. 


Religion. 


700 


Fine Arts. 


Natural Theology. 


710 


Landscape Gardening. 


Bible. 


720 


Architecture. 


Doctrinal Theol. Dogmatics. 


730 


Sculpture. 


Devotional and Practical. 


740 


Drawing, Design, Decoration. 


HoMiLETic. Pastoral. Parochial. 


750 


Painting. 


Church. Institutions. Work. 


760 


Engraving. 


Religious History. 


770 


Photography. 


Christian Churches and Sects. 


780 


Music. 


Non-Christian Religions. 


790 


Amusements. 


Sociolog^^. 


800 


Literature. 


Statistics. 


810 


American. 


Political Science. 


820 


English. 


Political Economy. 


830 


German. 


Law. 


840 


French. 


Administration. 


850 


Italian. 


Associations and Institutions. 


860 


Spanish. 


Education. 


870 


Latin. 


Commerce and Communication. 


880 


Greek. 


Customs. Costumes. Folk-lore. 


890 


Minor Languages. 


Philology. 


900 


History. 


Comparative. 


910 


Geography and Description. 


English. 


920 


Biography. 


German. 


930 


Ancient History. 


French. 


940 


.Europe. 


Italian. 


950 




Asia. 


Spanish. 


960 


£ 


Africa. 


Latin. 


970 





North America. 


Greek. 


980 




^ 


South America. 


Minor Languages. 


990 




^Oceanica and Polar Regions. 



80 THE JOHN RYLANDS UBRARY 

oio BIBLIOGRAPHY : general. 

Bibliographical Society. Illustrated monographs. London, 1913. 
4to. In progress. R 34663 

16. MacKerrow (R. B.) Printer** and publishers' devices in England and Scotland, 
1485-1640.— 1913. 

CENTRALBLATT fur BIBLIOTHEKSWESEN. Beihefte^zum Zentralblatt 
fiir Bibliothekswesen. Leipzig, ]9] 3. 8vo. Iniprogress. ,R 5588 

43. Mainz. — Jakobsklostcr. W. Trefler und die Bibliothck des Jakobsklostersfzu Mainz : 
ein Beitrag zur Litcratur- und Bibliothcksgeschichte des ausgehenden Mittelalters von' F. 
Schillmann.— 1913. 

GuTENBERG-GesELLSCHAFT. Veroffentlichungenjder Gutenberg-Ges- 
ellschaft. [With plates.] Mainz, 1913. 4to and.fol. In progress. 

R8537 

12-13. Rome, Church of. Die Maimer Ablassbriefe der Jahre 1454 und 1455. Von 
. . . G. Zedler. . . .—1913. 

Roxburgh E Club. The Roxburghe club : [Publications.] Oxford, 
1912. Fol. In progress. R.4716 

Henry VIII, King of England. Songs, ballads, and instrumental pieces composed by 
King Henry the Eighth. Reproduced from the British Museum ms. 31922. Collected . . . 
by the Lady M. Trefusis. To which is pre&xed a list of the King's instruments from the 
British Museum ms. Harl. 1419.— 1912. 

Sammlung Bibliothekswissenschaftlicher Arbeiten. Hcr- 
ausgegeben von K. Haebler. Halle, ]9] 4. 8vo. In progress. 

R 35281 

35-36. Germany. Einblattdrucke des xv. Jahrhunderts : ein bibliographisches Verzeichnis. 
Herausgegeben von der Kommission for den Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke. — 1914. 

Welsh Bibliographical Society. [Publications.] Aberystwyth, 
1914. 8vo. In progress. R 36316 

Owen (R.) A bibliography of R. Owen, the Socialist. 1771-1858. 

OIO BIBLIOGRAPHY : SPECIAL TOPICS. 

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR.— NICHOLSON (Jo^in Page) Catalogue of 
library of ... J. P. Nicholson . . . relating to the War of the re- 
bellion, 1861-1866. [With frontispiece.] Philadelphia, 1914. 8vo, 
pp.1022. R 391 15 

AMERICAN literature.— Evans (Charles) American bibliography. 
... A chronological dictionsuy of all books, pamphlets and periodical 
publications printed in the United States of America from the genesis of 
printing in 1 639 down to and including the year 1 820. With biblio- 
graphical and biographical notes. . . . Chicago : privately printed, 
1914. 4to. In progress. R 9929 

8. 1790-1792. 

BISMARCK.— SCHULZE (Paul) and KOLLER (Otto) Bismarck- Literatur. 
Bibliographische Zusammenstellung aller bis Elnde Marz 1895 Yon und 
iiber Fiirst Bismarck im deutschen Buchhandel erschienenen Schriften, 
mit Beriicksichtigung der bekannteren auslandischen Literatur . . , 
Festschrift zum 1 April, 1895. Leipzig, [1895]. 8vo, pp. 70. 

R 36999 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 81 

oio BIBLIOGRAPHY: SPECIAL TOPICS. 

BOOK AUCTIONS.— British Museum [Department of Printed Books.] 
List of catalogues of English book sales, 1676-1900. now in the British 
Museum. [With introduction by A. W. Pollard.) London, 1915. 
8vo. pp. XV, 523. R 39063 

BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER.— BeNTON Qosiah Henry) The book of 
common prayer and books connected with its origin and growth. 
Catalogue of the collection of J. H. Benton. . . . Second edition pre- 
pared by William Muss-Arnolt. . . . Boston: privately printed, 1914. 
8vo, pp. viii, 142. R 37955 

CARTOGRAPHY.— FORDH AM (Sir Herbert George) Studies in carto- 
bibliography, British and French, and in the bibliography of itineraries 
and road-books. [With facsimiles.] Oxford, 1914. 8vo, pp. vii, 180. 

R 38198 

CHATTERTON.— Hyett (Francis Adams) and BaZELEY (William) 
Chattertoniana : being a classified catalogue of books, pamphlets, magazine 
articles, and other printed matter, relating to the life or works of Chatter- 
ton, or to the Rowley controversy. Reprinted from the bibliographer's 
manual of Gloucestershire literature. . . . With numerous additions by 
F. A. H. Gloucester, 1914. 8vo, pp. 43. R 36143 

CHILD STUDY.— Wilson (Louis N.) Representative books in child study. 
[Publications of the Clark University Library, 3, vi.] Worcester, Mass., 
[1914]. 8vo, pp. 11. R 36064 

CRUNDEN.— BORSTWICK (Arthur E.) Frederick Morgan Crunden : a 
memorial bibliography. [With plates.] St, Louis, 1914. 8vo, pp. 
67. R 37452 

CUBA.— TrelLES (Carlos M.) Bibliografia cubana del siglo xix. . . . 
Matanzas, 1914. 8vo. In progress, R 33986 

7. 1886-1893. 

TrelLES (Carlos M.) Ensayo de bibliografia cubana de los siglos 

xvu y xviii. Seguido de unos apuntes para la bibliografia dominicana y 
portorriquena. . . . (Supplemento.) [With preface, by Elnrique Jose 
Varona.] Matanzas, \9{)im, 2vols.ini. 8vo. R 34947 

DANTE ALIQHIERI.-MaRINELLI (Angelo) U stampa della ** Divina 
commedia*' nel xv secolo. . . . [With facsimiles.] Firenze, 1911. 
8vo, pp. 29. R 38585 

MaRINELLO (Angelo) La stampa della " Divina commedia " nei 

secxviexvii. [With facsimile.] Cittd di Gastello, 1915. 8vo, pp. 
46. R 38586 

DONNE.—Keynes (Geoffrey Langdon) Bibliography of the works of . . . 
John Donne, Dean of St. Paul's. [With facsimiles and plates.] 
[Baskerville Club.] Cambridge, 1914. 4to, pp. xii, 167. R 38200 

300 copies printed. This copy is No. 29. 

6 



82 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

oio BIBLIOGRAPHY: SPECIAL TOPICS. 

EDUCATION.— Clark University. Bibliographies on educational 
subjects. [By the members of the seminary in education at Clark 
University.] Edited by WilHam H. Burnham. [PubUcations of the 
Clark University Library. 4. iii.] Worcester, Mass., [1914]. 8vo, pp. 
iii. 45. R 37781 

ENQLISH-iHISTORY.— Gross (Charles) The sources and literature of 
English history from the earliest times to about 1485. . . . Second 
edition, revised and enlarged. Loiidon, 1915. 8vo, pp. xxiii, 820. 

R 39103 

ESSEX.— CUNNINGTON, Family of. Catalogue of books, maps, and 
manuscripts, relating to or connected with the county of Essex, and 
collected by Augustus Cunnington : a contribution towards the biblio- 
graphy of the county. Braintree : printed for private circulation, 
1902. 4to,'pp. 90. R 38487 

*^^*^I00 copies printed. 

EUROPEAN WAR.— LaNGE (F. W. T.) and BeRRY (W. T.) Books 
on the great war : an annotated bibliography of literature issued during 
the European conflict. . . . Preface by R. A. Peddie. London, 1915. 
8vo, pp. V, 55. R 38221 

Washington : Library of Congress. List of references on 

Europe and international politics in relation to the present issues. Com- 
piled under the direction of Hermann H. B. Meyer. . . . Washington, 
1914. 8vo. pp. 144. R 38562 

FEDERALISM.— Washington : Library of Congress. List of 

references on federal control of commerce and corporations, special 
aspects and applications. Compiled under the direction of Hermann H. 
B. Meyer. . . . Washington, 1914. 8vo, pp. 104. R 36157 

FRENCH LITERATURE.— LaNSON (Gustave) Manuel bibliographique 
de la litterature fran^aise moderne, 1500-1900. Paris, 1909-14. 
5vols.ini. 8vo. R 17193 

QOTHAISCHER HOFKALENDAR.— BreSLAUER (Martin) Auktions- 
Katalog Nr. 24 : Almanach de Gotha und gothaischer Hofkalender, 
Sanmilung Edward Clement-Magdeburg, die bedeutendste Vereinigung 
vollstandiger Folgen und einzelner Jahrgange mit alien ihren Verschie- 
denheiten. Eine Sammlung von unerreichter Vollstandigkeit. Mit . . . 
Illustrationen . . . Versteigerung am 18 und 19 Juni 1913. Berlin, 
[1913]. 8vo. pp. viii, 68. R 33806 

ICELANDIC LITERATURE.— Cornell University.— Cornell Uni- 
versity Library. Catalogue of the Icelandic collection bequeathed by 
Willard Fiske. Compiled by Halldor Hermannsson. Ithaca, New 
York, 1914. 4to. pp. viii, 755. R 36308 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 83 

oio BIBLIOGRAPHY: SPECIAL TOPICS. 

ILLUSTRATED BOOKS.— BriVOIS Qu\es Jean Baptiste Lucien) Guide 
de Tamateur. Bibliographie des ouvrages illustres du xix« siecle, princi- 
palement des livres a gravures sur bois. Paris, 1883. 8vo, pp. xiii, 
468. R 29949 

INCUNABULA.— COSENTINI (Francesco) Gli incunaboli ed i tipografi 
piemontesi del secolo xv. Indici bibliografici. [Turin.-Museo Nazionale 
del Libro.j Torino, [1914]. 8vo, pp. vi. 130. R 37905 

Crous (Ernst) Die Inventarisierung der Wiegendrucke in Gross- 

britannien und Irland. [Separatabdruck aus dem Zentralbatt fiir Biblio- 
thekswesen.] Leipzig, [\9\ 4]. 8to, pp. 18-28. R 35716 

Martin (Jean Baptiste) Incunables de bibliotheques privees. 

Quatrieme (cinquieme) series. [Extrait du Bulletin de Bibliophile.) 
Pam, 1907-09. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38347 

*^* 1 00 copies printed. 

Stockholm. Katalog der Inkunabeln der Kgl. Bibliothek in 

Stockholm. Von Isak Collijn . . . Teil I. (Tafeln). Stockholm, 
1914. 2 vols. 8vo, and Fol. In progress. R 36762 

INDO-CHINA.— CORDIER (Henri) Bibliotheca Indosinica. Dictionnaire 
bibliographique des ouvrages relatifs a la peninsule indochinoise . . . 
Tome IV. [Ecole Fran^aise d'Extreme Orient, 18.] Paris, 1915. 
8vo. R 35824 

ITALIAN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY.— AnNUARIO BiBLIOGRAFICO 
DI ArcheOLOGIA ... per Tltalia. Annuario bibliografico di archeo- 
logia e di storia dell* arte per I'ltalia. Compilato da i F. Gatti e F. 
Pellati. Annol— 1911 (-II— 1912). i^oma, 1913-14. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 33802 

ITALIAN LITERATURE.— PaGLIAINI (Attilio) Catalogo generale della 
hbreria italiana. . . . Primo supplemento dal 1900 al 1910. I-Z. 
Milano, 1914. 8vo. R 6297 

JAMAICA.— CUNDALL (Frank) Bibliographia Jamaicensis : a list of 
Jamaica books and pamphlets, magazine articles, new^spapers and maps, 
most of which are in the library of the Institute of Jamaica . . . 
(Supplement to Bibliographia Jamaicensis). [Institute of Jamaica.] 
Kingston, Jamaica, [19021- 1908. 2 vols, in 1. 8vo. R 37656 

.ATIN LANGUAGE.- ROWALD (Paul) Repertorium lateinischer Wor- 
terverzeichnisse und Speziallexika. [Bibliotheca . . . Teubneriana. 
Supplementum Auctorum Latinorum.] Leipzig, Berlin, 1914. 8vo, 
PP- 22. R 35431 

.ITURGIOLOGY.— Martin Qean Baptiste) Bibliographie liturgique de 
la France. Macon, and LigugS (Vienne), 1910-13. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 38346 

1. Bibliographic liturgique de I'abbaye de Cluny. — 1910. 

2. Bibliographie liturgique de I'ordre des Chartreux. — 1913. 



84 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

oio BIBLIOGRAPHY: SPECIAL TOPICS. 

LYONS. — BaU DRIER (Henri Louis) Bibliographic lyonnaise. Recherchcs 
sur les imprimeurs, libraires, relieurs et fondeurs de lettres de Lyon au 
XV I« siecle. . . . Publiees et continuees par J. Baudrier. . . . 
Onzieme serie. Ornee de . . . reproductions en fac-simile. Lyon^ 
1914. 8vo. R8035 

MANUSCRIPTS.— Valencia : Universidad Literaria. Biblio- 

teca Catalogo de os manuscritos existentes en la Biblioteca universitaria 
de Valencia. Por . . . Marcelino Gutien ez del Cano . . . Prologo 
del . . . Francisco Rodriquez Marin. . . . ValeTicia, [\9\4]. 3 vols. 
4io. R 35333 

*»* 500 copies printed. Thi« copy is No. 46. 

OPERAS.— Washington : Library of Cc: igress. Catalogue of 

Opera librettos printed before 1800. Prepared by Oscar George 
Theodore Sonneck. . . . [With portrait.] Washington, 1914. 2 
Tols. 8vo. R 36256 

I. Title catalogue. 2. Author list, composer list and aria index. 

PERIODICAL INDEX.— Readers* Guide to Periodical Litera- 
ture. Thirteenth (-fourteenth) annual cumulation. Author and subject 
index to a selected list of periodicals and composite books. . . . White 
Plains, N.Y., and Neiv York, 1913, etc. 2 vols. 8vo. In progress^ 

R 33988 

PORT ROYAL.— London : SiON College. A complete catalogue of 
the Sion College " Port Royal Library/' originally collected by Mrs. 
Schimmelpennick and presented to the college by the widow of . . . 
Robert Aitken, vicar of Pendeen, Cornwall, February, 1874, and of the 
collection of Port Royal portraits and other engravings subsequently 
presented by Miss Hankin. Aberdeen, 1898. 8vo, pp. 39. R 37343 

PORTUGUESE VOYAGES.— CONSIGLIERI PEDROSO (Z.) Catalogo 
bibliographico das publicagoes relativas aos descobrimentos Portugueses. 
[Academia dasiSciencias de Lisboa.l Lisboa, ]9\2. 8vo, pp. xi, 134. 

R 35819 

PRINTERS' MARKS.— HaEBLER (Conrad) Verlegermarken des Jean 
Petit. [With plates.] [Kommission fiir den Gesamtkatalog der Wieg- 
endrucke.] Halle, ]9\4. 4to. R 36313 

PSEUDONYMS.— HaMST (p\ph2ir) pseud, [i.e. Ralph Thomas]. Ag- 
gravating ladies : being a list of works published under the pseudonym 
of " A lady," with preliminary suggestions on the art of describing books 
bibliographically. . . . London, 1880. 8vo, pp. 58. R 15073 

PSYCHICAL SCIENCE,— LaEHR (Heinrich) Die Literatur der Psy- 
chiatrie, Neurologie and Psychologie von 1459-1799. Mit Unter- 
stiitzung der Kgl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin herausge- 
gebenvon . . . H. Laehr. Berlin, 1900. 3 vols. 8vo. R 38489 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 85 

oio BIBLIOGRAPHY: SPECIAL TOPICS. 

SCOTLAND. — LeiTH (William Forbes) Pre- reformation scholars in Scot- 
land in the XVIth century : their writings and their public services, with 
a bibliography and a list of graduates from 1 500 to 1 560. . . . [With 
plates.) Glasgoio, 1915. 8vo, pp. vi. 155. R 39128 

SHEFFIELD.— Sheffield : Public Libraries. The city of Sheffield. 

Descriptive catalogue of the charters, rolls, deeds, pedigrees, pamphlets, 
newspapers, monumental inscriptions, maps, and miscellaneous papers 
forming the Jackson collection at the Sheffield Public Reference Library. 
Compiled by T. Walter Hall . . . and A. Hermann Thomas. . . . 
[With facsimiles.] Sheffield, 1914. 8vo, pp. xvi, 419. R 36980 

SPANISH LITERATURE.— Burger (Conrad) Die Drucker und Verleger 
in Spanien und Portugal von 1501-1536. Mit chronologischer Folge 
ihrer Druck — und Verlagswerke. Zugleich ein Register zu Panzers 
Annalen u. s. w. . . . Mit einem Portrat des Verfassers nach einer 
Radierung von Lina Burger. Leipzig, 1913. 4to, pp. x, 84. R 35403 

UNEMPLOYMENT.— London.— London School of Economics and 
Political Science. Studies in economics and political science. Edited by 
, . . W. Pember Reeves. . . . London, 1909. 8vo. R 361 17 

Bibliographies. 

I. Taylor (F. I.) A bibliography of unemployment and the unemployed. . . 

VOLTAIRE. — BengESCO (Georges) Voltaire. Bibliographic de ses 
oeuvres. . . . (Tome 3. Enrichi de . . . lettres de Volt£dre . . . et 
suivi du repertoire chronologique de sa correspondance de 171 1 a 1778. 
, . .) [With facsimiles and portraits.] Paris, 1882-90. 4 vols. 8vo. 

R 38404 

WATER RIGHTS.— WASHINGTON: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. List 
of references on water rights and the control of waters. Compiled under 
the direction of Hermann H. B. Meyer . . . Washington, 1914. 8vo, 
pp. 111. R 37647 

WEST INDIES.— CUNDALL (Frank) Bibliography of the West Indies, 
excluding Jamaica. [Institute of Jamaica.] Kingston, Jamaica, 1909. 
8vo, pp. 179. R 37657 

ZWINQLI.— FiNSLER (Georg) Zwingli-Bibliographie. Verzeichnis der 
gedruckten Schriften von und iiber Ulrich Zwingli. [Stiftung von 
Schnyder von Wartensee.] Zurich, 1897. 8vo, pp. x, 187. R 35556 

CATALOGUES.— HUTH. i^aw% o/. Catalogue of the . . . library of 
printed books, illuminated manuscripts, autograph letters, and engravings 
collected by Henry Huth, and since maintained and augmented by his 
son, Alfred H. Huth. . . . The printed books and illuminated manu- 
scripts. Fourth portion. Which will be sold by auction by . . . Sotheby, 
Wilkinson & Hodge . . . on . . . 7th of July, 1914, and three follow- 
ing days. [With plates.] London, \9\ 4. 8vo. R 30994 



86 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

oio BIBLIOGRAPHY: SPECIAL TOPICS. 

CATALOGUES.— Le TelLIER (Francois Cesar) Marquis de Courtan- 
vaux. Catalogue des livres de la bibliotheque de . . . F. C. Le Tellier, 
Marquis de Courtanvaux . . . dont la vente se sera en une salle des 
Grands augustins, le lundi sept juillet, & jours suivans, de relevee. Paris, 
1783. 8vo, pp. xvj. 352. 24. R 38571 

Manchester University. Catalogue of the Christie collec- 
tion : comprising the printed books and manuscripts bequeathed to the 
library of the University of Manchester by . . . Richard Copley 
Christie. . . . Compiled under the direction of Charles W. E. Leigh 
. . . [With portrait.] [Publications of the University of Manchester. 
Bibliographical Series, 1.] Mayichester, 1915. 4to, pp. xiii, 535. 

R 38258 

Sydney : Free Public Library. The Public Library of 

New South Wales, Sydney. Subject-index of the books in the author 
catalogues for the years 1869-1895. Reference Department. Sydney^ 
1903, 4to. R 35181 

oao LIBRARY ECONOMY AND HISTORY. 

Brown (Samuel). Some account of itinerating libraries and their founder 
[i.e. Samuel Brown, of Haddington.] [With portrait.] Edinburgh, 
1856. 8vo, pp. ix, 115. R 38486 

020 LIBRARY ECONOMY. 

LaRRABURE Y UnaNUE (Eugenio) Les archives des Indes et la biblio- 
theque colombine de Seville. Renseignements sur leurs richesses biblio- 
graphiques et sur Texposition d*anciens documents relatifs a I'Amerique. 
[With plates and illustrations.] [Paris, 1914.] 8vo, pp. 88. R 38385 

Milan. Circolo Filologico Milanese. Le biblioteche milanesi : manuale 
ad uso degli studiosi, seguito dal saggio di un elenco di riviste e d'altre 
pubblicazioni periodiche che si trovano nelle biblioteche di Milano. 
Pubblicato a cura del Circolo filologico milcinese per commemorare il XL 
anno dalla sua fondazione. [With preface by G. Bognetti.] Milano, 
1914. 8vo, pp. xii, 583. R 35846 

RlCHARDSON|(Ernest Cushing) Biblical libraries : a sketch of library 
history from 3400 B.C. to A.D. 150. [With plates.] Princeton, 1914. 
8vo, pp.Jxvi, 252. R 37687 

ROOS (Anton -Gerard) Geschiedenis van de bibliotheek der Rijks-Uni- 
versiteit te Groningen. [With plates and illustrations.] Groningen, 
1914. 8vo, pp. 109. R 36979 

Small (Herbert)^Handbook of the new Library of Congress. Compiled 
by H. Small. . . .■ [With plates and illustrations.] Boston, \9Q\. 8vo, 
pp.112. R 37344 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 87 

050 PERIODICALS AND TRANSACTIONS OF LEARNED 
SOCIETIES. 

AXHEN^tUM. The Athenaeum, a magazine of literary and miscellaneous 
information, published monthly. . . . Conducted by J. Aikin. . . . 1807 
(-1809). [With map.] London, l\S07-0% 5 vols. 8vo. R 37902 

£cOLE pRANqAlSE D'ExTRI:ME-OrIENT. Publications de Fecole 
fran9aise d'extreme-orient. Paris, 1914. 8vo. In progress, R 35S24 

17. Cordier (H.) Bibliotheca Indosinica. Dictionnaire bibliographique des ouvrages 
relatifs k la Pfoinsule indo-chinoise. . . . Volume III. — 1914. 

Friends, Society of. The Friends* quarterly examiner ; a religious, 
social, & miscellaneous review. Conducted by members of the Society 
of Friends. . . . 1867 (-1893). Lo/i^on, [1867-J95. 29 vols. 8vo. 

R 34922 

HlSTORIA LiTTERARIA. Historia litteraria : or, an exact and early 
account of the most valuable books published in the several parts of 
Europe. . . . [Edited by A. Bower.] London, 1731 -[33]. 4 vols. 
8vo. R 37903 

Klio. Klio : Beitrage zur alten Geschichte. [With plates and illustra- 
tions.] Leipzig, ]90\'-\3. 13 vols. 4to. hi progress. R 33119 

1-2. Herausgegeben von C. F. Lehmann. — 1901-02. 

3-4. Herausgegeben von C. F. Lehmann und E. Kornemann. — 1903-04. 

5-13. Herausgegeben von C. F. Lehmann-Haupt und E. Kornemann. — 1905-13. 

Revue politique ET LiTTERAIRE. Revue bleue [Troisieme Serie] 51 . 
Pam, 1913, etc. 4to. In progress. R 22584 

Dublin : Royal Society. A history of the Royal Dublin Society. 
By Henry Fitzpatrick Berry. . . . With illustrations. London, 1915. 
8vo, pp. XV, 460. R 38708 

090 BOOK RARITIES: PALEOGRAPHY, ETC. 

BiROT Qean) and MaRTIN (J. B.) Trois manuscrits du tresor de I'eglise 
primatiale de Saint-Jean de Lyon interessant le Velay ou les regions 
voisines. Elxtrait du Bulletin historique de la Societe scientifique et 
agricole de la Haute- Loire. [With facsimiles.] Le Puy-en-Velay, 
1914. 8vo, pp. 20. R 38349 

Codices GraECI ET LaTINI photographice depicti, duce Scatone De 
Vries. . . . Lugduni Batavorum,\9\5. Fol. In progress. R 38735 

19. Cicero (M. T.) Cicero : operum philosophicorum codex Leidensis Vossianus Lat. fol. 
84 phototypice editus. Praefatus est O. Plasberg. — 1915. 

Erfurt : StaDTBUECHEREI. Beschreibendes Verzeichniss der am- 
plonianischen Handschriften-Sammlung zu Erfurt. Im Auftrage . . . 
des Koniglich Preussischen Unterrichts. Ministeriums bearbeitet und 
herausgegeben mit einem Vorworte iiber Amplonius und die Geschichte 
seiner Sammlung von . . . Wilhelm Schum . . . Mit . . . Tafeln. 
Berlin, 1887. 8vo. pp. Iviii, 1010. R 34899 



88 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

090 BOOK RARITIES: PALAEOGRAPHY. ETC. 

Erfurt : StaDTBUECHEREL. Elxempla codicum Amplonianorum 
Erfurtensium saeculil X-XV. Herausgegeben von Wilhelm Schum. 
Mit . . . Abbildungen. . . . Berlin, 1882. Fol., pp. 28. 

R 34972 

Florence. Paolo d*Ancona. La miniatura fiorentina, secoli XI-XVI. 
. . . Fire7ize, 1914. 2 vols. Fol. R 38180 

I . Testo e tavole. 2. Catalogo descrittivo. 

FUMAGALLI (Giuseppe) L*arte della legatura alia corte degli Estensi, a 
Ferrara e a Modena, dal sec xv al xix ; col catalogo delle legature 
pregevoli della Biblioteca Estense di Modena. [With plates.] Firenze, 
1913. 4to. pp. Ixxii, 104. R 38547 

Holme (C. Geoffrey) and HaLTON (Ernest G.) Modern book illustrators 
and their work. Edited by C. G. Holme and E. G. Halton. Text by 
M. C. Salaman. London, 1914. 4to, pp. viii, 192. R 38090 

JeNKINSON (Charles Hilary) Palaeography, and the practical study of court 
hand. [With facsimiles.] Cambridge, \9\ 5. 4to, pp. 37. R 38390 

KellS, Book of. The book of Kells. Described by Sir ELdward 
Sullivan, Bart., and illustrated with . . . plates. London, 1914. 4to. 

R 27662 

LlNEHAM (Wilfrid James) A treatise on hand lettering for engineers, 

zu-chitects, surveyors and students of mechanical drawing. [With 

plates.] [Directly-Useful Technical Series.] London, 1915. Fol., 

pp. xii, 282. R 38862 

Martin (Charles Trice) The record interpreter : a collection of abbre- 
viations, Latin words and names used in English historical manuscripts 
and records. . . . Second edition. London, 1910. 8vo, pp. xv, 464. 

R 38211 

Navarre (Albert) Histoire generale de la stenographie & de I'ecriture a 
travers les ages. [With illustrations.] Par%s, [19(>9]. 8vo, pp. xv, 880. 

R 22143 

PaL/EOGRAPHICAL Society. Palaeographical Society. Indices to fac- 
similes of manuscripts and inscriptions. Series I-II. 1874-1894. 
[With a preface signed G. F. W. i.e. G. F. Warner.] London, 1901. 
8vo, pp. 63. R 12835 

The Palaeographical Society. Facsimiles of manuscripts and inscrip- 
tions. Edited by E. A. Bond and E. M. Thompson. London, 1873- 
1883. 2 vols. Fol. R 1781 

The Palaeographical Society. Facsimiles of manuscripts and in- 
scriptions. Edited by Edward Augustus Bond, Edward Maunde 
Thompson and George Frederic Warner. Second series. London, 
1884-1894. 2 vols. Fol. R 1781 



i 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 89 

090 BOOK RARITIES: PAL/COGRAPHY, ETC. 

Pal/EOGRAPHICAL Society. The Palaeographical Society. Facsimiles 
of manuscripts and inscriptions. Oriental series. Edited by William 
Wright. . . . London, 1875-1883. Fol. R 1782 

The New Palaeographical Society. Facsimiles of ancient manu- 
scripts, etc. Edited by Edward Maunde Thompson, George Frederic 
Warner, Frederic George Kenyon and Julius Parnell Gilson. First 
series. London, \9^3A9\2. 2 vols. Fol. R 1781 

New Palaeographical Society. Indices to facsimiles of ancient 

manuscripts, etc. First series, 1903-1912. London, 1914. 8vo, 
pp. 50. R 8960 

PestbLAETTER. Pestblatter des XV. Jahrhunderts Herausgegeben 
von Paul Heitz, mit einleitendem Text von W. L. Schreiber. 41 
Abbildungen, wovon 25 mit der Hand colorirt, in Originalgrosse. 
Strasshurg, 1 901 . 4to. R 35279 

R^CY (Georges de) The decoration of leather. From the French . . . 
by Maude Nathan. With illustrations. . . . London, 1905. 8vo. 
pp. 104. R 39084 

Tabulae. Tabulae in usum scholarum. Editae sub cura lohannis Lietz- 
mann. Bonnae, Oxoniae, Bomae, 1914. 1 vol. Fol. In progress, 

R 35555 

8. Tisserant (E.) Specimina^codicum orientalium. ConlegitiE. Tisserant. 

Doves Press. [Books printed at the Doves Press.] (Hammersmith), 
1914-15. 4to. In progress. 

Keats 0.) Keats. (Selected, arranged ... by T. J. C. Sanderson.)— 1914. 

*#* 212 copies printed. This copy is one of 200 printed on paper. f^ 38097 

Wordsworth (W.) Wordsworth's cosmic poetry. Reprinted from the " Westminster Gazette,'* 
28 December, 1914. [Subscribed T. J. C. Sanderson.] -(191 5]. R 38098 

Dun Emer Press, afterwards CuaLA Press. [Books printed by the 
Cuala Press.] Dundrum, \9\4-\ 5. 8vo. In progress. 

Yeats (W.B.) Responsibilities : poems and a play. — 1914. J^ 3631 9 

Masefleld 0°!^^) John M. Synge : a few personal recollections, with biographical notes. — 

'^'5. R 38865 

RiCCARDI Press [Books printed with Riccardi Press type.] Londini, 

1913. 1vol. 4to. R 38088 

Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Riccardiana : 

Apuleius (L.) Apulei Psyche el Cupido. Cura L. C. Purser.— 1913. 

lOO PHILOSOPHY: general. 

KiRKMAN (Thomas Penyngton) Philosophy without assumptions. London, 
1876. 8vo, pp. X, 342. R 39186 

Merz Oohn Theodore) A history of European thought in the nineteenth 
century. . . . Vol. IV. Edinburgh, 1914. 8vo. R 24810 



90 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

no PHILOSOPHY: METAPHYSICS. 

Broad (Charlie Dunbar) Perception, physics, and reality ; an enquiry inta 
the information that physical science can supply about the real. Cam- 
bridge, 1914. 8vo, pp. xii, 388. R 38523 

Library of Philosophy. Library of philosophy. Edited by J. H. 
Muirhead. . . . London, 1915. 8vo. R 38500 

Varisco (B.) Know thyself. . . . Translated by G. Salvadori. . . . 

130 PHILOSOPHY; MIND AND BODY. 

Charcot (Jean Martin) and RICHER (Paul) Les demoniaques dans Tart 
. . . Avec . . . figures. . . . Paris, 1887. 4to, pp. xii, 116. 

R 38264 

Cooper (Robert) Spiritual experiences, including seven months with the 
brothers Davenport. . . . London, 1867. 8vo, pp. 219. R 34208 

CrowELL (Eugene) The spirit world: its inhabitants, nature, and 
philosophy. . . . Boston, 1879. 8vo, pp. xii. 197. R 34220 

Farmer (John S.) Spiritualism as a new basis of belief. . . . London, 
1880. 8vo, pp. xxvii, 152. R 34240 

Holt (Henry) On the cosmic relations. . . . London, 1915. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 38251 

Horn (Susan G.) The next world. Fifty- six communications from 
eminent historians, authors, legislators, etc., now in spirit-life. Through 
. . . S. G. Horn. . . . Loyidon, 1890. 8vo, pp. ii, 252. R 34284 

Maeterlinck (Maurice) The unknown guest. . . . Translated by 
Alexander Teixeira de Mattos. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. vii, 339. 

R 37674 

Peebles (James Martin) Immortality, and our employments hereafter. 
With what a hundred spirits, good and evil, say of their dwelling places. 
. . . Third edition. Bosto7i, 1881. 8vo, pp. 296. R 34332 

Seers of the ages: embracing spiritualism, past and present. 

Doctrines stated and moral tendencies defined. . . . Boston, 1869. 
8vo, pp. 376. R 34331 

Sargent (Epes) The scientific basis of spiritualism. . . . Boston, 1881. 
8vo, pp. 372, R 34354 

Solomon, King of Israel. n^^tZ^ nnOD '^^D' Sepher Maphteah 
Shelomo. Book of the key of Solomon: an exact facsimile of an 
original book of magic in Hebrew. With illustrations. Now produced 
for the first time by Hermann Gollancz. . . . Oxford, 1914. 4to, pp. 
xxiii. R 36333 

SPICER (Henry) Facts and fantasies : a sequel to Sights and sounds ; the 
mystery of the day. . . . London, 1853. 8vo. pp. 119. R 33614 



I 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 91 

130 PHILOSOPHY: MIND AND BODY. 

SpICER (Henry) Sights and sounds : the mystery of the day : comprising 
an entire history of the American " spirit ** manifestations. . . . London, 
1853. 8vo, pp. Yii. 480. R 34365 1 

Strange things among us. . . . Second edition. With addenda. 

London, 1864. 8vo, pp. xi, 286. R 35973 

TUTTLE (Hudson) Studies in the out-lying fields of psychic science. 
Netv York, [1889]. 8vo. pp. 250. R 34387 

BaRR (Martin W.) Mental defectives: their history, treatment and 
training. . . . Illustrated by . . . plates. Philadelphia, 1913. 8yo, 
pp. 368. R 38567 

Denton (William) and (Elizabeth M. F.) The soul of things; or. 
psychometric researches and discoveries. . . . Boston, 1863. 8vo, pp. 
viii. 370. R 33588 

HUEY (Edmund Burke) Backward and feeble-minded children : clinical 
studies in the psychology of defectives, with a syllabus for the clinical 
examination and testing of children. [With illustrations.] [Educational 
Psychology Monographs.] Baltimore, \9\2. 8vo, pp. xii, 221. 

R 38474 

JOACHIMUS. Abbot of Fiore. Profetie dell* abbate Gioachino. Et di 
Anselmo vescovo di Marsico, con I'imagini in dissegno, intorno a 
pontefici passati, e c'hanno a venire. Con due ruote, & vn* oracolo 
turchesco, figurato sopra simil materia. Aggiontoui alcuni marauigliosi 
vaticinij, & le annotationi del Regiselmo. . . . Venetia, 1646. 4to, 
pp.96 [error for 88]. R 38271 

Vaticinia, Siue Prophetiae Abbatis loachimi, & Anselmi Episcopi 

Marsicani, Cum imaginibus acre incisis, correctione, et pulcritudine, 
plurium manuscriptorum exemplariu ope, et uariaru imaginii tabulis, et 
delineationibu' alijs antehac impressis longe praestantiora. Qvibvs Rota, 
Et Oraculum Turcicum maxime considerationis adiecta sunt. Vna cum 
Praefatione, et Adnotationibus Paschalini Regiselmi. Vaticinii, ouero 
Profetie dell' Abbate Gioachino, & di Anselmo Vescouo di Marsico, 
Con I'imagini intagliate in rame, di correttione, et uaghezza maggiore, 
che gl' altri sin* hora stampati, per I'aggiuto di molti exemplari scritti^ 
penna, et per le pitture, et disegni di uarie imagini. A Qvalli E 
Aggionta una Ruota, et un* Oracolo Turchesco di grandissima cosidera- 
tione. Insieme con la Prefatione et Annotationi di Pasqualino Regiselmo. 
Venetiis MDLXXXIX. Apud Hieronymum Porrum, 4to, ff. [70]. 

R 37904 

*»* Engraved title page. 

New England. A further account of the tryals of the New-England 
witches. With the observations of a person who was upon the place 
several days when the suspected witches were first taken into examination. 
(Collected by Deodat Lawson.) To which is added cases of conscience 
concerning witchcrafts and evil spirits personating men. Written at the 
request of the ministers of New- England. By Increase Mather. . . . 
London, 1693. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 4to. R 37825 



% THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

150 PHILOSOPHY: MENTAL FACULTIES. 

ShaND (Alexander Faulkner) The foundation of character : being a study 
of the tendencies of the emotions and sentiments. Lotxdon, 1914. 8vo» 
pp. xxxi, 532. R 38066 

Wallas (Graham) The great society : a psychological analysis. London, 
1914. 8vo. pp. xii. 406. R 39150 

170 PHILOSOPHY: ETHICS. 

CaSA (Giovanni della) ArchbisJwp of Benevento. A renaissance courtesy- 
book : Galateo of manners & behaviours. . . . (First written in the 
Italian tongue, and now done into English by Robert Peterson . . . 
1576.) With an introduction by J. E. Spingarn. [The Humanist's 
Library. 8.] LoTidon, [1914]. 8vo. pp. xxvi, 122. R 37433 

Killing. Killing for sport : essays by various writers. With a preface 
by Bernard Shaw. Edited by Henry S. Salt. [Humanitarian League] . 
London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xxxiv, 186. R 38568 

Junius (Adrianus) Hadriani Ivnii Medici Elmblemata. Eivsdem JEmg- 
matvm Libellvs. [Printer's device beneath title.] Antverpice, Ex 
officina Christophori Plantini. M.D.LXIX. 16mo, pp. 243 [error 
for 143], [1]. R 37541 

*»* Woodcuts. 

LacOMBE (Joseph Paul) La guerre et Thomme. Paris, 1900. 8vo, pp. 
iii, 411. R 30271 

Lewis (Edward) Edward Carpenter : an exposition and an appreciation. 
. . . With a portrait. London, [1915]. 8vo. pp. vii, 314. R 38502 

Page (Frederick) An anthology of patriotic prose. Selected by F. Page. 
. . . Oxford, 1915. 8vo. pp. xii. 211. R 39061 

Pico della MirANDOLA (Giovanni) Conte della Concordia, the Elder. 
A Platonick discourse upon love. . . . [Translated from the Italian 
by T. Stanley.] Edited by Edmund G. Gardner. [The Humanist's 
Library, 7.] London, [1914]. 8vo, pp. xxvii, 83. R 37432 

RaSHDALL (Hastings) Is conscience an emotion? Three lectures on 
recent ethical theories. [Raymond F. West Memorial Lectures.] 
London, 1914. 8vo, pp. x, 199. R 38112 

Stratford (Esme Cecil Wingfield-) The history of English patriotism. 
. . . [With plates.] London, \9\3. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37520 

Suisse Oules Francois Simon) afterwards SiMON G^Ics Francois) Lc 
devoir. . . . Troisieme edition. Paris, 1855. 8vo, pp. x [error for 
xi].452. R 28026 

Tyler (James Elndell) Oaths ; their origin, nature, 2Uid history. . . . [With 
plate.] London, 1834. 8vo, pp. xvi, 319. R 29404 



I 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 93 

i8o PHILOSOPHY: ANCIENT AND MEDI>EVAL. 

Bacon (Roger) Roger Bacon : essays contributed by various writersjon 
the occasion of the commemoration of the seventh centenary of his birth. 
Collected and edited by A. G. Little. Oxford, 1914. 8vo, pp. viii. 
425. R 36326 

Lou VAIN, UriiversitS de. Les philosophes beiges. Textes et etudes. 
Collection publiee par Tlnstitut superieur de philosophie de rUniversite 
de Louvain sous la direction de M. de Wulf. Louvain, 1914. 4to. 
In progress. R II 925 

3. Godfrey [de Fontibus], Count -Bishop of Cambrai. Les quodlibet cinq, six et lept 
de Godefroid de Fontaines : lexte in^dit. Par M. de Wulf . . . et J. Hoffmans. . . . 

9. Cuibert, de Tournai. Le traite Eruditio regum et principum de Guibert de Toumai 
. . . etude et texte. . . . Par A. de Poorter. . . . 

NeuMARK (David) Geschichte der jiidischen Philosophie des Mittelalters 
nach Problemen, dargestellt von . . . D. Neumark. . . . Berlin^ 
1907-10. 2 vols. 8vo. R 24314 

Soulier (Enrico) Saggi di filosofia ante-socratica. Eraclito Efesio r 
studio critico. . . . Boma, 1885. 8vo, pp. viii, 318. R 30681 

Suisse (Jules Francois Simon) afterwards SiMON O^les Franijois) 
Histoire de I'ecole d*Alexandrie. Paris, 1845. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 28062 

ZaNTA (Leontine) La renaissance du stoicisme au XVI^ siecle. [Biblio- 
theque Litteraire de la Renaissance. Nouvelle serie, 5.] Paris, 1914. 
8vo, pp. ii, 366. R 36761 

190 PHILOSOPHY: MODERN. 

Berkeley (George) Bishop of Cloyne. Berkeley and Percival. By 
Benjamin Rand. The correspondence of G. Berkeley, afterwards Bishop 
of Cloyne, and Sir John Percival, afterwards Earl of Egmont. [With 
portraits.] Cambridge, 1914. 8vo, pp. x, 302. R 37455 

CaRR (Herbert Wildon) The philosophy of change : a study of the funda- 
mental principle of the philosophy of Bergson. London, 1914. 8vo» 
pp. xii, 216. R 37464 

CarUS (Paul) De rerum natura. . . . Translated by Charles Alva Lane. 
Chicago, 1895. 8vo, pp. 17. R 37753 

Dion. A letter to Dion, occasioned by his book calFd Alciphron, or the 
minute philosopher [by George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne.] By the 
author of the Fable of the bees [i.e. Bernard de Mandeville]. London, 
1732. 8vo, pp. 70. R 38267 

FOERSTER-NlETZSCHE (Elizabeth) The lonely Nietzsche. . . . Trans- 
lated by Paul V. Cohn. Illustrated. London, [1915]. 8vo, pp. xii» 
415. R 38192 



94 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

190 PHILOSOPHY: MODERN. 

HOFFDING (Harald) Modern philosophers. Lectures deliyered at the 
University of Copenhagen during the autumn of 1902, and lectures on 
Bergson delivered in 1913. . . . Translated by Alfred C. Mason. . . . 
London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xii, 317. R 38272 

Kant (Immanuel) Perpetual peace: a philosophical essay . . . 1795. 
Translated with introduction and notes by M. Campbell Smith. . . . 
With a preface by . . . Latta. [New impression.] London, [1915]. 
8vo, pp. xi, 203. R 38843 

Maine DE BiRAN (Marie Francois Pierre Gonthier) Maine de Biran : sa 
vie et ses pensees. Publiees par Ernest Naville. Paris, 1857. 8vo, 
pp. XXXV. 421. R 28031 

MaUGRAS (Charles Gaston) Querelles de philosophes. Voltaire et J. J. 
Rousseau. Paris, 1886. 8vo, pp. iv, 607. R 28197 

Mill Qohn Stuart) Essays on some unsettled questions of political economy. 
. . . Second edition. London, 1874. 8vo, pp. vi. 164. R 38068 

MusSET-PatHAY (Victor Donatien de) Histoire de la vie et des ouvrages 
de J. J. Rousseau. . . . Nouvelle edition. Paris, 1827. 8vo, pp. 
XV. 473. R 28186 

ReMUSAT (Charles Francois Marie de) Comte. Bacon : sa vie, son temps, 
sa philosophie et son influence jusqu'a nos jours. Paris, 1857. 8vo, 
pp. XV. 464. R 28080 

Richardson, afterwards MaCDONALD (Frederika) Jean Jacques 
Rousseau : a new criticism. [With plates.] London, 1 906. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 38274 

RuhE (Algot) and PAUL (Nancy Margaret) Henri Bergson : an account 
of his life and philosophy. [With portrait.] London, 1914. 8vo. 
pp. vii. 245. R 37456 

200 RELIGION: general. 

Acta MARTYRUM SELECTA. Ausgewahlte Martyreracten und andere 
Urkunden aus der Verfolgungszeit der christlichen Kirche herausgegeben 
von Oscar von Gebhardt. Berlin, 1 902. 8vo. pp. x, 259. 

BaUDRILLART (Henri Marie Alfred) Dictionnaire d*histoire et de geo- 
graphie ecclesiastiques. Public sous la direction de . . . A. Baudrillart 
... P. Richard . . . avec le concours d'un grand nombre de collab- 
orateurs. . . . Tome deuxieme. . . . [With maps and illustrations.] 
[Encyclopedie de Sciences Ecclesiastiques.] Paris, [ 1 9 1 2]- 1 91 4. 4to. 
In progress. R 20301 

BUNYAN Oohn) A relation of the imprisonment of ... J. Bunyan . . . 
in November, 1 660. . . . Written by himself, and never before pub- 
lished. . . . (Prison meditations, dedicated to the heart of suffering 
saints, and reigning sinners . . . 1665 [in verse].) London, 1765. 
12mo. pp. 79. R 361 12 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 95 

200 RELIGION: GENERAL. 

Catholic Record Society. Publications of the Catholic Record 
Society. [With facsimiles and plates.) London, 1913, etc. 3 vols. 
8vo. In progress. R 10892 

13. 14. Miscellanea VIII. (IX). 2 vols.— 1913-14. 

16. Lancashire registers II. . . . Edited by J. P. Smith.— 1914. 

Cook (Stanley Arthur) The study of religions. . . . London, 1914. 
8vo, pp. xxiv. 439. R 37672 

Cousin (Victor) Etudes sur Pascal. . . . Cinquieme edition, revue et 
augmentee. . . . Paris, 1857. 8vo, pp. xiii, 566. R 28044 

Crown Theological Library. London, 1915. 8vo. In pro- 
gress. 

40. Gardner (P.) The Ephesian gospel. ... * R 38878 

DiCTIONNAIRE D'ARCHEOLOGIE CHR^TIENNE et de liturgie. Public 
par . . . F. Cabrol . . . (et Henri Leclercq) avec le concours d*un 
grand nombre de collaborateurs. Tome troisieme. . . . [With illustra- 
tions.] [Encyclopedic des Sciences Ecclesiastiqucs.] Paris, [191 1-] 
1913-14. 2 vols. 4to. In progress. R 9587 

DOBNECK (Johann) Goclilceus. In XVIII Articvlos Mar. Bvceri excerptos 
ex nouissimo Libro eius Ad Principes & Status sacri Ro. Imperij latine 
scripto. Res|x>nsio lo. Cochlaei. Eiusden Epistola, ad Status Imperij data 
. . . M.D.XLVI. ([Colophon :] Ingolstadii Excvdehat Alexander 
Weissenhorn Mense Decembri Anno 1545). 4to, ff [4], 57 [error for 
67], [1]. R 35766 

Necessaria Et Catholica Consyderatio super Lutheri articulis, quos 

uelit Concilio Gcnerali proponi. Autorc lohanne Cochlaeo (Epistola R. 
D. Cardinalis lacobi Sadolcti, Episcopi Carpentoractensis &c ad loannem 
Sturmium. — Reverendo In Christo Patri Ac Domino, Domino Mauritio 
ab Hutten, Cathedralis ecclesiae Herbipolen. Praeposito, Domino suo 
gratioso loannes Cochlaeus, S.P.D.) Ingolstadii Excvdehat Alexander 
Vueissenhorn, M.D.XLVI. 4to, ff [4], 41, [4]. R 35767 

Ff. 37-8 are wanting. 

EphrAIM, Saint, the Syrian. Fragments of the commentary of Ephrem 
Syrus upon the Diatessaron [of Tatian]. By J. Rendel Harris. . . . 
London, 1895. 8vo, pp. 101. R 36788 

Erasmus (Desidcrius) Desiderij Erasmi. ad Reueredissimum M[o]guntin- 
ensiu pracsule atq3 illustrissimu principem [Albert of Brandenburg], 
epistola: nonihil D. Martini Lutheri negocium attingens. [n.p., 1520?] 
4to, £[4]. R 37509 

*»* Title within border of woodcut i blocks. 



96 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

200 RELIGION: GENERAL. 

Fisher (John) Cardinal [Arms of Alfonso de Fonseca, Archbishop of 
Toledo, above title.] ^ De Cavsa /»f Matrimonii Serenissimae Regis 
Angliae liber, loanne Roffensi Episcopo autore. ([Colophon :] Com- 
ploti Apvd Michaelem de Eguia, mense Augusto. Anno. 1530). 
4to, ff. 42, [I]. R 37796 

*«* In this copy I the termination ae of Serenissimae has been corrected to i by pasting a 
shp over it. 

FraZER {Sir James George) The golden bough ; a study in magic and 
religion. . . . Third edition, revised and enlarged. . . . London, \9\5. 
8vo. R 14912 

12. Bibliography and general index. — 1913. 

Gardner (Alice) Within our limits : essays on questions moral, religious, 
and historical. i^oTw^on, [1913]. 8vo, pp. vii, 315. R 35906 

Great Christian Vheclogies. Edited by . . . Henry W. Clark. 
. . . London, 1915. 8/c. In progress. R 38188 

Mackintosh (R.) A. RitichI c d his school. 

HaLLIDAY (John Wallace Guy) Facts and values : a study of the Ritsch- 
lian method. London, [1914]. 8vo. pp. xii, 195. R 37679 

HiBBERT Lectures. [Lectures founded by the trustees of R. Hibberl.] 
\London,\9\b. 8vo. In progress. R 38881 

Second Series. 

Giles (H, A.) Confucianism and its rivals. Lectures delivered in the University Hall of 
Dr. Williams's Library, London : October to December, 1914. . . . 

Hitchcock (Francis Ryan Montgomery) Irenaeus of Lugdunum : a study 
of his teaching. . . . With a foreword by H. B. Swete. . . . Cam- 
bridge, 1914. 8vo, pp. 373. R 37354 

Milan : BiBLIOTECA AmBROSIANA. Monumenta sacra et profana ex 
codicibus praesertim Bibliothecae Ambrosianae. Opera collegii doctorum 
ejusdem. . . . Edidit . . . Antonius Maria Ceriani. . . . [With fac- 
similes.] Mediolani, \^()\,etc. Fol. and 4to. In progress. 

R7923 

MoNTALEMBERT (Charles Forbes Rene de) Comte. Le pere Lacordaire. 
. . . Deuxieme edition revue et augmentee. Paris, 1862. 8vo, pp. 
293. R 37774 

Newman (John Henry) Cardinal. Index to the works of John Henry 
Cardinal Newman. ... By Joseph Rickaby. London, 1914. 8vo, 
pp. viii, 156. R 37355 

Paris : I&cole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. Bibliotheque de 

Tecole des hautes etudes. Sciences religieuses. Paris y 1911-14. 
8vo. In progress. R 7245 

24, i. VioUier (D.) Essai sur les rites funeraires en Suisse des origines a la coaquete 
romaine : etude sur les moeurs et les croyances des populations prehistoriques. 
29. Vernes (M. L.) Les emprunts de la bible he'braTque au grec et au latin. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 97 

200 RELIGION: GENERAL. 

Rome: PoNTIFICIUM InSTITUTUM BiBLICUM. Scripta Pontificii 
Instituti Biblici. Bomae, 1912-14. 4 vols. 8vo. In progress. 

Babylonia — Religion. " Enuma Elil " sive Epos Babylonicum de creatione mundi. . . . 

Edidit ... A. Deimel -1912. R 35190 

Deimel (A ) Veteris Testamenti chronologia monumentis Babylonico-Assyriis illustrata. 

. . .-1912. R 35405 

Lammens (H.) Fatima et les lilies de Mahomet. Notes i critiques pour I'e'tude de la Sira. 

....-1912.' • R 35406 

Lammens (H.) Le berceau de I'lslam : I'Arabie occidentale a la vcille de I'hegire. 

Vol. 1.-1914. R 35407 

Studies IN Theology. London, \9\ 4. 8vo. In progress, 

Angus (S.) The environment of early Christianity. R 385 1 5 

Thomas [Hemerken] a Kempis. The works of Thomas a Kempis. 
[With plates.] London, 1 905-08. 6 vols. 8vo. In progress. 

R 32420 

1 . Prayers and meditations on the life of Christ. . . . Translated from the text of the 
edition of M. J. Pohl ... by W. Dulhoit.-1908. 

2. The founders of the New Devotion : being the lives of G. Groote, F. Radewin and 
their followers. . . . Translated into English by J. P. Arthur. — 1905. 

3. The chronicle of the canons regular of Mount St. Agnes. . . . Translated by J. P. 
Arthur.— 1906. 

4. A meditation on the incarnation of Christ. Sermons on the life and passion of our 
Lord and of hearing and speaking good words. . . . Authorised translation from the text of the 
edition of M. J. Pohl. by ... V. Scully. . . .—1907. 

5. Sermons to the novices regular. . . . Authorised translation from the text of the edition 
of M. J. Pohl. by ... V. Scully. . . .—1907. 

6. Of the imitation of Christ. . . . Translated by C. K. Paul and . . . T. A. Pope.— 1907. 

TOLLINTON (Richard Bartram) Clement of Alexandria : a study in 
Christian liberalism. . . . [With map and plates.] London, 1914. 
2 vols. 8vo. R 37374 

Watts (Isaac) An humble attempt toward the revival of practical religion 
among Christians, and particularly the Protestant Dissenters, by a serious 
address to ministers and people, in some occasional discourses. London, 
1731. 12mo, pp. ix, 360. R 37371 

Webb (Clement Charles Julian) Studies in the history of natural theology. 
Oxford, 1915. 8vo, pp. vi, 363. R 38813 

220 BIBLE : TEXTS AND VERSIONS. 

BIBLE: GERMAN.— Biblia Das ist / Die gantze Heylige Schrifft / 
Teutsch. D. Mart. Luth. Sampt einem Register / Summarien vber alle 
Capitel / vnd sch6nen Figuren, M.D. LXII. [The woodcuts designed 
by V. Solis.] ([Colophon :] Getruckt zu Franckfurt am Main / 
Dureh Dauid Zopffeln / vnnd lohann Baschen / Im lar nach Christi 
Geburt / Tausent funff hundert / vnd zwey vnd sechtzig.) 2 pts. in 
I vol. Fol. R 37525 

*»* Title within woodcut border. Gothic letter. 

Die Psalmen. Uebersetzt und ausgelegt von . . . Ferdinand 

Hitzig. Leipzig und Heidelberg, 1863-65. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38236 

7 



96 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

320 BIBLE: TEXTS AND VERSIONS. 

BIBLE: GREEK.— Schmidt (Erasmus) Novi Testamenti Jesu Christ 
Graeci, Hoc Est, Originalis Linguae raficlov [aliis Concordantiae 
Hactenus Usitato Correctius, Ordinatius, Distinctius, Plenius, Jam dudun 
a pluribus desideratum : Ita Concinnatum, Ut Et Loca reperiendi, 6 
Vocum veras Significationes, & Significationum dirersitates per Col 
lationem investigandi, Ducis instar esse possit. Opera Erasmi Schmidii 
Graec. L. & Mathem. Prof. . . . Wittehergce^ Impensis hceredun 
dementis Bergeri Bihliopol : Ex Officind TypograjMcd Johi Wil 
helmi Fincelii. An. cb b CXXXVIII. Fol. ff. [340]. R 3693( 

*^* There is also an engraved title page. 

The gospel according to St. Matthew : the Greek text with intro 

duction, notes and indices by Alan Hugh M'Neile. . . . London, 1915 
8vo, pp. xxxTi, 448. R 3907f 

BIBLE: LATIN. — Biblia cu concordantijs veteris z noui testamenti e 
sacrorum canonum: necnon z additionibus in marginibus varietati 
diuerso2^ textuum : ac etiam canonibus antiquis quattuor euangeliorum 
Nouissime autem addite sunt concordatie ex viginti libris Josephi d< 
antiquitatibus z bello iudaico excerpte. [Printer's device beneath title.]— 
[Sig. R 5 verso, colophon :] . . . Accedut ad hec ex viginti de antiquitati- 
bus z indeoru5 bello Josephi libris exhauste autoritates : quas . . . loanei 
de gradib^ cocordantibus cogruisq3 apposuit locis. Impressa aut Lug 
duni : per M. Jacobum Sacon. Expesis . . . Antonii Koberger Nure 
burgensis. Feliciter explicit. Anno nostre salutis. 1521. Nouo Cal 
Augusti. que est. 24. Julij. — [Sig. A A 1 recto:] Interpretationes nomini 
hebraicoru. [With woodcuts.] <Lyons : J. Sacon, I521.> Fol. pp 
114], CCCXVII, [26]. R3752: 

*J* Title within border of woodcut blocks. 

C Biblia sacra : integru vtriusq3 testamenti corpus coplectes 

diligenter recognita z emedata. Cu concordatijs ac summarijs simul e 
argumetis : ad toti ^ intelligentia biblie no paru coducetib^ Insup ii 
calce eiusde : annexe sunt nominu Hebraicoru / Chaldeorum atq 
Grecorum accurate interpretationes. [Printer's device beneath title. 
[With woodcut.] ([Colophon :] Parisiis, ex officina libraria yoland^ 
bonhomme, vidue spectahilis viri Thielmanni Keruer, sub sigm 
vnicornis in vico sancti iacobi, vbi et venundatur. M.D, xxxiiij 
Octauo idus Jcinuarij.) 8vo. R 3752: 

*^* Imperfect, wanting N.T. and several leaves of O.T. Colophon supplied from BibI 
Society Catalogue. Title within border of woodcut blocks. 

Biblia Sacra iuxta vulgata quam Dicvnt Editionem, A Mendi 

Qvibus innumeris partim scribarum incuria, partim sciolorum audacia 
scatebat, summa cura parique fide repurgata atque ad priscorui 
probatissimorumque exemplariorum normam, adhibita interdum fontiuE 
autoritate, loannis Benedicti Parisiensis theologi industria restitute 
Annorumque a mundo creato ad Christum vsque natum supputation 
illustrata. Adiecta est in fine Hebraicarum, Graecarum, caeterarumqu 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 99 

220 BIBLE : TEXTS AND VERSIONS. 

peregrinarum vocum cum illarum varia a nostra prolatione interpretatio. 
Quin & sententisurum insignium copiosum iuxta ac accurate collectum 
indicem suppegimus. Duo postremo indices etiamnum accessere, quorum 
prior quae in scholiis notatu dignissima occurrere, alter vero insignium 
locorum nomina colligit. Quae legenti signa passim occurrent, epistola 
nuncupatoria 2. pag. manifestabit. Secunda editio. Parisiis Prostant 
apud Carolam Guillard, dt Gulielmum Desboys, sub sole aureo, via 
ad diuum Jacobum. 1 552. ([Colophon :] Parisiis Excudebat Bene- 
dictus Prenotius, sub stella aurea, via Frementella, Anno domini 
M.D. LII.) 2 pts. in 1 vol. 4to. R 37524 

BIBLE: LATIN.— Sacra Biblia, Acri Stvdio, Ac Diligentia Emendata, 
Rerum, atque Verborum permultis, & perquam dignis Indicibus 
aucta. . . . [With woodcuts.] ([Colophon:] Venetiis Apvd lolitos. 
M.D.LXXXVIII.) 2 pts. in I vol. 4to. R 37526 

*»* Title within woodcut border. 

Cornelii lansenii Episcopi Gandavensis Paraphrasis In Omnes 

Psalmos Davidicos Cvm Argvmentis Et Annotationibvs : Itemq. in 
Prouerbia, & Ecclesiasticum Commentaria, veterisq. Testamenti Ecclesiae 
Cantica, ac in Sapientiam Nolae. In quibus omnibus hoc agitur, vt 
sublatis mendis, quae in nostram lectionem irrepserunt, genuina lectio 
retineatur, & vt ex collatione facta cum originalibus Hebraeis & Graecis 
sensus habeatur qui illis consentiat, aut proxime accedat. Cum Indice 
rerum & verborum locupletissimo, Cui iam postremo accessit alter locorum 
S. Scripturae Index, quae in hoc opere citantur ac elucidantur. [With 
engravings.] AntverpicB, Ex Typographia Gisleni lansenii Ad inter- 
signe Galli Vigilis. M. DC. XIV. ... 2 pts. in 1 vol. Fol. 

R 35758 

Liber Ardmachanus. The book of Armagh. Edited with intro- 
duction and appendices by John Gwynn . . . [With facsimiles.] [Royal 
Irish Academy.] Dublin, 1913. 4to, pp. ccxc, 503. R 35433 

*^* 400 copies printed. This copy is No. 247. 

Der Lambeth-Psalter: eine altenglische Interlinear-version des 

Psalters in der Hs. 427 der erzbischoflichen Lambeth Palace Library. 
. . . Herausgegeben von U. Lindelof. [Acta Societatis Scientiarum 
Fennicae, 35, i. 43, iii.] Helsingfors, 1909-14. 2 vols in 1. 
4to. R 36163 

220 BIBLE; GENERAL AIDS TO STUDY. 

Abbott (Edwin Abbott) Diatessarica. Cambridge, 1914-15. 8vo. 
In progress. R 7935 

10, ii. The fourfold gospel. . . . The beginning . . . 1914. 

10, iii. The fourfold gospel. Section iii. The proclamation of the new kingdom. . . . 



100 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

220 BIBLE: GENERAL AIDS TO STUDY. 

ASTLEY (Hugh John Dukinfield) Prehistoric archaeology and the Old 
Testament : being the Donnellan Lectures delivered before the Univer- 
sity of Dublin in 1906-1907. Enlarged, and with notes and appendices. 
Edinburgh, 1908. 8vo. pp. xi, 314. R 39187 

BaiKIE Games) Lands and peoples of the Bible. . . . Containing . . . 
full-pages of illustrations . . . and a map. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 
xii. 288. R 38516 

Canton (William) The Bible and the Anglo-Saxon people. [With 
plates.] London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xi, 284. R 37500 

Etudes BiBLIQUES. Pans, 1907. 8vo. In progress, 

Dhorme (Paul) Choix de textes religieux assyro-babyloniens. Transcription, traduction, 
commentaire par . . . P. Dhorme . . . 1907. 8vo. J^ 351 19 

HOSKIER (Herman C.) Codex B and its allies : a study and an indictment. 
. . . London, 1914. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37445 

IlLINGWORTH Oohn Richardson) The gospel miracles : an essay, with 
two appendices. . . . London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xvii, 213. R 38552 

International Critical Commentary. The international critical 

commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. 
Under the editorship of . . . Samuel Rolles Driver . . . Alfred 
Plummer . . . and . . . Charles Augustus Briggs . . . Edinburgh, 
1915. 8vo. In progress. R 3506 

A critical and exegetical commentary on the Second epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. 
By ... A. Plummer.— 1915. 

Jones (Maurice) The New Testament in the twentieth century : a survey 
of recent Christological and historical criticism of the New Testament. 
London, 1914. 8vo. pp, xxiv, 467. R 39091 

MOULTON (James Hope) and MiLLIGAN (George) The vocabulary of 
the Greek testament, illustrated from the papyri and other non- literary 
sources. London, [1914]. 1vol. 4to. R 37598 

NORDEN (Eduard) Agnostos theos : Untersuchungen zur Formengeschichte 
religioser Rede. Leipzig, Berlin, 1913. 8vo, pp. ix, 410. R 38580 

Ramsay {Sir William Mitchell) The James Sprunt Lectures delivered at 
Union Theological Seminary in Virginia. The bearing of recent dis- 
covery on the trustworthiness of the New Testament. [With plates and 
illustrations.] London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xiv, 427. R 38257 

SaDOLETO (Jacopo) Cardinal. I. Sddoleti Episcopi Carpentoraclis 
Interpretatio in Psalmum Miserere mei Deus. Haganoce, per lohan. 
Secerium. Anno M.D. XXVI. 8vo. S. [35]. R 37513 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 101 

220 BIBLE : GENERAL AIDS TO STUDY. 

SCHIN MEIER Qohann Adolph) Versuch einer vollstandigen Geschichte der 
schwedischen Bibel-Uebersetzungen und Ausgaben mit Anzeige und 
Beurtheilung ihres Werths. Nebst einem Anhange von einigen seltenen 
Handschriften und den Lebensumst^nden der dabey . . . merkvsrur- 
digsten Personen aus den bewlihrtesten Quellen gesammlet von . . . 
lohann Adolph Schinmeier . . . (Viertes Stucks erste Beylage worin 
die Geschichte der gedruckten Ausgaben wie auch etw^as von den 
finnischen Bibel-Uebersetzungen und Ausgaben enthalten ist.) Flens- 
burg und Leipzig, 1777-82. 5 pts. in 1 vol. 4to. R 26003 

220 BIBLE: COMMENTARIES, ETC. 

GroNAU (Carl) Poseidonios und die jiidisch-christliche Genesisexegese. . . . 
Leipzig, Berlin, 1914. 8vo, pp. viii, 313. R 35848 

LaUNAY (Pierre de) Sieur de La Motte et de Vauferlan. Paraphrase 
et exposition sur les epistres de Saint Paul. Auec deux indices, Fvn 
des principales doctrines enseignees par Tapostre. L*autre des hebraismes 
qui sont expliquez en cette exposition. Gharenton, 1650. 2 vols. 
4to. R 35477 

WaTKINS (Charles Harry) St. Paul's fight for Galatia. . . . [Translation, 
in the main, of a thesis accepted by the University of Heidelberg for a 
Doctorate of Theology.] London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 312. R 37267 

WesTCOTT (Frederick Brooke) A letter to Asia ; being a paraphrase and 
brief exposition of the epistle of Paul the apostle to the believers at 
Colossae. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. vi, 203. R 36217 

PrySE (James Morgan) The Apocalypse unsealed : being an esoteric 
interpretation of the Initiation of loannes, A7roKci\vyjrc<; ^Iwdvvov, 
commonly called the Revelation of St. John, with a new translation. 
[With plates and illustrations.] London, 1910. 8vo, pp. 222. 

R 36390 

APOCRYPHA.— Harris Games Rendel) Hermas in Arcadia, and other 
essays. Cambridge, \S96. 8vo, pp. 83. R 35832 

OesterLEY (William Oscar Emil) The books of the Apocrypha : 

their origin, teaching and contents. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xiv, 553. 

R 37475 

~— TONDELLI (Leone) Le odi di Salomone : cantici Cristiani degli 
inizi del II secolo. Verzione dal Siriaco, introduzione e note. 
Prefazione del. . . . Angelo Mercati. . . . Boma, 1914. 8vo, pp. 
xvi, 268. R 36874 

Wicks (Henry James) The doctrine of God in the Jewish apocry- 
phal and apocalyptic literature. . . . With introduction by R. H. 
Charles. . . . Thesis approved for the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 
the University of London. London, 1915 [1914]. 8vo, pp. xi, 371. 

R 37671 



102 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

330 RELIGION : DOCTRINAL THEOLOGY. 

GENERAL. — Bacon (Benjamin Wisner) Christianity old and new. 
Lectures given at Berkeley, Cal., on the E. T. Elarl Foundation. New 
Haven, 1914. 8vo. pp. xiv. 169. R 36886 

Butler (Samuel) The fair haven : a work in defence of the miraculous 
element in our Lord's ministry upon earth, both as against rationalistic 
impugners and certain orthodox defenders, by the late John Pickard 
Owen, with a memoir of the author by William Bickersteth Owen. . . . 
Reset ; and edited, with an introduction, by R. A. Streatfeild. Lo7idon, 
1913. 8vo, pp. XX. 285. R 37673 

Figgis (John Neville) The fellowship of the mystery : being the Bishop 
Paddock lectures delivered at the General Theological Seminary, New 
York, during Lent, 1913. .. . Lo7idon, 1914. 8vo, pp. xv, 300. 

R 37927 

Harris (Charles) Pro fide : a defence of natural and revealed religion ; 
being a text-book of modem apologetics for students of theology and 
others. . . . New and augmented edition. . . . London, 1914. 8vo, 
pp. Ixxvii, 575. R 38517 

HeaDLAM (Arthur Cayley) The miracles of the New Testament ; being 
the Moorhouse Lectures for 1914, delivered in S. Paul's cathedral, 
Melbourne. Lomlon, 1914. 8vo, pp. xvi, 361. R 38099 

PeGORIER (Cesar) Theologie chretienne, qu*on explique en forme 
d'entretiens, pour la rendre plus claire & plus sensible. . . . Nouvelle 
edition, corrigee & augmentee par I'auteur. Amsterdam, 1 726. 4to, 
pp. 565. R 35503 

ShaRPE (Charles Henry) Catholicism and life. London, 1913. 8vo, 
pp. xxxi, 213. R 39090 

UrQUHART (James) The life and teaching of William Honyman Gillespie 
of Torbanehill. . . . Prepared on behalf of the trustees of Mrs. Hony- 
man Gillespie of Torbanehill. With a bibliography of the ontological 
argument by EL Lloyd Morrow. [With portraits.] Edinburgh, 1915. 
8vo, pp. 283. R 38564 

CHRISTOLOQY : BUNSEN (Ernst von) The Angel- Messiah of Buddhists, 
Essenes, and Christians. London, 1880. 8vo, pp. xii, 383. R 39167 

BURRAGE (Champlin) Nazareth and the beginnings of Christianity : a new 
view based upon philological evidence ; with critical appendices, includ- 
ing unnoticed precanonical readings ; a discussion of the birthplace of 
Jesus ; and the text of what is believed to be the hitherto undiscovered 
source of the prophecy, that the Messiah ** should be called a Nazarene **. 
Oxford, 1914. 8vo, pp. 68. R 36062 

NORDEN (Elduard) Josephus und Tacitus iiber Jesus Christus und eine 
messianische Prophetie. . . . Sonderabdruck aus dem xxxi Bande der 
Neuen Jahrbiicher f iir das Klassische Altertum, Geschichte und deutsche 
Literatur. Leipzig, Berlin, 1913. 8vo. pp. 30. R 35145 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 103 

230 RELIGION: DOCTRINAL THEOLOGY. 

OeSTERLEY (William Oscar Emil) The evolution of the Messianic idea : 
a study in comparative religion. London, 1908. 8vo, pp. xiii, 276. 

R 39169 

VONIER (Anschar) The personality of Christ. London. 1915. 8vo, 
pp. viii. 275. R 38710 

ESCHATOLOOY.— BroUGHTON (Herbert) The spirit disembodied. 
When we die we do not fall asleep : we only change our place. Edin- 
burgh, 1867. 8vo, pp. X. 271. R 34188 

Unknown Country. That unknown country, or what living men 
believe concerning punishment after death. Together with recorded 
views of men of former times. . . . Illustrated. . . . Springfield, 
Mass., 1889. 8vo, pp. 943. R 39159 

Weber (Frederick Parkes) Aspects of death in art and epigram ; illustrated 
especially by medals, engraved gems, jewels, ivories, antique pottery, 
&c. . . . Second edition, revised and . . . enlarged. With . . . 
illustrations. . . . London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xxviii, 461. R 38694 

CREEDS.— Lutheran Church. Libri symbolici ecclesiae Lutheranae. 
Cum appendice quinquepartita edidit Fridericus Francke. . . . Editio 
stereotypa. LipsicB, 1847. 4 pts. in 1 vol. 8vo. R 34722 

APOLOGETICS.— PeaBODY (Francis Greenwood) The Christian life in 
the modern world. (The sixth series of John Calvin McNair Lectures 
at the University of North Carolina in 1913, expanded and revised.) 
Neiv York, 1914. 8vo, pp. vii, 234. R 38094 

240 RELIGION : DEVOTIONAL. 

Fellowship. The fellowship of silence: being experiences in the 
common use of prayer without words. Narrated and interpreted by 
Thomas Hodgkin, Percy Dearmer, L. V. Hodgkin, J. C. Fitzgerald, 
together with the editor, Cyril Hepher. [With frontispiece.] London, 
1915. 8vo, pp. vii, 240. R 38522 

Fletcher (Phineas) Joy In Tribulation. Or, Consolations For Afflicted 
Spirits. . . . London : Printed for James Boler, dwelling at the 
signe of the Marigold in Paul's Church-yard, 1632. 12mo, pp. 
[141,339. R 39134 

GaRBETT (Edward) and MARTIN (Samuel) The family prayer book ; 
or, morning and evening prayers for every day in the year. With 
prayers and thanksgivings for special occasions. Edited by ... E. 
Garbett and . . . S. Martin. London, [1863]. 4to, pp. vii, 389.^^:1] 

R 33716 

KeTTLEWELL (Samuel) The authorship of the De imitatione Christi ; with 
many interesting particulars about the book. . . . Containing photo- 
graphic engravings. . . . London, 1877. 8yo, pp. xxiii, 504. 

R 29688 



104 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

340 RELIGION: DEVOTIONAL. 

PrEGER (Wilhelm) Geschichte der deutschen Mystik im Miltelalter. Nach 
den Quellen untersucht und dargestellt Ton . . . W. Preger. . . . 
Leipzig, ]S74'93. 3 vols. 8vo. R 29700 

ROUSSELOT (Paul) Les mystiques espagnols : Malon de Chaide, Jean 
d'Avila, Louis de Grenade, Louis de Leon, Ste Therese, S. Jean de la 
Croix et leur groupe. . . . Deuxieme edition. Paris, 1869. 8vo, 
pp. viii, 500. R 27522 

TrahERNE (Thomas) Centuries of meditation. . . . Printed from the 
author's manuscript Edited by Bertram Dobell. . . . [New impres- 
sion.l London, 1908. 8vo. pp. xxx, 341. R 37780 

250 RELIGION: HOMILETICS. 

Driver (Samuel RoUes) The ideals of the prophets. Sermons by . . . 
S. R. Driver . . . together with a bibliography of his published writings. 
Edinburgh, 1915. 8vo, pp. xii. 239. R 38514 

FerRI&RE (Emile) Les apotres: essai d'histoire religieuse d'apres la 
methode des sciences naturelles. Paris, 1879. 8vo, pp. x, 465. 

R 28195 

HoRNE (Charles Silvester) The romance of preaching. Yale lectures on 
preaching. . . . Second impression. [With preface by K. M. Home.] 
London, [1914]. 8vo, pp. 291 . R 39087 

MacLEANE (Douglas) Famous sermons by English preachers. Edited 
with introductory notes by D. Macleane. . . . Lo^idon, 1911. 8vo, 
pp. xvi, 323. R 38254 

Simeon (Charles) Helps to composition ; or, six hundred skeletons of 
sermons ; several being the substance of sermons preached before the 
University [Cambridge]. . . . The third edition. London, 1815. 
5 vols. 8vo. R 28847 

Simeon (Charles) Horae homileticae, or discourses, in the form of skeletons, 
upon the whole scriptures. London, 1819-20. 1 1 vols. 8vo. 

R 28848 

260 RELIGION : CHURCH INSTITUTIONS AND WORK. 

DIVINE WORSHIP.— AlcUIN CluB. Alcuin club collections. 
London, [\9\2\. 8vo. In progress, R 7955 

19. Skilbeck (C. O.) Illustrations of the liturgy : being thirteen drawings of the celebration 
of the holy communion in a parish church by C. O. Skilbeck. With notes descriptive and 
explanatory, and an introduction on "The present opportunity" by P. Dearmer. — [1912J. 

Alcuin Club. Prayer-book revision pamphlets. London, [1914]. 
8vo. In progress. R 7955 

5. Wyatt (E. G. P.) The eucharistic prayer. 

6. Memorial services. Extracted . . . from " A prayer-book revised " as issuedin 1913. .. . 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 105 

a6o RELIGION: CHURCH INSTITUTIONS AND WORK. 

Henry BraDSHAW Society. Henry Bradshaw Society founded . . . 
for the editing of rare liturgical texts. London, 1915. 8to, In pro- 
gress. R 6097 

46 The Hereford breviary. Edited from the Rouen edition of 1505 . . . by W. H. 
Frere and L. E. G. Brown. Vol. III. . . .— 1915. 

James Qohn) A comment upon the collects appointed to be used in the 
Church of England, before the epistle and gospel on Sundays and 
holy days throughout the year. . . . New edition. London, 1866. 
8vo, pp. vi, 371. R 31221 

Jesus Christ. De sancta cruce. [The history of the Invention of the 
cross, edited in Syriac with a German translation.] Ein Beitrag zur 
christlichen Legendengeschichte von Eberhard Nestle. Berlin, 1889. 
8vo. pp. viii, 128. R 35859 

Weaver (Lawrence) Memorials and monuments, old and new : two 
hundred subjects chosen from seven centuries. [With plates and illus- 
trations.] [Country Life Library.] London, 1915. 8vo, pp. 479. 

R 38873 

Liturgies : Martyrologium scdm morem Romane curie [Printer's device 
beneath title]. C Venundantur Parisius in via lacobea in intersigniis 
Pellicani et Leonis argentei. [Sig. o 3 recto, colophon :] C Finit martyro- 
logium accuratissime emendatum per . . . Belinum de Padua ordinis 
fratrum eremitarum sancti Augustini cum additionibus patrum aliarum 
religionum copiosum effectum. Impressum Parrhisiis Anno a natiuitate 
domini Millesimo quingentesimo. xxi. quarto Kal. lanuarii scdm coputa- 
tione curie romane. Expensis . . . loanis de marnef librarii iurati 
Uniuersitatis Parisian, commorantis in via lacobea in intersignio Pellicani. 
Necnon z Petri viart librarii religatoris iurati etiam eiusdem uniuersitatis 
commorantis in via lacobea in intersignio Leonis argentei. Et ibidem 
venduntur. <Paris, 1 52 1 .> 4to, £[111]. R 33949 

*^^* Title within border of woodcut blocks. 

Liturgies. The primitive liturgy: for the use of the Oratory [of John 
Henley]. Part I. Being a form of morning and evening prayer, not 
imposM, as necessary, but proposed, as expedient ; as full, regular and 
compendious, as the usual method will admit; taken entirely from 
scripture, and the primitive writers, but especially the most antient and 
authentick Uturgy of the apostolical constitutions. London, 1726. 
8vo, pp. 63. R 36315 

Liturgies : A revised liturgy : being the order of the administration of 
the Lord's Supper according to the use of the Church of England with 
divers enrichments and alterations. Edited by B. W. Randolph. ... 
With an introduction by J. H. Maude. . . . London, [1914]. 8vo, 
pp.56. R 38690 



106 THE JOHN RYLANDS UBRARY 

260 RELIGION; CHURCH INSTITUTIONS AND WORK 

Wright (Thomas) The lives of the British hymn writers : being personal 
memoirs derived largely from unpublished materials. [With plates.] 
London, 1910. etc. 3 vols. 8vo. R 37496 

1. J. Hart.— 1910. 

2. A. M. Toplady and contemporary hymn writers. — 1911, 

3. I. Watts and contemporary hymn writers. — 1914, 

SACRAMENTS : GrOTON (William Mansfield) The Christian eucharist 
and the pagan cults. The Bohlen Lectures, 1913. New York, 1914. 
8vo, pp. xii, 203. R 37489 

270 RELIGION: RELIGIOUS HISTORY. 

GENERAL.— Baron lUS (Caesar) Cardinal. Annales ecclesiastici . . . 
Vna cum Critica historico-chronologica. . . . Antonii Pagii. ... In 
qua rerum narratio defenditur . . . ordo temporum corrigitur, & periodo 
Graeco-Romana munitur. Additur prasterea Dissertatio hypatica 
ejusdem Pagii; & Epistola consularis Henrici card. Norisii. In hac 
vero editione fasti consulares ab A. U. C. 709 ad annum Christi 567 
illustrantur. . . . Accedunt animadversiones in Pagium. . . . [Edited 
by G D. Mansi and D. Giorgi.] Lucce, 1 738-46. 19 vols. Fol. 

R 35224 

RaYNALDUS (Odoricus) Annales ecclesiastici ab anno MCXCVIII. 

ubi desinit Cardinalis Baronius. . . . Accedunt in hac editione notae 
chronologicae, criticae, historicae, quibus Raynaldi Annales illustrantur 
. . . emendantur, auctore Joanne Dominico Mansi. . . . Luccb, 1 747-56. 
15 vols. Fol. R 35224-2 

BoISNORMAND DE BoNNECHOSE (Francois Paul fimile) Les reformateurs 
avant la reforme, XV^ siecle : Jean Hus et le Concile de Constance. 
Paris, 1845. 2 vols, in 1. 8vo. R 31499 

Bond (Francis) Dedications and patron saints of English churches : 
ecclesiastical symbolism, saints and their emblems. . . . With . . . 
illustrations. Oxford, ]9\ 4. 8vo, pp. xvi, 343. R 38075 

Church Universal. The church universal. London, 1909. 8vo. 
In progress, 

1 . Ragg (L.) The church of the apostles ; being an outline of the history of the church of 
the apostolic age. R 39093 

Dunbar (Agnes B. C.) A dictionary of saintly women. . . . London, 
1904-05. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38218 

GoeRRES-GesELLSCHAFT. Quellen und Forschungen aus dem Gebiete 
der Geschichte. In Verbindung mit ihrem historischen Institut in Rom, 
herausgegeben von der Gorres-Gesellschaft. Paderborn, 1914. 8vo. 
In progress. R 14325 

17. Mohler (L.) Die Kardinale J. und P. Colonna : ein Beitrag zur Geschichte dei 
Zeitalters Bonifaz viii. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 107 

270 RELIGION: RELIGIOUS HISTORY. 

Hamilton (Harold Francis) The people of God: an inquiry into 
Christian origins. . . . Oxford, \9\2. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37454 

JacOBY (Adolf) Die antiken Mysterienreligionen und das Christentum. 
[Religions geschichtliche Volksbiicher III. Reihe, 1 2. Heft.] Tubingen, 
1910. 8vo. pp. 44. R 33941 

KiTTS (Eustace J.) In the days of the councils : a sketch of the life and 
times of Baldassare Cossa, afterward Pope John the twenty-third. . . . 
Illustrated. London, 1908. 8vo, pp. xxiv, 421. R 38353 

Pope John the twenty-third and . . . John Hus of Bohemia. . . . 

Illustrated. London, 1910. 8vo, pp. xxx. 446. R 38354 

Lake (Kirsopp) The stewardship of faith: our heritage from early 
Christianity. London, [1915]. 8vo, pp. vii. 195. R 38513 

MaCKINLAY (James Murray) Ancient church dedications in Scotland. 
. . . [With map.] Edinburgh, 1910. 8vo. In progress. R 38078 

[I.] Scriptural dedications. 

Mann (Horace K.) The lives of the popes in the middle ages. . . . 

[With plates.] Londo7i, \9\5. 8vo. In progress, R 9787 

11-12. 1198-1216.-1915. 
PiTTONI (Giovanni Battista) Vita del sonmio pontefice Benedetto deci- 

moterzo dell* ordine de' predicatori. [With portrait.] Venezia, 1 730. 

4to, pp. 72. R 36159 

PROUDHON (Pierre Joseph) Cesarisme et Christianisme, de Tan 45 avant 
J.-C. a I'an 476 apres. . . . Precede d'une preface par J. A. Langlois. 
Pans, 1883. 2 vols. 8vo. R 28123 

Rome, Church of. Regesta pontificum Romanorum. lubente Regia 
Societate Gottingensi congessit Paulus Fridolinus Kehr. . . . Berolini, 
1913. 8vo. Inprogress. R 13133 

Italia pontiBcia . . . Vol. VI. Liguria sive provincia Mediolanensis. Pars I. Lombardia. 
— 1913. 

Regestum Clementis Papae v. Ex Vaticanis archetypis . . . nunc 

. . . editum cura et studio monachorum ordinis s. Benedicti. . . . 
(Appendices. Tomus 1 .) Bomae, 1 885-92. 1 vols, in 8. Fol. 

R 35250 

SeeberG (Reinhold) Der Ursprung des Christusglaubens. Leipzig, 1914. 
8vo, pp. 62. R 36431 

Stud I EN zur Geschichte der Theologie. Neue Studien zur Geschichte 
der Theologie und der Kirche. Herausgegeben von N. Bonwetsch . . . 
und R. Seeberg. . . . Berlin, 1914. 8vo. Inprogress. R 7653 

20. Sachsse (C.) D. B. Hubmaier als Theologe. 

VOIGT (Georg) Enea Silvio de* Piccolomini, als Papst Pius der Zweite. 
und sein Zeitalter. . . . Mit dem Bildnisse des Papstes. Berlin, \^5(>- 
63. 3 vols. 8vo. R 30897 



108 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

370 RELIGION: RELIGIOUS HISTORY. 

MONASTIC ORDERS.— Benedictines. BuUarium monachomm nig- 
rorum S. Benedicd Congregationis Angliae. Fort-Augusti, 1912. 
4to. pp. iv, 172. R 33329 

BryCE (William Moir) The Scottish Grey Friars. [With illustrations.] 
Edinburgh and London, 1909. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38844 

CH^RANC^ (Lipoid de) Saint Francois d* Assise, 1182-1226. [With 
illustrations.] Paris, 1892. 8vo, pp. 344. R 38240 

Franciscans. Documenti francescani. Arez20, 1913. 8vo. In 
progress. R 37776 

i. Pulinari (D.) Gronache dei (rati minori della provincia di Toscona, secondo I'autografo 
d'Ognissanti ; edile dal . . . S. Mencherini. . . . 

Regula et testamentum seraphici p. Francisci, cum declarationibus 

ejusdem, aliisque instructionibus, ad institutionem novitiorum quam maxima 
necessariis. Antverpice, 1692. 16mo, pp. 317. R 37592 

Gem (Samuel Harvey) Hidden saints : a study of the Brothers of the 
Common Life. . . . London, 1907. 8 vo. pp. 204. R 37595 

Martin (Jean Baptiste) Le monastere du Verbe-lncame de Lyon. 
Notice historique. Lyon, 1905. 8vo, pp. 87. R 38348 

PlasSE (Francois Xavier) Souvenirs du pays de sainte Therese. [With 
plates.] Paris, 1875. 8vo. pp. vii, 320. R 27523 

ROBERTSBRIDGE, Sussex. Calendar of charters and documents relating 
to the Abbey of Robertsbridge, Co. Sussex, preserved at Penshurst 
among the muniments of Lord de Lisle and Dudley. [London, printed] , 
1873. 4to, pp. 179. R 34819 

ENGLAND.— Churchman's Library. The churchman's library. 
Edited by John Henry Burn. . . . [With map.] London, 1898. 8vo. 
In progress. R 387 1 4 

Collins (W. E.) Bishop of Gibraltar. The beginnings of English Christianity : with 
special reference to the coming of St. Augustine. — 1898. 

CaLAMY (Edmund) The Nonconformist's memorial : being an account of 
the ministers, who w^ere ejected or silenced after the Restoration, partic- 
ularly by the Act of Uniformity, which took place on Bartholomew- day, 
Aug. 24, 1662. . . . Originally written by ... E. Calamy. . . . 
Now abridged and corrected, and the author's additions inserted, with 
. . . further particulars ... by Samuel Palmer. To which is prefixed 
an introduction, containing a brief history of the times in which they 
lived, and the grounds of their Nonconformity. Elmbellished with the 
heads of many of those venerable divines. . . . London, 1775. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 36978 

The second edition. London, 1802-03. 3 vols. 8vo. R 37346 



COLLIGAN Games Hay) Elighteenth century nonconformity. London, 
1915. 8vo, pp. vii, 143. R 39077 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 109 

270 RELIGION: RELIGIOUS HISTORY. 

Lloyd (Charles) Particulars of the life of a dissenting minister, C. Lloyd, 
1 766- 1 829. Written by himself. With occasional reflections, illustra- 
tive of the education and professional state of the dissenting clergy, and 
of the character and manners of the dissenters in general. . . . (Reprint). 
London, 1911. 8vo, pp. xvi, 188. R 36867 

Home (Charles Silvester) Pulpit, platform and parliament. Illustrated. 
London, 1913. 8vo, pp. xi, 216. R 39086 

PaTON Qohn Lewis) John Brown Paton : a biography. [With plates.] 
London, [1914]. 8vo, pp. xix, 538. R 37501 

SelBIE (William Boothby) The life of Andrew Martin Fairbairn . . . 
first Principal of Mansfield College, Oxford. [With portraits.] Lon- 
don, 1914. 8vo, pp. viii, 456. R 37664 

ShuFFREY (William Arthur) The churches of the deanery of North 
Craven. [With plates.] Leeds, 1914. 8vo, pp. viii, 251. R 3641 1 

Smith (Lucius Frederick Moses Bottomley) Bishop of Knaresborough. 
The story of Ripon Minster : a study in church history. . . . With 
. . . illustrations. Leeds, 1914. 4to, pp. 327. R 38077 

Stark (Adam) History of the bishopric of Lincoln, from its commence- 
ment at Sidnacester or Lindisse, its connection with Litchfield and 
Leicester, its junction with Dorchester, until the seat of the see was 
fixed at Lincoln, immediately after the Conquest. . . . London, [1852]. 
8vo, pp. xviii, 529. R 29830 

IRELAND.— BURDY (Samuel) The life of Philip Skelton. . . . Reprinted 
from the edition of 1792, with an introduction by Norman Moore. 
Oxford, 1914. 8vo, pp. xxxvii, 255. R 39067 

GUILDAY (Peter) The English Catholic refugees on the continent, 1 558- 
1795. . . . London, 1914. 1 vol. 8vo. In progress. R 37353 

SCOTLAND.— MaCMILLAN (Donald) The life of Robert Flint. . . . 
[With portraits.] London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xi, 518. R 38093 

FRANCE.— COQUEREL (Charles Augustin) Histoire des egHses du desert 
chez les protestants de France depuis la fin du regne de Louis XIV 
jusqu'a la revolution fran^aise. Pam, 1841. 2 vols. 8vo. R 28050 

Gr^ARD (Vallery Clement Octave) Edmond Scherer. Paris, 1890. 
8vo. pp. 232. R 28036 

GuerrieR (Louis) Madame Guyon : sa vie, sa doctrine et son influence : 
D*apres les ecrits originaux et des documents inedits. Paris, 1881. 
8vo, pp. 515. R 26784 

LlGUG^, Abbey of Archives de la France monastique. Abbaye de 
Ligug6, Paris, 1914. 8vo. In progress. R 1 1772 

1 7. Beaunier ( ) a Benedictine^ monk. Abbayes et prieures de I'ancienne France. 
Recueil historique des archeveche's, eveche's, abbayes et prieure's de France. . . . Tome 
septitme. Province eccle'siastique de Rouen. Par . . . J.-M. Besse.— 1914. 



no THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

270 RELIGION : RELIGIOUS HISTORY. 

GERMANY.— Becker (Bernhard) 0/ Gnadenfeld, Zinzendorf im 
Verhaltnis zu Philosophie und Kirchentum seiner Zeit. Geschichdiche 
Studien. Leipzig, 1886. 8vo, pp. viii, 580. R 25629 

SeebERG (Reinhold) Die Kirche Deutschlands im neunzehnten 

Jahrhundert. Eine Einfiihrung in die religiosen, Theologischen und 
Kirchlichen Fragen der Gegenwart . . . Dritte . . . verbesserte und 
erweiterte Auflage. Leipzig, ]9]0. 8vo, pp. x, 428. R 21280 

SPAIN.— Lopez FeRREIRO (Antonio) Historia de la Santa A. M. 
Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela. [With plates and illustrations.] 
Santiago, 1 898- 1 909 [1 9 1 1 ] . 1 1 vols. 8vo. R 36884 

NETHERLANDS.— AltMEYER (Jean Jacques) Les precurseurs de la 
reforme aux Pays-Bas. La Haye, 1886. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37826 

AnaLECTA VaTICANO-BelGICA. Recueil de documents con- 

cernant les anciens dioceses de Cambrai, Liege, Therouanne et Tournai, 
publics par Tlnstitut historique beige de Rome. Borne, 1906-14. 6 
vols. 8vo. R 37677 

1. Suppliques de Clement VI, 1342-1352. Textes et analyses publics par . . . U 
Berliere. . . .— 1906. 

2-3. Lettres de Jean XXII, 1316-1334. Textes et analyses public's par A. Fayen. . . 
2vols.— 1906-[19121. 

4. Lettres de Beooit XII, 1334-1342. Textes et analyses publies par A. Fierens. . . 
—1910. 

5. Suppliques d'Innocent VI, 1352-1362. Textes et analyses publics par . . . U 
Berliere. . . .— 1911. 

7. Suppliques d'Urbain V, 1362-1370. Textes et analyses publies par A. Fierens. . . 
— 1914. 

BELGIUM.— BeaUCOURT DE NOORTVELDE (Patrice Antoine) De- 
scription historique de Teglise collegiale et paroissiale de Notre Dame a 
Bruges, avec une histoire chronologique de tous les prevots, suivie d*un 
recueil des epitaphes anciennes & modemes de cette eglise. [With 
plates.] Bruges, 1773. 4to, pp. 343. R 36162 

SWITZERLAND.— ZWINGLIVEREIN. Quellen zur schweizerischen 
Reformationsgeschichte. Herausgegeben vom Zwingliverein in Zurich 
unter Leitung von . . . Emil Egli. . . . Basel, 1901-06. 3 vols. 
8vo. In progress. R 35522 

1. Wyss (B.) Die Chronik des B. Wyss. 1519-1530. Herausgegeben von G. Finsler.— 
1901. 

2. Bullinger (H.) H. BuUingers Diarium, Annales vitae, der Jahre 1504-1574. . .. 
Herausgegeben von E. Egli. — 1904. 

3. Bosshart (L.) Die Chronik des L. Bosshart von Winterthur, 1185-1532. Heraus- 
gegeben von K. Hauser. — 1905. 

CHINA.— BrooMHALL (Marshall) The jubilee story of the China Inland 
Mission. With . . . illustrations & map. P^ith foreword by J. W. 
Stevenson.] London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xvi, 386. R 39076 

INDIA.— CloUGH (John Everett) Social Christianity in the orient : the 
story of a man, a mission and a movement. By J. E. Clough. . . . 
Written dow^n for him by . . . Elmma Rauschenbusch Clough. . . . 
[With map and plates.] New York, 1914. 8vo, pp. xiii, 409. 

R 37670 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 1 1 1 

270 RELIGION : RELIGIOUS HISTORY. 

PERSIA. — LaBOURT (Jerome) Le chrislianisme dans {'empire perse sous 
la dynastie sassanide, 224-632. . . . Deuxieme edition. [With map.] 
[Bibliotheque de I'Enseignement de THistoire Ecclesiastique.] Paris, 
1904. 8vo. pp. xix, 372. R 38150 

AMERICA.— Every (Edward Francis) successively Bishop of the Falk- 
land Islands and Bishop in Argentina and Eastern South America. 
The Anglican church in South America. [With foreword by E. Jacob, 
Bishop of St. Albans.] [With maps and plates.] London, 1915. 
8yo, pp. vii, 155. R 39089 

380 RELIGION : CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. 

Rivet (Andre) Remarqves Et Considerations Svr La Response De F. 
Nicolas Coeffeteav Moine De La Secte De Dominiqve, Av Livre de 
Messire Philippes De Mornay, Seigneur du Plessis Marly, intitule, le 
Mystere d'lniquite, c*est a dire, I'Histoire de la Papaute. Pour Defense 
de la Monarchie d'un seul lesvs Christ sur son Eglise, & de la Souv- 
erainete des Empereurs, & Rois, sur leurs Estats ; contre les usurpations 
des Papes, & les cavillations de leurs flatteurs. Par Andre' Rivet 
Poictevin, Ministre de la Parole de Dieu en I'EgHse de Thouars. Pre- 
miere Partie : En laquelle sont traictees les principales controverses 
Historiques, des huits premiers siecles. A Savmvr, Par Thomas 
Portau,]6]5. 1vol. 4to. R 35504 

BraILSFORD (Mabel Richmond) Quaker women, 1650-1690. London, 
1915. 8vo, pp. xi. 340. R 39078 

Ward (Joseph) A retrospect of the Oldham meeting of the Society of 
Friends, its schools, and kindred societies. [With plate and illustrations.] 
Oldham, [1911]. 8vo, pp. xii. 1 69. R 29962 

Evans (George Eyre) Vestiges of Protestant dissent : being lists of 
ministers, sacramental plate, registers, antiquities, and other matters per- 
taining to most of the churches, and a few others, included in the national 
conference of Unitarian, Liberal Christian, Free Christian, Presbyterian, 
and other non- subscribing or kindred congregations. . . . With illustra- 
tions by George H. Burgess. Liverpool, 1897. 8vo, pp. xxiv, 398. 

R 38229 

McLaCHLAN (Herbert) The Unitarian Home Missionary College, 1854- 
1914: its foundation and development, with some account of the mission- 
ary activity of its members. [With plates.] London, Manchester, 
1915. 8vo, pp. 176. R 38074 

England. A collection of acts of Parliament, and clauses of acts of 
Parliament, relative to those protestant dissenters who are usually called 
by the name of Quakers, from the year 1688. London, 1757. 4to, 
pp. %. R 33390 



112 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

280 RELIGION: CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. 

Wesley Qohn) [Journal.] The journal of ... J. Wesley. . . . En- 
larged from original MSS., with notes from unpublished diaries, annota- 
tions, maps, and illustrations. Eldited by Nehemiah Cumock, assisted 
by experts. Standard edition. Vol. VI. London, [1915]. 8vo. 
In progress, R 2022 1 

390 RELIGION : NON-CHRISTIAN. 

GENERAL.— LUZAC*S ORIENTAL RELIGIOUS SERIES. London, 1913. 
8vo. Li progress. 

4. Nukariya (K.) The religion of the Samurai : a study of Zen philosophy and discipline 
in China and Japan. . . .— 1913. R 35372 

LyaLL {Sir Alfred Comyn) Asiatic studies, religious and social. . . . 
London, 1899. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38505 

Quest Series. Edited by G. R. S. Mead. London, 1914-15. 8vo. 

In progress. 

Davids (C. A.) Buddhist psychology : an inquiry into the analysis and theory of mind in 
Pali literature.— 1914. R 38079 

Nicholson (R. A.) The mystics of Islam.— 1914. R 381 03 

Underhill afterwards Moore (E.) Ruysbroeck.— 1915. R 38323 

GREEK AND ROMAN.— CiRILLI (Rene) Les pretres danseurs de Rome. 
Etude sur la corporation sacerdotale des saliens. . . . Preface de . . . 
J. Toutain. . . . Paris, 1913. 8vo, pp. xi, 186. R 35415 

Cook (Arthur Bernard) Zeus : a study in ancient religion. . . . [With 
plates and illustrations.] Cambridge, \9] 4. 8to. In progress. 

R 37564 

1 . Zeus, god of the bright sky. 

Davis (Gladys M. N.) The Asiatic Dionysos. London, 1914. 8vo, 
pp. X, 276. R 37669 

BUDDHISM, etc.— BruMUND Qan Frederik Gerrit) Bijdragen tot de 
Kennis van het Hindoeisme op Java. Batavia, 1 868. 4to, pp. 309. 

R 39157 

Buddhist Society of Great Britain and Ireland. The Buddhist review. 
The organ of the Buddhist Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 
4(-5, 1912-13, etc.). Lo?idon, \9\2, etc. 2 vols. 8vo. Inprogress. 

R 24777 

Getty (Alice) The gods of northern Buddhism : their history, icono- 
graphy and progressive evolution through the northern Buddhist countries. 
. . . With a general introduction on Buddhism translated from the French 
of J. Deniker. Illustrations from the collection of Henry H. Getty. 
Oxford, 1914. 4to, pp. lii, 196. R 37490 

LiLLIE (Arthur) India in primitive Christianity. [With plates.] London, 
1909. 8vo, pp. xii, 299. R 39168 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 113 

290 RELIGION: NON-CHRISTIAN. 

SiLBERNAGL (Isidor) Der Buddhismus nach seiner Entstehung, Fortbildung 
und Verbreitung. Eine kulturhistorische Studie. Milnchen, 1891. 
8vo. pp. viii, 196. R 39183 

PARSISM. — DhaLLA (Maneckji Nusservanji) Zoroastrian theology from 
the earliest times to the present day. Neio York, 1914. 8vo, pp. xxxii. 
384. R 38388 

DiNKARD. The Dinkard. The original Pehlwi text ; the same trans- 
literated in (vol. 1-10) Zend, (vol. 11-13 Roman) characters ; transla- 
tions of the text in the Gujrate and English languages ; a commentary 
and a glossary of select terms. (Vol. 1 -4. The English translation by 
Ratanshah E. Kohiyar. — Vol. 5-13. The English translation by Darab 
Dastur Peshotan Sanjana. . . .) (Vol. 1-9. By Peshotan Dustoor 
Behramjee Sanjana.) (Vol. 10-13. By Darab Dastur Peshotan Sanjana.) 
. . . Published under the patronage of the Sir Jamsedji Jijibhai Trans- 
lation Fund. Bombay, Leipzig, and London, 1874-1912. 13 vols. 
8vo. In progress, R 38224 

JUDAISM.— BenAMOZEGH (Elijah) Israel et Thumanite : etude sur le 
probleme de la religion universelle et sa solution. [Edited by A. 
Palliere.j Preface de Hyacinthe Loyson. . . . [With portrait.] Paris, 
1914. 8vo, pp. xli, 735. R 35417 

Cohen (Israel) Jewish life in modern times. . . . With . . . illustrations 
and a m^p. London, [1914]. 8vo. pp. xiii, 374. R 39153 

FrasER Qohn Foster) The conquering Jew. London, [1915]. 8vo, 
pp. 304. R 38512 

Jewish Historical Society of England. The Jewish historical 

society of England. [Publications.] [With facsimile and portraits.] 
London and Edinhicrgh, [\905Y\9\0. 8vo. In progress. R 7838 

England. Celebration of the 250th anniversary of the Whitehall conference, 1 655- 1 905. 
England. Calendar of the plea rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews preserved in the Public 
Record Office. Vol. II. Edward I.. 1273-1275. Edited by J. M. Rigg. . . .— 1910. 

JlRKU (Anton) Materialien zur Volksreligion Israels. . . . Leipzig, \9\^. 
8vo, pp. viii, 149. R 36429 

Montgomery Oames Alan) The Bohlen Lectures for 1906. The 
Samaritans : the earliest Jewish sect, their history, theology and literature. 
[With maps and plates.] Philadelphia, 1907. 8vo, pp. xiv, 358. 

R 37663 

Smith (Henry Preserved) The religion of Israel : an historical study. 
Edinburgh, 1914. 8vo, pp. x, 369. R 37498 

"MUHAMMADISM.— CaetANI (Leone) Principe di Teano, Studi di 
storia orientale. [With maps.] M^Zano, 191 1-1914. 8vo. In p^'o- 
gress, ^ R 33564 

1. Islam e Cristianesimo-L* Arabia preislamica— Gli Arabi antichi.— 1911. 
3. La biografia di Maometto profeta ed uomo di stato— II principio del califfato— La con- 
quistad Arabia.— 1914. 

8 



114 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

290 RELIGION: NON-CHRISTIAN. 

Kur'aN. Leaves from three ancient Qurans, possibly prc-'Othmanic, 
with a list of their variants. Edited by . . . Alphonse Mingana . . . 
and Agnes Smith Lewis. . . . [With facsimiles.] Cambridge, 1914. 
4to. pp. xlv. 75. R 37491 

Kur'aN. The Qoran ; with the commentary of . . . Aboo al-Qasim 
Mahmood bin *Omar al-Zamakhshari, entitled ** The Kashshaf 'an haqaiq 
al-tanzil." Edited by W. Nassau Lees . . . and . . . Khadim Hosain 
and 'Abd al-Hayi. . . . Calcutta, 1856-59. 2 vols. 4to. R 34025 

KUR*AN. II Corano. Versione italiana del . . . Vincenzo Calza. . . . 
Con commenti, ed una notizia biografica di Maometto. Bastia, 1847. 
8vo, pp. xiv, 330. R 37973 

Vital Forces. The vital forces of Christianity and Islam : six studies 
by missionaries to Moslems, with an introduction by . . . S. M. Zwemer 
. . . and a concluding study by . . . Duncan B. Macdonald. . . . 
Oxford, 1915. 8vo. pp. viii, 250. R 38812 

MINOR RELIGIONS.— Religious Quest of India. The religious 

quest of India. Edited by J. N. Farquhar . . . and H. D. Griswold. 
. . . Oxford, 1915. 8vo. In progress. R 39064 

Stevenson (M.) The heart of Jainism. . . . With an introduction by ... G. P. Taylor. . , . 

TaGORE (Devendra Nath) The autobiography of ... D. Tagore. . . . 
Translated from the original Bengali by Satyendranath Tagore and Indira 
Devi. [With an introduction by E. Underbill.) [With portrait.] 
London, 1914. 8vo. pp. xlii. 295. R 37463 

GRANTH. The Adi Granth, or the holy scriptures of the Sikhs, translated 
from the original Gurmukhi, with introductory essays, by . . . Ernest 
Trumpp. . . . Printed by order of the Secretary of State for India in 
Council. (Appendix. Original text of the Japji). London, 1877. 
8vo, pp. cxxxviii, 715. R 38678 

CheYNE (Thomas Kelly) TTie reconciliation of races and religions. . . . 
With frontispiece. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xx, 216. R 37552 

300 SOCIOLOGY : general. 

COURCELLE SeNEUIL (Jean Gustave) Preparation a Tetude du droit : 
etude des principes. . . . Paris, 1887. 8vo, pp. xi, 489. R 28027 

LeRMINIER QedJi Louis Eugene) Philosophie du droit. . . . Troisieme 
edition, revue, corrigee et augmentee. . . . Paris, 1853. 8vo, pp. 
xxxvi, 535. R 28941 

London School of Economics and PoHtical Science. Studies in 

economics and political science. Edited by . . . W. Pember Reeves. 
. . . London, 1912-14. 8vo. In progress. 

England. Seasonal trades. By various writers. With an introduction by S. Webb. 
Edited by S. Webb ... and A. Freeman. . . .— 1912. R 36068 

Dearie (N. B.) Industrial training, with special reference to the conditions prevailing in 
London -1914. R 375% 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 115 

300 SOCIOLOGY: GENERAL. 

Stephen (Sir James Fitzjames) Bart. Liberty, equality, fraternity. . . . 
London, 1873. 8vo, pp. vi, 350. R 29224 

TaRDE (Gabriel) Les lois de Timitation : etude sociologique. Paris, 
1890. 8yo. pp. viii, 431. R 28033 

Wallas (Graham) Human nature in politics. . . . Third edition. 
Lofidon, 1914. 8vo. pp. xvi, 302. R 36871 

320 SOCIOLOGY: POLITICAL SCIENCE. 

American Citizen Series. American citizen series. Edited by 
Albert Bushnell Hart. . . . Ne^v York, 1914. 8vo. In progress. 

R 38709 

Lowell (A. L.) Public opinion and popular government. . . . New edition. 

ChrISTENSEN (Arthur) Politics and crowd-morality : a study in the 
philosophy of politics. . . . Translated from the Danish by A. Cecil 
Curtis. . . . London, 1915. 8vo, pp. x, 270. R 38877 

HOSMER (George Washington) The people and politics; or, the structure 
of states and the significance and relation of political forms. . . . 
Londoii, 1883. 8vo, pp. vi, 339. R 29463 

Mason (Henry Joseph Monck) Essay on the antiquity and constitution of 
parliaments in Ireland. Dublin, 1820. 8vo, pp. 70, xii. R 38317 

MULFORD (E.) The nation : the foundations of civil order and political 
life in the United States. Netv York, 1870. 8vo, pp. xiv, 418. 

R 29264 

PaRTOUNAU DU PuyNODE (Michel Gustave) Les lois du travail et de 
la population. Paris, I860. 2 vols, in 1. 8vo. R 30128 

PULSZKY (Agost) The theory of law and civil society. [Translated from 
the Hungarian.] London, 1888. 8vo, pp. 443. R 28550 

Schuyler (Eugene) American diplomacy and the furtherance of commerce. 
London, [1886]. 8vo, pp. xiv, 469. R 29481 

Smith (Richmond Mayo) Emigration and immigration : a study in social 
science. Lotidon, 1890. 8vo, pp. xiv, 316. R 29295 

Thwing (Charles Franklin) aiid (Carrie F. Butler). The family: an 
historical and social study. Boston, 1887. 8vo, pp. 213. R 30335 

TreITSCHKE (Heinrich von) Politik. Vorlesungen gehalten an der 
Universitat zu Berlin. . . . Herausgegeben von Mcix Cornicelius. . . . 
Dritte. . . . Auflage. Leipzig, 1911-13. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37772 

VlLLIAUM^ (Nicolas) La politique moderne: traite complet de politique. 
. . . Paris, 1873. 8vo, pp. iv, 352. R 29972 



116 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

330 SOCIOLOGY: POLITICAL ECONOMY. 

GENERAL: ACAZZINI (Michele) La science de reconomie politique, ou 
principes de la formation, du progres, el de la decadence de la richessc ; 
et application de ces principes a Tadministration economique des nations. 
[With folding tables.) Paris, 1822. 8vo. pp. xv. 389. R 29966 

BaUDRILLART (Henri Joseph Leon) Manuel d'economie politique. 
Paris, 1857. 8vo. pp. viii, 496. R 27954 

Can NAN (Edwin) A history of the theories of production and distribution 
in ElngHsh political economy from 1776 to 1848. London, 1893. 8vo, 
pp. xi. 410. R 29752 

DenSLOW (Van Buren) Principles of the economic philosophy of society, 
government and industry. [With tables.] New York, [1888]. 8vo, 
pp. XXX. 782. R 29282 

Ely (Richard Theodore) An introduction to political economy. . . . 
With a preface by John K. Ingram. . . . London, 1891. 8vo, pp. 
358. R 29512 

FloREZ ElSTRADA (Alvaro) Curso de economia politica. Lofidres, 
1828. 2 vols. 8vo. R 30195 

GiDE (Charles) and RiST (Charles) A history of economic doctrines from 
the time of the physiocrats to the present day. . . . Translation from 
the second . . . edition of 1913 under the direction of . . . William 
Smart, by R. Richards. . . . London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xxiii, 672. 

R 39109 

GUILHAUD DE LavERGNE (Louis Gabriel Leonce) Les economistes 
frangais du dix-huitieme siecle. Paris, 1 870. 8vo, pp. 496. 

R 30061 

HOBSON Oohn Atkinson) The industrial system : an inquiry into earned 
and unearned income. . . . New and revised edition. Londofi, 1910. 
8vo, pp. XX. 338. R 36975 

LORIA (Achille) The economic synthesis : a study of the laws of income. 
. . . Translated from the Italian by M. Eden Paul. . . . London, 
1914. 8vo, pp. xii, 368. R 38749 

Marti NELLI (Jules) Entretiens populaires sur Teconomie politique. . . . 
Paris, 1866. 8vo, pp. viii, 264. R 29992 

MOLINARI (Gustave Henri de) Les lois naturelles de I'economie politique. 
Paris, [1887]. 8vo, pp. viii, 333. R 28990 

PaLGRAVE (Sir Robert Harry Inglis) Dictionary of political economy. 
Edited by Sir R H. I. Palgrave . . . [New edition with corrections! 
Vol. 1. . . . London, 1915. 8vo. In progress. R 38726 

Patten (Simon Nelson) The theory of prosperity. New York, 1902. 
8vo, pp. ix.-237. R 29262 

CAPITAL AND LABOUR.— AUDIGANNE (Armand) La lutte industrielle 
des peuples. . . . Paris, 1868. 8vo, pp. 416. R 28989 



i 



CLASSIFIED^LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 117 

2bic9 

330 SOCIOLOGY: POLITICAL ECONOMY. 

Cole (George ' Douglas Howard) The world of labour : a discussion of 
the present and future of trade unionism. . . . With a frontispiece by 
Will Dyson. London, 1913. 8vo, pp. vii. 443. R 39155 

HOBSON (John Atkinson) The evolution of modern capitalism. A study 
of machine production. . . . New and revised edition. [With illustra- 
tions.] [The Contemporary Science Series.] London and Felling-on- 
Tyne, 1906. 8vo, pp. xv. 450. R 36973 

MaLLOCK (William Hurrell) Labour and the popular welfare. . . . New 
edition, with appendix. London, 1894. 8vo, pp. xxviii, 357. 

R 30316 

Marx (Carl) Capital : a critical analysis of capitalist production. . . . 
Translated from the third German edition, by Samuel Moore and Edward 
Aveling, and edited by Frederick Engels. [Fifth edition.] [Half-guinea 
International Library.] London, 1896. 8vo, pp. xxxi, 816. R 37550 

National Guilds. National guilds : an inquiry into the wage system 
and the way out. Edited by A. R. Orage. London, 1914. 8vo, 
pp. viii. 370. Rf39152 

Suisse (Jules Francois Simon) afterwards SiMON G^les Francois) 
L*ouvriere. . . . Troisieme edition. Paris, 1861. 8vo, pp. xi, 414. 

R 29944 

Le travail. Paris, 1866. 8vo. pp. iii, 420. R 30162 

Taylor (Frederick Winslow) The principles of scientific management. 
New York and London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 144. R 36974 

MONEY.— JUGLAR (Clement) Du change et de la liberte d' emission. 
[With folding tables.] Paris, 1868. 8vo, pp. xii, 496. R130165 

SOCIALISM.— GUYOT (Yves) La tyrannie socialiste. . . . Pam, 1893. 
8vo. pp. XV, 272. R 29977 

Leroy-BeauLIEU (Pierre Paul) Le collectivisme : examen critique du 
nouveau socialisme. L'evolution du socialisme depuis 1895 : le 
syndicalisme. . . . Cinquieme edition revue et . . . augmentee. 
[Economistes et Publicistes Contemporains.] Paris, 1909. 8vo, pp. 
xxii. 709. R 32336 

TreITSCHKE (Heinrich von) Der Socialismus und seine Conner. Nebst 
einem Sendschreiben an Gustav Schmoller. Berlin, 1875. 8vo, pp. 
142. R 39071 

WOOLSEY (Theodore Dwight) Communism and socialism in their history 
and theory: a sketch. London, [1880]. 8vo, pp. vii. 309. R 29449 

FINANCE.— Adams (Henry Carter) Public debts; an essay in the 
science of finance. London, 1888. 8vo, pp. xi, 407. R 29624 

AudiffRET (Charles Louis Gaston d*) Marquis. Systeme financier de 
la France. [With folding tables.] Paris, 1840. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 30131 



118 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

330 SOCIOLOGY: POLITICAL ECONOMY. 

BONHAM (John M.) Industrial liberty. New York and London, 1888. 
8vo, pp. ix, 414. R 29292 

Patterson (Robert Hogarth) The science of finance: a practical 
treatise. . . . London, 1868. 8vo, pp. xxii, 710. R 29316 

FREE TRADE.— BOVET-BOLENS (Henri) La fin de la crise. Paris, 
Lausanne, 1888. 8vo. pp. 293. R 30163 

PAUPERISM.— FaWCETT {Bight Hon, Henry) Pauperism : its causes 
and remedies. Loridon and Neiv York, 1871. 8vo, pp. viii, 270. 

R 29297 

HOBSON 0°!^^ Atkinson) Problems of poverty: an inquiry into the 
industrial condition of the poor. [University Elxtension Series.] 
London, 1891. 8vo, pp. vi, 232. R 29304 

RlIS (Jacob August) The children of the poor. . . . Illustrated. London, 
1892. 8vo, pp. xi. 300. R 2%37 

340 SOCIOLOGY: LAW. 

BlZZELL (William Bennett) Judicial interpretation of political theory : a 
study in the relation of the courts to the American party system. . . . 
New York and London, 1914. 8vo, pp. v. 273. R 38689 

COELHO (Trindade) Manual politico do cidadao portuguez. 2* edigao 
actualisada e muito augmentada. Prefacio de Alberto d'Oliveira. . . . 
Porto, 1908. 8vo, pp. xvi. 720. R 37139 

Dicey (Albert Venn) Introduction to the study of the law of the con- 
stitution. . . . Ejghth edition. London, 1915. 8vo, pp. cv, 577. 

R 38518 

DUPUIS (Charles) Le droit de la guerre maritime d*apres les conferences 
de la Haye et de Londres. Paris, 191 1. 8vo, pp. xxi, 621. 

R 38492 

Le droit de la guerre maritime d'apres les doctrines anglaises con- 

temporaines. [Bibliotheque Internationale et Diplomatique, 37.] Paris, 
1899. 8vo, pp. XX, 476. R 38491 

England. A collection of acts and ordinances of general use» made in 
the Parliament begun and held at Westminster the third day of November, 
anno 1 640 and since, unto the adjournment of the Parliament begun . . . 
the 1 7th of September, anno 1 656, and formerly published in print, 
which are here printed at large with marginal notes, or abbreviated : 
being a continuation of that work from the end of . . . Pulton's col- 
lection. ... By Henry Scobell. . . . Elxamined by the original records ; 
and now printed by special order of Parliament. London, 1658. 2 
pts. in 1 vol. Fol. R 35764 

The land : the report of the Land Enquiry Committee. . . . [With 

maps.] London, \9\3'\4. 2 vols. 8vo. R 35026 

1 . Rural. Third edition.— 1913. 

2. Urban.-I9l4. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 119 

340 SOCIOLOGY: LAW. 

GrEENIDGE (Abel Hendy Jones) The legal procedure of Cicero's time. 

Oxford, 1901. 8vo. pp. xiii, 599. R 38372 

HOBSON Oohn Atkinson) Towards international government. London, 

[1915]. 8vo, pp. 216. R 39126 

Ireland. The statutes at large, passed in the Parliaments held in Ireland ; 
from the third year of Edward the Second, A.D. 1310, to the first year 
of George the Third, A.D. 1761 inclusive (to the fortieth year of George 
the Third, A.D. 1800, inclusive). .. . Published by authority. Dublin, 
1765-1801. 20 vols. Fol. R 37557 

*^* Binding of each volume stamped wilh royal arms, except vols. 5, 8, 9, 13, 15, 17. 

An index to the acts passed in Ireland in the thirty-ninth and 

fortieth years of the reign of . . . King George the Third ; together 
with an appendix, containing a short index to such acts of the Parliament 
of the United Kingdom, passed in the 41st, 42nd, and 43rd years of the 
same reign, as appear to bind Ireland. By William Ball. . . . Dublin, 
1804. Fol. R 37557 

*^* Binding stamped with royal arms. 

LoISELEUR Oean Auguste Jules) Les crimes et les peines dans Tantiquite 
et dans les temps modernes : etude historique. Paris, 1863. 8vo, pp. 
xii, 392. R 28928 

London : Middle Temple. (Middle Temple records. Edited by 
Charles Henry Hopwood. . . .) Lo7ido7i, 1903-05. 5 vols. 8vo. 

A calendar of the Middle Temple records. Edited by C. H. Hopwood. . . . — 1903. 

R 38061 

Minutes of Parliament of the Middle Temple. Translated and edited by C. T. Martin. 
. . . With an inquiry into the origin and early history of the inn by J. Hutchinson . . . 1501- 
I603(.1703).-1904-05. R 38062 

Hutchinson (John) A catalogue of notable Middle Templars 

with brief biographical notices. [Middle Temple.] [London], 1902. 
8vo, pp. xiv, 284. R 38063 

Mac IlWAIN (Charles Howard) The High Court of Parliament and its 
supremacy : an historical essay on the boundaries between legislation and 
adjudication in England. New Haven, 1910. 8vo, pp. xxi, 408. 

R 38725 

MaNDEVILLE (Bernard de) An enquiry into the causes of the frequent 
executions at Tyburn : and a proposal for some regulations concerning 
felons in prison, and the good effects to be expected from them. To 
which is added, a discourse on transportation, and a method to render 
that punishment more effectual. . . . London, 1725. 8vo, pp. 55. 

R 38266 

Treaties. Conventions and declarations between the powers concerning 
war, arbitration and neutrality. Declaration of Paris, 1856 — of St. 
Petersburg, 1868— of the Hague, 1 899— Convention of Geneva, 1906— 
2nd Peace Conference, the Hague, 1 907 — Declaration of London, 1 909. 
English— French— Cerman. The Hague, \9\ 5. 8vo. R 38329 



120 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

340 SOCIOLOGY: LAW. 

BaTY (Thomas) and MORGAN (John Hartman) War : its conduct and 
legal results. . . . London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xxviii, 578. R 38368 

352 SOCIOLOGY : LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 

GUYOT (Yves) Etudes de physiologie sociale. ... La police. Paris, 
1884. 1vol. 8vo. R 28940 

Hunt (Gaillard) The Department of State of the United States : its 
history and functions. Neiv Haven, 1914. 8vo, pp. viii, 459. 

R 37688 

355 SOCIOLOGY: MILITARY SCIENCE. 

CaRRION-NisAS (Marie Henri Francois Elisabeth de) Marquis. Essai 
sur rhistoire generale de Tart militaire, de son origine, de ses progres et 
de ses revolutions depuis la premiere formation des societes europeennes 
jusqu*a nos jours, orne de . . . planches. . . . Paris, 1824. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 29997 

CLAUSEWITZ (Carl von) On war. . . . Translated by J. J. Graham. 
New and revised edition. With introduction and notes by . . . F. N. 
Maude. . . . Second impression. . . . [With portrait.] London, 
1911. 3 vols. 8vo. R 38222 

HeNNEBERT (Eugene) L'Europe sous les armes. . . . Ouvrage accom- 
pagne de . . . cartes et plans. . . . Paris, 1884. 8vo, pp. viii, 216. 

R 29975 

FURSE (George Armand) The organization and administration of the Hnes 
of communication in war. . . . [With illustrations.] London, 1894. 
8vo, pp. viii, 517. R 29355 

Germany. The German war book ; being " The usages of war on 
land '* issued by the Great General Staff of the German Army. Trans- 
lated with a critical introduction by J. H. Morgan. . . . [Third impres- 
sion.] London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xv. 152. R 38186 

GoLTZ (Colmar von der) Freiherr. The nation in arms. A treatise on 
modern military systems and the conduct of war. . . . Translated by 
Philip A. Ashworth. Popular edition. Edited by A. Hilliard Atteridge. 
London, 1914. 8vo, pp. viii, 288. R 38220 

Jackson (Robert) A view of the formation, discipline and economy of 
armies. . . . The third edition, revised, with a memoir of his life and 
services, drawn up from his own papers, and the communications of his 
survivors. [With portrait.] London, 1845. 8vo, pp. cxxxv, 425. 

R 29641 

MacDOUGALL (Sir Patrick Leonard) The theory of war : illustrated by 
. . . examples from military history. [With maps.] London, 1856. 
8vo, pp. xi, 353. R 292 10 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 121 

355 SOCIOLOGY: MILITARY SCIENCE. 

MiDDLETON (O. R.) Outlines of military history ; or, a concise account of 
the principal campaigns in Europe between the years 1 740 and 1 870. . . . 
[With maps.] London, [1886]. 8vo. pp. xv, 323. R 30282 

Pr^VAL (Claude Antoine Hippolyte de) Vicomte. Du service des armees 
en campagne. Blois, 1827. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 8vo. R 31464 

370 SOCIOLOGY: EDUCATION. 

GENERAL.— BiNET (Alfred) and SiMON (Th.) A method of measuring 
the development of the intelligence of young children. . . . Authorized 
translation with preface and an appendix ... by Clara Harrison Town. 
. . . Second edition. . . . [With illustrations.] Chicago, [1913]. 
8vo, pp. 82. R 38508 

CaMPAGNAC (Ernest Trafford) Studies introductory to a theory of educa- 
tion. Cambridge, 1915. 8vo, pp. ix, 133. R 39088 

ClaPAREDE (Edouard) Experimental pedagogy and the psychology of the 
child. . . . Translated from the fourth edition of ** Psychologie de 
I'enfant et pedagogic experimentale ** by Mary Louch and Henry Holman. 
Second impression. [With illustrations.] London, 1913. 8vo, pp. 
viii. 332. R 38506 

Hall (Granville Stanley) Educational problems. New York and London, 
1911. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38476 

Henderson (John C.) Thomas Jefferson*s views on public education. [With 
portrait.] New York and London, 1890. 8vo, pp. viii, 387. R 292 II 

Holland (Robert Wolstenholme) The law relating to the child; its pro- 
tection, education, and employment. With introduction on the laws of 
Spain, Germany, France and Italy, and bibliography. Loiidon, [1914]. 
8vo, pp. xxiv, 142. R 38104 

Latham (Henry) On the action of examinations considered as a means of 
selection. Cambridge, 1877. 8vo, pp. xx. 544. R 29475 

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES.— BARKER Qohn Marshall) Colleges 
in America. . . . With an introduction by . . . Sylvester F. Scovel. , .i 
Cleveland, OAzo,' 1894. 8vo, pp. 265. R36987 

Brown University. Historical catalogue of Brown University, 1764- 
1914. Providence, Rhode Island, 1914. 8vo, pp. 789. R 38692 

Clark University. List of degrees granted at Clark University and 
Clark College, 1889-1914. Compiled by Louis N. Wilson. [Publica- 
tions of the Clark University Library, 4, i.] Worcester, Mass., [1914]. 
8vo, pp. 52. R 37517 



122 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

370 SOCIOLOGY: EDUCATION. 

Columbia University. Studies in history, economics and public law. 
Edited by the Faculty of Political Science of Columbia University. 
[With map.] New York, ]9\A. 8yo. In progress. R 38888 

58, 141. Hamilton (J. G. de R.) Reconstruction in North Carolina. 
60, i. Coleman (C. B.) Constantine the Great and Christianity : three phases : the 
historical, the legendary, and the spurious. 

Copenhagen UnIVERSITET. Forelaesninger og Ovelser ved Kobenharns 
Universitet og den polytekniske Laereanstalt ... 1914. . . . K^)henhavn, 
\9U,etc. 8vo. R 38536 

La FuENTE (Vicente de) Historia de las universidades, colegios y demas 
establecimientos de ensefianza en Elspana. Madrid, 1884-85. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 27545 

Parker (Irene) Dissenting academies in England ; their rise and progress 
and their place among the educational systems of the country. Cam- 
bridge, 1914. 8vo, pp. xii, 168. R 38102 

Victoria University of Manchester. Manchester University 

lectures. Maiichester, 1914-15. 8vo. In progress. 

18. Rowntree (B. S.) Lectures on housing. The Warburton Lectures for 1914. By B. 
S. Rowntree and A. C. Pigou.— 1914. R 37644 

Historical Series. 

20. Joannes, de Reading. Chronica Johannis de Reading et anonymi Cantuariensis, 
1346-1367. Edited with introduction and notes by J. Tait. . . .—1914. > R 37645 

21. Tout (T. F.) The place of the reign of Edward II in English history. Based upon 
the Ford lectures delivered in the University of Oxford in 1913. .. .— 1914. R 376>46 

24. Germany in the nineteenth century. Second series. By A. S. Peake, B. - Bosanquet. 
and F. Bonavia.— 1915. R 30624 

26. Rolle (R.) of Hampole. The Incendium amoris of R. Rolle of Hampole. Edited 
by M. Deanesly -1915 R 38840 

380 SOCIOLOGY: COMMERCE, COMMUNICATION. 

ACWORTH (William Mitchell) The railways and the traders : a sketch of 
the railway rates question in theory and practice. London, 1891. 
8vo, pp. 14,378. R 29633 

ChisHOLM (George Goudie) Handbook of commercial geography. 
[With maps.] London, 1889. 8vo, pp. x, 515. R 29625 

ScHERZER (Carl von) Das wirthschaftliche Leben der Volker. Ein Hand- 
buch iiber Production und Consum. Leipzig, 1885. 8vo, pp. xi, 756. 

R 30197 

390 SOCIOLOGY: CUSTOMS, ETC. 

Mac LeNNAN (John Ferguson) Primitive marriage : an inquiry into the 
form of capture in marriage ceremonies. Edinburgh, 1865. 8vo, pp. 
xii. 326. R 29748 



i 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 123 

390 SOCIOLOGY: CUSTOMS, ETC. 

MarIAGE. Le manage au point de vue chretien. Guvrage specialement 
adresse aux jeunes femmes du monde. . . . [By Valerie, comtesse de 
Gasparin.] Paris, 1843. 3 vols. 8vo. R 37562 

Punjab. Romantic tales from the Punjab, with illustrations by native 
hands. Collected and edited from original sources by . . . Charles 
Swynnerton. . . . Westminster, 1903. 8vo, pp. xlvi. 483. R 39208 

Scotland. Ancient legends of the Scottish Gael. Gille A*Bhuidseir, 
The wizard's gillie, and other tales. Edited and translated by J. G. 
McKay. From the magnificent manuscript collections of ... J. F. 
Campbell. . . . [With plates.] London, [1914]. 8vo, pp. 141. 

R 36221 

SOMMER (Heinrich Oskar) The structure of Le livre d'Artus and its 
function in the evolution of the Arthurian prose- romances. A critical 
study in mediaeval literature. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 47. R 38847 

Trumbull (Henry Clay) The blood covenant : a primitive rite and its 
bearings on scripture. London, 1887. 8vo, pp. viii, 350. R 29953 

420 PHILOLOGY: English. 

Kington (Thomas Lawrence) afterwards OlipHANT (Thomas Lawrence 
Kington) The sources of standard Elnglish. London, 1873. 8vo, pp. 
xxiii, 408. R 30324 

Simplified Speling SosieTI. The pioneer ov simplified speling. 
Vol. 1 (3). LoncZon, 1912-14. 2 vols. 8vo. R 26612 

Wyld (Henry Cecil) The historical study of the mother tongue: an 
introduction to philological method. . . . [Second impression.] London, 
1907. 8vo, pp. xi. 412. R 38084 

439 PHILOLOGY: FLEMISH. 

LebROCQUY (Pierre) Analogies linguistiques. Du flamand dans ses 
rapports avec les autres idiomes d*origine teutonique. . . . Bruxelles, 
1845. 8vo, pp. vii, 479. R 30305 

440-450 PHILOLOGY: FRENCH, ITALIAN, SPANISH. 

CaILLOT (Antoine) Nouveau dictionnaire proverbial, satirique et burlesque. 
. . . Paris, 1826. 8vo, pp. x, 538. R 30290 

Delvau (Alfred) Dictionnaire de la langue verte. Nouvelle edition . . . 
augmentee d'un supplement par Gustave Fustier. Paris, [1889]. 8vo, 
pp. xxii, 592. R 37909 

HoaRE (Alfred) An Italian dictionary. (Italian-English dictionary. — 
A concise English-Italian vocabulary.) Cambridge, 1915. 4to, pp. 
xvi, 663, cxxxv. R 38380 



124 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

440-450 PHILOLOGY: FRENCH, ITALIAN, SPANISH. 

LaUGIERI (Edoardo) Dizionario di marina e di commercio marittimo : 
italiano-inglese e inglese-italiano. ([Pt. 2 :] A nautical, technical 
and commercial dictionary of the English and Italian languages.) Genova, 
1880. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 8vo. R 29973 

PeRINI (Napoleone) An Italian conversation grammar . . . followed by a 
short guide to Italian composition. Also an English-Italian and Italian- 
English vocabulary. . . . Sixth edition. . . . London, \9\3. 8vo, pp. 
viii. 264. R 37465-1 

Key to the . . . exercises contained in the Italian conversation 

grammar. , . . London, [19131. 8vo, pp. 51. R 37465*2 

TraBALZA (Giro) Storia della grammatica italiana. [With facsimiles.] 
Milano, 1908. 8vo. pp. xvi. 561. R 38386 

FlGUE?IREDO (Candido de) Novo diccionario da lingua portuguesa . . . 
Nova edi^ao . . . refundida, corrigida e . . . ampliada. Lisboa, 
1913. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37823 

480 PHILOLOGY: GREEK AND LATIN. 

ElCHTHAL (Gustave d') La langue grecque. Memoires & notices, 
1864-1884. Precede d*une notice sur les services rendus, par . . . G. 
d'Elichthal, a la grece et aux etudes grecques, par le m'^ de Queux de 
Saint-Hilaire. [Edited by E. d'Eichthal.j Paris, 1887. 8vo, pp. 
iii. 426. R 30287 

PeiLE (John) An introduction to Greek and Latin etymology. London, 
1869. 8vo, pp. xxiii, 324. R 30325 

WyNDHAM (Francis Merrick) Latin and Greek as in Rome and Athens, 
or, classical languages and modern tongues. London, 1880. 8vo, pp. 
87. R 30298 

StiCKEL (Johann Gustav) Das Etruskische durch Erklarung von Inschriften 
und Namen als semitische Sprache erwiesen. . . . Mit Holzschnitten 
und . . . Bild-und Schrifttafeln. Leipzig, 1858. 8vo, pp. xvi, 2%. 

R 37418 

Thumb (Albert) Handbuch der neugrieschischen Volkssprache. Gram- 
matik. Texte. Glossar. . . . Zweite, verbesserte und erweiterte Auflage. 
Strassburg, 1910. 8vo, pp. xxxi, 359. R 38089 

490 PHILOLOGY: MINOR LANGUAGES. 

BiBLIOTHEK InDOGERMANISCHER GRAMMATIKEN. Leipzig, 1884. 
8vo. In progress. R 7824 

Bd 2. Anhang I. Whitney (W. D.). Grammatisches aus dem Mahabharata. Eio 
Anhang zu W. D. Whitney's indischer Grammatik. Von A. Holtzman. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 125 

490 PHILOLOGY: MINOR LANGUAGES. 

Columbia University. Indo-Iranian series. Edited by A. V. W. 

Jackson. . . . New York, \\902. 8vo. In progress. 

2. Gray (L.H.) Indo-Iranian phonology, with special reference to the Middle and New 
Indo-Iranian languages.— 1 902. R 36056 

3. Schuyler (M.) tJie Younger. A bibliography of the Sanskrit drama, with an intro- 
ductory sketch of the dramatic literature of India. — 1906. J^ 36058 

4. Schuyler (M.) the Younger. Index verborumjof the fragments of the Avesta.— 1901. 

R 36057 

5. Khuddaha-Nikaya.— Itivuttaka. Sayings of Buddha : the Iti-vuttaka. A Pali work 
of the Buddhist canon, for the first time translated, with an introduction and notes, by J. H. 
Moore 1908. R 36059 

6. Avesta. The Nyaishes : or Zoroastrian litanies. Avestan text, with the Pahlavi, 
Sanskrit, Persian and Gujarali versions. Edited together, and translated with notes, by M. N. 
Dhalla -1908. R 36060 

7. Dhanamjaya, Son' of i Vishnu. The ■ Daiarupa : a treatise on Hindu dramaturgy. 
. . . Now first translated from the Sanskrit, with the text and an introduction and notes, by 
G.C. O.Haas -1912. R 36126 

6. Subandhu. Vasavadatta : a Sanskrit romance. . . . Translated, with an introduction 
and notes, by L. H. Gray -1913. R 36)84 

CaRNEGY (Patrick) Kachahri technicalities, or, a glossary of terms, rural, 
official and general, in daily use in the courts of law and in illustration of 
the tenures, customs, arts and manufactures of Hindustan. (Second edi- 
tion.) Allahabad, 1877. 8vo, pp. 361. R 38436 

Muhammad IbrahIm, Mirza, Grammatik der lebenden persischen 
Sprache. Nach Mirza Mohammed Ibrahim's Grammar of the Persian 
language neu bearbeitet von Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer. Zweite 
Auflage. Leipzig, 1875. 8vo, pp. xx, 262. R 37864 

GadELICA. Gadelica : a journal of modern-Irish studies. . . . Dublin, 
1912-13. 1vol. 8vo. In progress. R 32145 

Vol. I. etc. Edited by T. F. O'RahiUy. 

O'CONNELL (Frederick William) A i grammar of old Irish. Belfast, 
1912. 8vo, pp. xii, 191. R 38321 

Eys (W. J. van) Dictionnaire basque-fran^ais. Paris, Londres, 1873. 
8vo, pp. xlviii, 415. R 28983 

Forbes (Neville) Russian grammar. . . . Oxford, 1914. 8vo, pp. 244. 

R 38471 

Davidson (Andrew Bruce) An introductory Hebrew grammar with pro- 
gressive exercises in reading, writing, and pointing. . . . Nineteenth 
edition. Revised ... by John Edgar Macfadyen. . . . Edinburgh, 
1914. 8vo, pp. xiv. 236. R 38190 

Lambert (Mayer) De I'accent en arabe. [Elxtract from the Journal 
Asiatique.j [Paris, 1897.] 8vo, pp. 402-413. R 38155 

*»* The title is taken from the caption. 



126 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

490 PHILOLOGY: MINOR LANGUAGES. 

Abel (Hans) Zur Tonverschmelzung im Altaegyptischen. Leipzig, 
1910. 4to. pp. iv. 94. R 37691 

*,* The text is lithographed. 

Stern (Ludwig) Koptische Grammatik. . . . Mit einer. . . . Tafel. 
Leipzig, 1880. 8vo, pp. xviii. 470. R 37417 

JUDSON (Adoniram) Judson*s Burmese- English dictionary. Revised and 
enlarged by Robert C. Stevenson. . . . Rangoon, 1893. 8vo, pp. vii, 
1188,6 R 39195 

Reeve (William) A dictionary, Canarese and English. . . . Revised, 
corrected and enlarged by Daniel Sanderson. . . . Bangalore, 1858. 
8vo, pp. 1040. R 39031 

Japan. Thesaurus JaPONICUS. Japanisch-deutsches Worterbuch. 
Herausgegeben von dem Direktor [C. E. Sachau] des Seminars fiir 
orientalische Sprachen an der Koniglichen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat 
zu Berlin. 1^6^/^,1913. 4to. In progress. R 35220 

Lange (R. C. O.) Lexikon der in der jap}anischen Sprache iiblichen chinesischen Zeichen 
und ihrer Zusammensetzungen samt den verschiedcnen Arten der Aussprache und den 
Bedeutungen. ... 1. Band.— 1913. 

510 NATURAL SCIENCE: mathematics. 

Euclid. Evclidis elementorum libri Qvindecim. [Printer's device beneath 
title.] Parisiis, Ex Typographia Thomcs Richardi, sub Bibliis 
aureis, h regione collegij Remensis, 1558. 4to, tf. 44. R 39108 

MORSIANUS (Christianus Torchillus) Arithmetica breuis ac diludda C. T. 
Morsiani in quinq3 partes digesta. Colonice, M.D.XXVIIl. 8vo, ff. 
[32]. R 37535 

RiNGELBERGIUS (Joachimus Fortius) loachimi Fortij Ringelbergij Andouer- 
piani Arithmetica. [Printer's device beneath title.] Parisiis, Ex 
officina Gabrielis Buon, in clauso Brunello, ad D. Claudij insigne, 
1562. 4to. ff. 8. R 39107 

570 NATURAL SCIENCE : ARCH>EOLOQY, ANTHROPOLOGY 
AND EVOLUTION. 

BaCOT (Jacques) Les Mo-so. Ethnographic des Mo-so, leurs religions, 
leur langue et leur ecriture. . . . Avec les documents historiques et 
geographiques relatifs a Likiang par Ed. Chavannes. . . . Ouvrage 
contenant . . . planches . . . et une carte. . . . [Collection de I'lnstitut 
Ethnographique International de Paris.] Leide, ]9]3. 8vo, pp. vi, 218. 

R 35278 

CONKLIN (Edwin Grant) Heredity and environment in the development of 
men. [With illustrations.] [Norman W. Harris Lectures for 1914 at 
North Western University.] Princeton, 1915. 8vo, pp. xiv, 533. 

R 38811 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 127 

570 NATURAL SCIENCE: ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY 
AND EVOLUTION. 

HOWLEY (James P.) The Beothucks, or Red Indians: the aboriginal 
inhabitants of Newfoundland. IWith plates and illustrations.) Cam- 
bridge, 1915. 4to. pp. XX, 348. R 391 14 

INSTITUT DE PALiONTOLOGIE HUMAINES. Institut de paleontologie 
humaine. Peintures et gravures murales des cavernes paleolithiques. 
[With plates and illustrations.) Monaco, 1913. 1 vol. 4to. 

Breuil (H.) La Pasiega II Puente-Viesgo, Santander, Espagne. Par . . . H. Breuil . . . 
H. Oberraaier . . . et H. Alcalde del Rio. ... R 35845 

Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to Melanesia. [With maps and 
plates.) Cambridge, 1914. 8vo. In progress. R 38076 

Rivers (W. H. R.) The history of Melanesian Society. 2 vols.— 1914, 

Smith (William Ramsay) Australian conditions and problems from the 
standpoint of present anthropological knowledge. . . . Presidential 
address to the Section of Anthropology of the Australasian Association 
for the Advancement of Science, Melbourne, 1913. (Reprinted from 
Report of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Melbourne Meeting, 1913. Vol. xiv.) Melbourne, 1913. 8vo, pp. 
24. R 38686 

SOLLAS (William Johnson) Ancient hunters and their modern representa- 
tives. [Second edition.) [With plates and illustrations.) London, 
1915. 8vo, pp. xxiii, 591. R 38520 

Talbot (D. Amaury) Woman's mysteries of a primitive people : the 
Ibibios of Southern Nigeria. . . . With . . . illustrations. . . . Lon- 
don, 1915. 8vo, pp. viii, 251. R 39017 

S90 NATURAL SCIENCE: ZOOLOGY. 

BueCHNER (Friedrich Carl Christian Ludwig) La vida psiquica de los 
animales. . . . Obra traducida del aleman por A. Ocina y Aparido. 
Madrid, 1881 . 8vo, pp. 456. R 30583 

Fowler (William Warde) A year with the birds. . . . With illustrations 
by Bryan Hook. [Third edition. New impression.) London, 1914. 
8vo. pp. XV, 265. R 39094 

ThoRBURN (Archibald) British birds. Written and illustrated by A. 
Thorburn. . . . London, 1915. 4to. In progress. R 38482 

6io USEFUL ARTS: anatomy. 

VesalIUS (Andreas) Andreae Vesalii Bruxellensis, Invictissimi Caroli V. 
Imperatoris medici, de Humani corporis fabrica. Libri septem. [With 
woodcuts.) Basileae, Per loannem Oporinum. ([Colophon :) . . . 
Anno Salutis per Christvm parfae MDLV. Mense Augusto.) Fol. 
pp. [12), 824, [46). R 37544 



128 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

640 USEFUL ARTS : FURNITURE. 

LeNYGON (Francis) Furniture in England from 1660 to 1760. [With 
illustrations.] London, [1914]. 4to, pp. x, 300. R 37684 

650 USEFUL ARTS: PRINTING AND PUBLISHING. 

Alois (Harry Gidney) Book production and distribution, 1625-1800. 
(Reprinted from The Cambridge history of Elnglish literature. Volume 
XI. 1914). [Cambridge, 1914.] 8vo, pp. 32. R 37459 

*^* The title is taken from the wrapper. 

LaCOMBE (Paul) Histoire de Timprimerie en France au XTe et au xrie 
siecle. [Extrait du Bulletin du Bibliophile.] Paris, 1914. 8vo, pp. 
15. R 39023 

*,^* 50 copies printed. 

Serrano Y SaNZ (Manuel) La imprenta de Zaragoza es la mas antiqua 
de Espana ; prueba documental. . . . Publicada en el ** Arte Aragones **. 
[With facsimiles.] Zaragoza, 1915. 4to. pp. 22. R 38587 

VeRMIGLIOLI (Giovanni Battista) Principj della stampa in Perugia e suoi 
progressi per tutto il secolo XV. Nuovamente illustrati accrescuiti e 
corretti in questa seconda edizione. . . . Perugia, 1820. 8vo, pp. 
Yiii, 209. R 35641 

700 FINE ARTS : general. 

Paris : Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Fondation Eugene 
Piot. Monuments et memoires publics par TAcademie des Inscriptions 
et Belles-Lettres sous la direction de Georges Perrot et Robert de 
Lasteyrie . . . avec le concours de Paul Jamot . . . Tome vingtieme. 
[With plates and illustrations.] Paris, 1913. 4to. In progress. 

R 21797 

BOSANQUET (Bernard) Three lectures on aesthetic. London, (915. 
8vo, pp. ix, 118. R 38521 

COOMARASWAMY (Ananda K.) Visvakarma : examples of Indian archi- 
tecture, sculpture, painting, handicraft, chosen by A. K. Coomara- 
swamy. . . . London, 1914. 4to. In progress. R 33828 

1 . One hundred examples of Indian sculpture : with an introduction by E. Gill. 

Paris : Elxposition Retrospective de 1' Art Decoratif Franijais, 1 900. 
L'exposition retrospective de I'art decoratif fran^ais. Description 
par G. Migeon. . . . Avec une introduction par . . . E. Molinier. . . . 
Paris, [1901]. 1 vol. in 2. Fol. R 17487 

*^* 200 copies printed. This copy is No. 70. 

Princeton University. Princeton monographs in art and archaeology. 
[With illustrations.] Princeton, \9\^. 4to. In progress. R 38197 

3. Marquand (A.) L. della Robbia.-1914. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 129 

700 FINE ARTS: GENERAL. 

Rey (Barthelemy) Catalogue de la collection B. Rey. Par Seymour de 
Ricci. . . . Paris, [1914]. 4to. In progress. R 37835 

Objets d'art du moyen age et de la renaissance. 

Seta (Alessandro della) Religion & art : a study in the evolution of 
sculpture, painting and architecture. . . . Translated by Marion C. 
Harrison. With a preface by Mrs. Arthur Strong . . . and . . . 
illustrations. Lo7ido7i, l\9\ 4]. 8vo, pp. 415. R 37667 

720 FINE ARTS: ARCHITECTURE. 

BlomFIELD (Reginald) Architectural drawing, and draughtsmen. . . . 
With . . . illustrations. Londo7i, 1912. 4to. pp. xii. 96. R 39120 

BOERSCHMANN (Ernst) Die Baukunst und religiose Kultur der Chinesen : 
Einzeldarstellungen auf Grund eigener Aufnahmen wahrend dreijahriger 
Reisen in China. . . . (Mit . . . Bildern und . . . Tafeln). Berlin, 
1911-14. 2 vols. 4to. R 36263 

Clark (George Thomas) Mediaeval military architecture in England. . . . 
With illustrations. . . . London, 1884. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38532 

Cox (John Charles) The English parish church : an account of the chief 
building types & of their materials during nine centuries. [With illustra- 
tions.] London, [1914]. 8vo, pp. xix, 338. R 37502 

HavELL (Ernest Binfield) The ancient and medieval architecture of India : 
a study of Indo-Aryan civilisation. . . . With . . . illustrations and 
map. London, 1915. 4lo, pp. xxxv, 230. R 38247 

Parker (John Henry) The architectural antiquities of the city of Wells. 
. . . Illustrated. . . . Oxford and London, 1866. 8vo, pp. viii, 91. 

R 29838 

SadLEIR (Thomas Ulick) and DICKINSON (Page L.) Georgian 
mansions in Ireland ; with some account of the evolution of Georgian 
architecture and decoration. [With plates and illustrations.] Dublin, 
1915. 4to, pp. XX, 103. R 38590 

Scott {Sir George Gilbert) Remarks on secular & domestic architecture, 
present & future. . . . London, 1857. 8vo, pp. xii, 285. R 32351 

SluyTERMAN (T. K. L.) Interieurs anciens en Belgique. Par K. 
Sluyterman . . . avec la collaboration de . . . A. H. Cornette. . . . 
Avec planches . . . d*apres les photographies de G. Sigling. La Have, 
1913. Fol. ff. 30. R 38184 

Stewart (David James) On the architectural history of Ely cathedral. 
[With plates.] London, 1868. 8vo, pp. viii, 296. R 29807 

Cox Oohn Charles) Pulpits, lecterns & organs in English churches. . . . 
With . . . illustrations. Oxfm'd, 1915. 8vo, pp. xi, 228. R 38879 



130 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

7ao FINE ARTS: ARCHITECTURE. 

DUVEEN (Edward J.) Colour in the home ; with notes on architecture, 
sculpture, painting, and upon decoration and good taste. . . . With . . . 
illustrations. . . . London, [1912]. 4to, pp. ix, 167. R 38545 

Lenygon (Francis) Decoration in England from 1660 to 1770. [With 
illustrations.] London, [1914]. 4to. pp. x, 296. R 37685 

730 FINE ARTS : NUMISMATICS, PORCELAIN, BRONZES, ETC. 

DOTTI (E.) Tariffa di monete medioevali e modeme italiane secondo Tordine 
seguito dal "Corpus nummorum Italicorum **. . . . Milano, 1915. 
4to. In progress. R 32480 

4. Lombardia, zecche minori. 

Amsterdam : Koninklijke Academic van Wetenschappen. Besch- 
reibung der griechischen autonomen Mlinzen im Besitze der Kon. 
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Amsterdam. [By U. P. Boissevain.] 
[With plates.] Amsterdam, 1912. 4to, pp. 260. R 36988 

AUSCHER (Ernest Simon) A history and description of French porcelain. 
Translated and edited by William Burton. . . . Containing . . . plates 
. . . together with reproductions of marks. . . . London, 1905. 8yo. 
pp. xiv, 200. R 39096 

Burton (William) Porcelain ; a sketch of its nature, art and manufacture. 
With . . . plates. London, 1906. 8vo, pp. viii, 264. R 39098 

Chaffers (William) The new collector's hand-book of marks and mono- 
grcims on pottery & porcelain of the renaissance and modern periods. 
. . . Chiefly selected from his larger work entided " Marks and mono- 
grams on pottery and porcelain**. A new edition, 1914, revised and 
considerably augmented by Frederick Litchfield. . . . London, 1914. 
8vo, pp. X, 363. R 37356 

EarlE (Cyril) The Earle collection of early Staffordshire pottery, illustrat- 
ing over seven hundred . . . pieces. (Deposited in the Hull City 
Museum.) By ... C. Elarle. . . . With an introduction by Frank 
Falkner, and a supplementary chapter by T. Sheppard. . . . Contain- 
ing .. . reproductions. . . . London, [1915]. 4to, pp. xlvi, 240. 

R 39127 

GroLLIER (Charles Eugene de) Marquis. Manuel de Tamateur de 
porcelaines, manufactures europeennes, France exceptee, suivi du 
repertoire alphabetique et systematique de toutes les marques connues. 
Redige d'apres les notes du marquis de Grollier et du comte de 
Chavagnac par C. de Grollier. Paris, 1914. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37468 

HOBSON (Robert L.) Chinese pottery and porcelain : an account of the 
potter* s art in China from primitive times to the present day. . . . Plates. 
. . . London, 1915. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38527 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 131 

730 FINE ARTS: NUMISMATICS, PORCELAIN, BRONZES, ETC. 

KaYE (Walter Jenkinson) the Younger. Roman and other triple vases. 
. . . With a preface by . . .J. T. Fowler. [Reprinted from the 
Antiquary] [With plates and illustrations.] London, 1914. 8vo, 
pp. 40. R 38846 

Solon (M. Louis) A history and description of the old French faience, 
with an account of the revival of faience painting in France. . . . With 
a preface by William Burton. . . . Containing . . . plates . . . together 
with reproductions of marks. . . . London, 1903. 8vo, pp. xvi, 192. 

R 39097 

Perry (John Tavenor-) Dinanderie : a history and description of mediaeval 
art work in copper, brass and bronze. . . . With . . . illustrations. 
London, 1910. 4to, pp. xii, 238. R 39122 

740 FINE ARTS: CARICATURE. 

Dyson (William Henry) Kultur cartoons. . . . Foreword by H. G. 
Wells. London, [\9\bl Fol. R 38697 

*^* 500 copies printed. This copy is No. 17. 

740 FINE ARTS: TAPESTRY. 

Thomson (W. G.) Tapestry weaving in England from the earliest times 
to the end of the XVIIIth century. [With illustrations.] London, 
[1914]. 4to, pp. X, 172. R 37686 

750 FINE ARTS: PAINTING. 

Blake (William) Life of William Blake, ** pictor ignotus *'. With selec- 
tions from his poems and other writings. By . . . Alexander Gilchrist. 
. . . Illustrated from Blake*s own works in facsimile by W. J. Linton, 
and in photolithography ; with a few of Blake's original plates. [Edited 
by Anne Gilchrist with the assistance of D. G. Rossetti.] London and 
Cambridge, \863. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38245 

MiCHIELS Goseph Alfred Xavier) Rubens et Tecole d'Anvers. 
. . . Quatrieme edition revue et augmentee. Paris, 1877. 8vo, pp. 
viJ, 378. R 38576 

OSMASTON (Francis Plumtre Beresford) The art and genius of Tintoret. 
[With plates.] London, \9\5. 2 vols. 4to. R 38887 

ProUT (Samuel) Sketches by S. Prout in France, Belgium, Germany, 
Italy and Switzerland. Edited by Charles Holme. Text by Ernest G. 
Halton. London, 1915. 4to, pp. 26. R 38256 

Benson, Family of. Catalogue of Italian pictures at 16 South Street, 
Park Lane, London and Buckhurst in Sussex. Collected by Robert 
and Evelyn Benson. . . . London, privately printed, 1914. 4to, pp. 
xxvi, 229. R 37558 



132 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

760 FINE ARTS : ENGRAVING. 

Ames (Joseph) A catalogue of English heads : or, an account of about two 
thousand prints, describing what is peculiar on each. . . . [Being an 
index to the collection of prints in the possession of J. Nickolls.] 
London, 1748. 8vo, pp. 182. R 33278 

BeaUCHAMP (Richard) 1 Wi Earl of Warwick. Pageant of the birth, life, 
and death of R. Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, K.G., 1389-1439. 
Edited by Viscount Dillon . . . and W. H. St. John Hope. . . . Photo- 
engraved from the original manuscript in the British Museum by Elmery 
Walker. . . . London, 1914. 4to, pp. x. 109. R 36198 

BURCH (R. M.) Colour printing and colour printers. . . . With a chapter 
on modem processes by W. Gamble. Second edition. [With plates.) 
London, 1910. 8vo, pp. xviii, 280. R 39099 

Graphic Arts Series. The graphic arts series. . . . Edited by Joseph 
Pennell. [With plates.] London, 1915. 4to. In progress. 

R 39101 

I . Pennell (E. R.) Lithography and lithographers : some chapters in the history of the 
art. . . . Together with descriptions and technical explanations of modem artistic methods by 
J. Pennell. 

LeiscHING Qulius) Schabkunst: ihre Technik und Geschichte in ihren 
Hauptwerken vom xvii. bis zum xx. Jahrhundert. [With plates.] 
Wien, 1913. 4to. pp. vi. 98. R 36756 

London : Victoria and Albert Museum. Department of engraving, 
illustration and design. Japanese colour prints. By Edward F. Strange. 
Illustrated. [Fourth edition.] London, 1913. 8vo, pp. x, 169. 

R 35434 

PeRROUT (Rene) Les images d'Epinal. Nouvelle edition. Preface par 
Maurice Barres. . . . [With illustrations.] Paris, [191- ]. 4to, pp. 
x, 160. R 36204 

Strang (William) William Strang: catalogue of his etched work. 
Illustrated with . . . reproductions. With an introductory essay by 
Laurence Binyon. Glasgow, 1906. 8vo, pp. xn, 210. R 38096 

[A series of etchings by W. Strang illustrating some of R. Kipling's 

stories.] [1900.] 4to. R 25674 

780 FINE ARTS: MUSIC. 

StRANGWAYS (Arthur Henry Fox) The music of Hindostan. Oxford, 
1914. 8vo. pp. X. 364. R 39198 

WaLLASCHEK (Richard) Primitive music : an inquiry into the origin and 
development of music, songs, instruments, dances, and pantomimes of 
savage races. With musical examples. London, 1893. 8vo, pp. xi, 
326. R 39203 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 133 

780 FINE ARTS: MUSIC. 

Washington : Library of Congress. — Division of Music. ** The star 
spangled banner." Revised and enlarged from the " Report ** on the 
above and other airs, issued in 1909. By Oscar George Theodore 
Sonneck. . . . [With plates.] Washington, 1914. 8vo, pp. 115. 

R 37675 

Waltefis (Henry Beauchamp) The church bells of Shropshire : their 
founders, inscriptions, traditions and uses. . . . With . . . plates and 
. . . illustrations. . . . Osivestry, 1915. 4to. pp. v, 485. R 38591 

790 FINE ARTS : AMUSEMENTS. 

BerNES (Juliana) Bame. The boke of Saint Albans . . . containing 
treatises on hawking, hunting, and cote armour : printed at Saint Albans 
by the schoolmaster- printer in 1486, reproduced in facsimile. With an 
introduction by William Blades. . . . London, [1900]. 4to, pp. 32. 

R 38375 

A treatyse of fysshynge wyth an angle. . . . Being a facsimile re- 
production of the first book on the subject of fishing printed in Elngland 
by Wynkyn de Worde at Westminster in 1 496. With an introduction 
by . . . M. G. Watkins. . . . London, [188- ]. 4to. R 383% 

Fitzgerald (Percy Hetherington) The Garrick Club. [With portraits.] 
London, 1904. 4to, pp. xviii, 252. R 38377 

IncHBALD (Elizabeth) Memoirs of Mrs. Inchbald : including her familiar 
correspondence with the most distinguished persons of her time. To 
v/hich are added The massacre, and A case of conscience . . . published 
from her autograph copies. Edited by James Boaden. . . . [With 
portrait.] London, 1833. 2 vols. 8vo. R 19005 

MerCURIALIS (Hieronymus) Hieronymi Mercvrialis, De Arte Gymnastica, 
Libri Sex : In quibus exercitationum omnium vetustarum genera, loca, 
modi, facultates, & quidquid denique ad corporis humani exercitationes 
pertinet, diligenter explicatur. Secunda editione aucti, & multis figuris 
ornati. Opus non modo medicis, verumetiam omnibus antiquarum rerum 
cognoscendarum, & valetudinis conseruandae studiosis admodum vtile. . . . 
Parisiis, Apud lacobum du Puys, via D. loannis Later anensis, 
sub signo Samaritance, 1577. 4to, ff. [4], 201 [error for 200], [13]. 

R 37530 

WalLACK (John Johnstone) Memories of fifty years. . . . With an in- 
troduction by Laurence Hutton. With portraits and facsimiles. New 
York, 1889. 8vo, pp. xiv, 190. R 19050 

*♦* 500 copies printed. This copy is No. 392. 

(To he continued.) 



ABSRDBBN : THE UNIVERSITY PRESS (lI22) 



I 



BULLETIN OF 

THE JOHN RYLANDS 

LIBRARY 

MANCHESTER 



if 



Vol. 3 APRIL-DECEMBER, 1916 Nos. 2 and 3 

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS. 

AN exhibition to commemorate the Three-hundredth Anniver- 
sary of the Death of Shakespeare was arranged ^^^ 
in the main library, and opened on the Wed- SHAKE- 
nesday preceding the actual date of the anniversary COMMEMO- 
(the 23rd of April), which fell on Easter Sunday. RATION. 

The object which was kept in view in the selection and arrange- 
ment of the exhibits, was to show the unfolding of Shakespeare's mind 
as it is reflected in his works. This we sought to accomplish by ex- 
hibiting, not only such of the original and early editions of the poet's 
writings as the library possesses, but also the principal sources which 
he employed in their composition. 

As a result we were able to bring together copies of the actual 
editions of the principal works to which Shakespeare had access, 
probably upon the shelves of his own library, since they are known 
to be the authorities whence he drew the foundation plots, stories, 
and other illustrative matter, which, after passing through the crucible 
of his mind, were transformed into the living and lasting reality 
which we find enshrined in his immortal works. 

Of Shakespeare's own works we have been able to exhibit two 
sets of the four folios, and an interesting copy of the surreptitiously 
printed "Sonnets" of 1609, which made its first appearance in June, 
the identical month in which Edward AUeyn, the contemporary actor, 
and founder of Dulwich College, purchased a copy for 5d., the same 
figure as that which appears in manuscript on the title-page of the one 
exhibited. Of the original quartos of the plays, the library does not 
possess a single example ; therefore, for the purpose of illustrating the 
order of publication of the plays and poems, which were printed either 
with or without authority during the author's lifetime, we have had 
recourse to the excellent facsimiles which have appeared from time to 
time. 

10 



136 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

In addition to what may be described as the direct sources, we 
have included an interesting selection of contemporary works of a 
more general character, with which Shakespeare was certainly familiar, 
and which may be described as his general reference books. As an 
indication of the character of these works, mention may be made 
of the following : William Camden*s *' Britannia " ; John Florio*s 
"World of Words" and ** Second Fruits"; Leonard Digges* 
*' Pantometria," in which there is a description of the invention of the 
** camera obscura," which in its modern form is known as the** periscope," 
which is attributed to Digges ; Randle Cotgrave's ** French Diction- 
ary" ; ** Dives Pragmaticus" ; Richard Hakluyt*s *' Principal Navi- 
gations" ; and Saxton's ** Atlas". 

Another of the exhibition cases has been devoted to contemporary 
writings, which are of topographical or historical interest as bearing 
directly upon Shakespeare and his times, or which contain allusions to 
the poet, such as ** England's Parnassus"; Heywood's ** Apology 
for Actors"; the unique copy of ** Ratsei's Ghost" in which the 
author seems to make a sarcastic reflection on Shakespeare, who, a 
few years earlier, had purchased New Place, Stratford, out of his 
professional earnings. 

Finally, we have assembled a collection of school-books, many of 
which were current in Shakespeare's day. These serve to convey 
some idea of the character and standard of the education which ob- 
tained in England, not only at the time of our poet, but also in the 
earlier part of the sixteenth century. Amongst the works exhibited 
are: the little grammar " Rudimenta Grammatices ** prepared by 
Cardinal Wolsey for the use of the college at Ipswich, which he had 
established in succession to the old grammar school ; the first book 
wholly on arithmetic to be printed in England, the author of which 
was Cuthbert Tunstall, successively Bishop of London and Durham ; 
and the treatise on education entitled *'The Schoolmaster,** by Roger 
Ascham, the tutor of Queen Elizabeth, in which he testifies warmly 
to Her Majesty*s learning. 

The purpose which this and similar exhibitions are intended to serve, 
is to reveal to the public, and especially to students, the wealth of 
material available to them, in the library, for the study of the subjects 
dealt with. If we may judge from the large number of people, in- 
cluding numerous groups of students from the schools and colleges in 



i 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 137 

and around Manchester, who, with evident enjoyment, and avowed 
benefit, have visited the present exhibition, as well as from the ap- 
preciative notices which have appeared in the press, we venture to 
believe that the purpose has been fully achieved. 

It may interest our readers to know that the exhibition will remain 
on view until the early months of the new year. 

With a view to increase the educational value of the exhibition, and 
also to mark the occasion, a descriptive catalogue or hand- sHAKE- 
book has been issued, in which, by means of annotations h^b^WqiI'^' 
to the various entries, full and accurate information is CATA- 
given as to the bibliographical peculiarities, and other 
features of interest possessed by the respective exhibits. In the case 
of Shakespeare's own works, brief notes as to the sources have been 
appended to each of the plays, with an indication of the precise 
location in the exhibition and the catalogue of the works to which 
reference is made. 

A brief sketch of Shakespeare's life and times, followed by a chrono- 
logical table of the principal events connected with and surrounding 
the poet and his writings, has been prefixed to the catalogue, which 
concludes with a sixteen-page selected list of works for the study of 
Shakespeare, which may be consulted in the library. 

The volume, which extends to 180 pages, and is illustrated with 
sixteen facsimiles of the title-pages of some of the rarer and most 
interesting of the works exhibited, may be obtained from the usual 
agents at the price of one shilling (postage 4d.). 

The commemoration was further marked by the delivery of two 
lectures by Professor Richard G. Moulton, of Chicago SHAKE- 
University, on *' Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist," and ?.Q^^rw 
*' Shakespeare as a Dramatic Thinker ". On each ORATION 
occasion the hall was filled to overflowing, long before ^^^^^^^^• 
the advertised hour of the lecture, whilst hundreds of people were 
unable to gain admission. The lectures were full of inspiration and 
suggestion. The lecturer with his accustomed power seemed to cast 
a spell over his audience, as he revealed to them new beauties in the 
works of the dramatist, and opened out new avenues of study. 

Arrangements were also made with Mr. William Poel, the 
Founder and Director of the Elizabethan Stage Society, to deliver a 
lecture upon " Shakepeare's Stage and Plays". Unfortunately, a 



138 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

sudden attack of influenza prevented Mr. Poel from fulfilling his 

engagement, and in his unavoidable absence the Lib- 

• 1 1 «c w/L L CL 1 - WILLIAM 

rarian lectured on Why we honour Shakespeare . poEL ON 

We are glad, however, to be able to present our Ipe^are'S 
readers, in the present issue, with the substance of Mr. plays "^^^ 
PoeFs lecture. Unfortunately it is in cold print, and 
lacks the vitalizing personality of the lecturer, but in it some new and 
interesting theories are advanced which will be read with considerable 
interest, although they are not likely to pass unchallenged. 

The article has been issued also in a separate form, at the price 
of one shilling, and may be obtained from the usual agents. 

Our own exhibition has been admirably supplemented in Man- 
chester, at the Whitworth Art Gallery, by an interest- WHIT- 
ing and instructive exhibition of pictorial Shakespeareana, ^CTORIAL 
which was designed to illustrate, principally by means of SHAKE- 
pictures, the history of our national poet and the repre- EXHIBI- 
sentation of his works. It includes portraits of Shake- 
speare, his patrons, his critics, his commentators, as well as of actors ; 
with topographical illustrations including the play-houses, a long 
series of play-bills, medals, tokens, busts, etc. The arrangement of 
the material is excellent, and we offer our congratulations to the 
Governors of the Whitworth Institute and to the Curator, upon the 
success which has attended their enterprise in organizing an exhibition, 
which as a pendant to the John Ry lands collection has done much to 
increase the educational value of Manchester's Tercentenary Com- 
memoration. 

Elsewhere in the present issue we print the fourth list of contri- 
butions to the new library for the University of Louvain, LOUVAIN 
furnishing fresh evidence of the generous and widespread recoN- 
interest which our appeal on behalf of the crippled Uni- STRUCTION. 
versity has called forth. 

Already upwards of 8000 volumes have been actually received, 
and in themselves form an excellent beginning of the new library. 
Yet, when it is realized that the collection of books, so ruthlessly 
and senselessly destroyed at Louvain, numbered nearly a quarter 
of a million of volumes, it will be evident that if the work of replace- 
ment, which we have inaugurated, is to be accomplished, very much 
more remains to be done. 



II 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 139 

It IS with confidence that we renew our appeal for prompt offers 
of suitable books, or monetary contributions, to help us in this en- 
deavour to restore, at least in some measure, the resources of the 
crippled and exiled University, by the provision of a library adequate 
in every respect to meet the requirements of the case, so as to be in 
readiness for the time of her restoration. 

Arrangements have been made for the delivery of FORTH- 

the following lectures during the ensuing session. LIBRARY 

LECTURES. 

EVENING LECTURES (7.30 p.m.). 

Wednesday, II th October, 1916. "The Quintessence of 
Paulinism." By Arthur S. Peake, M.A., D.D., Professor of 
Biblical Exegesis in the Victoria University of Manchester. 

Wednesday, 8th November, 1916. "Dragons and Rain 
Gods." (Illustrated with Lantern Pictures.) By G. Elliot Smith, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy in the Victoria Uni- 
versity of Manchester. 

Wednesday, 13th December, 1916. "Mediaeval Town Plan- 
ning.** By T. F. Tout, M.A., F.B.A., Bishop Eraser Professor of 
Mediaeval and Ecclesiastical History in the Victoria University of 
Manchester. 

Wednesday, 10th January, 1917. "The Problem of Indian 
Land Revenue in the Eighteenth Century.** By J. Ramsay B. 
Muir, M.A., Professor of Modern History in the Victoria University 
of Manchester. 

Wednesday, 14th February, 1917. "The Poetry of Lucretius." 
By C. H. Herford, M.A., LittD., Professor of English Literature in 
the Victoria University of Manchester. 

Wednesday, 14th March, 1917. "A Puritan Idyll: Richard 
Baxter ( 1 6 1 5- 1 69 1 ) and his Love Story.** By Frederick J. Powicke, 
M.A., Ph.D. 

Wednesday, 18th April, 1917. " Shakespeare*s *Lear': A 
Moral Problem Dramatized.** By Richard G. Moulton, M.A., 
Ph.D., Professor of Literary Theory and Interpretation in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

Friday, 20th April, 1917. "Fiction as the Experimental Side 
of Human Philosophy.** By Richard G. Moulton, M.A., Ph.D. 



140 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

AFTERNOON LECTURES (3 p.m.). 

Tuesday, 17th October, 1916. "The Origin of the Cult of 
Aphrodite." (Illustrated with Lantern Pictures.) By J. Rendel 
Harris, M.A., Litt.D., D.TheoL, etc., Hon. Fellow of Clare College, 
Cambridge. 

Tuesday, 2nd January, 1917. "Sir Thomas More and his 
* Utopia.* ** ^ By Foster Watson, M.A., D.Lit., Emeritus Professor 
in the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, and Lecturer in 
Rhetoric in Gresham College, London. 

Tuesday, 6th March, 1917. "Shakespeare's Theatre.*' (Illu- 
strated by One Hundred Lantern Pictures.) By William Poel, 
Founder and Director of the Elizabethan Stage Society. 

Mrs. Emmott, of Birkenhead, has generously presented to the 
library, in memory of her husband, the late Professor impoR- 
Emmott, of Liverpool University, a collection of books, qf LAW 
numbering nearly 300 volumes, dealing with Roman BOOKS. 
Law and Comparative Law and Jurisprudence, in the hope that it 
may stimulate others to take an interest in a study in which the late 
Professor was himself so deeply interested. 

This collection forms a most welcome addition to our shelves, since 
it enables us to strengthen an important section of the library, which, 
hitherto, has been only very inadequately developed. 

During the process of registering and cataloguing the gift, it was 
found that a certain number of the works were already in the library. l| 
These volumes, with the kind consent of Mrs. Emmott, have been 
added to the Lou vain collection. 

Professor George Henry Emmott, whose memory, henceforth, 
will be perpetuated in the annals of this library, was the ^„p . . „,„ 
eldest of five sons of the late Thomas Emmott, of Brook- PROFESSOR 
field, Oldham. He was born in 1855, and was edu- 
cated, first at the Friends' School, Stramongate, Kendal, and after- 
wards at Owens College, Manchester, and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he took a First Class in the Law Tripos, in 1 878. On leaving 
the University he read law in the chambers of Mr. Joseph Bevan 
Braithwaite, and was called to the Bar in 1 879. Shortly afterwards 

^ In commemoration of the first publication of *' Utopia " at Louvain in 
February, 15if. 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 141 

he took chambers in Manchester, and was appointed Lecturer on 
English Law in Owens College. In 1881 he married Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Mr. Joseph Bevan Braithwaite, and for the next five 
years made his home at Wilmslow. 

Then came a call to a professorship in the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, where for ten years he entered with zest into all 
the activities of the University life, his work being principally with 
post-graduate students in Roman Law and Comparative Jurisprudence. 
For five years he was also Lecturer on Civil Law in Columbia Uni- 
versity, Washington. 

During the whole of his residence in America Professor Emmott 
made an annual visit to England to see his parents, and in 1896, on 
being offered the Queen Victoria Chair of Law in University College, 
now the University of Liverpool, he decided to return permanently. 
For twenty years he held this Chair, being Dean of his Faculty for 
nearly thirteen years, and continued his work up to the very end, 
delivering his last lecture on the day before his lamented death, which 
took place on the 8th of March, 1916. 

Speaking at the University Senate, the Vice-Chancellor, Sir Alfred 
Dale, paid a graceful tribute to the memory of his late colleague. 
*' How Emmott served us here we all know ; the endless pains he 
took over his work ; the quiet ardour with which he spent himself in 
helping others ; how much more ready as a teacher he was to give 
than most pupils are ready to receive. Except on formal business he 
seldom spoke in this room, but we valued his opinions, trusted his 
judgment, and when he spoke, could always be sure of this, that the 
last thing he thought of was his own interest and himself. Vanity, 
display, and self-seeking, he not only avoided, but abhorred. He was 
a man that even in these distracted days we shall not soon forget, and 
we shall always remember him as one who obeyed an inner law, and 
followed an inner light. . . ." 

Of the strength and soundness of his work Professor Maitland 
held a very high opinion, which was in itself a fine and rare dis- 
tinction. 

Of Quaker parentage Professor Emmott was throughout his life 
intimately associated with the Society of Friends. He was a great 
book- lover, and had a large and well-chosen library, in which he de- 
lighted to spend his leisure hours among never-failing friends. 



142 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Among the recent acquisitions of the library is a collection of 
manuscripts, numbering forty pieces, of undetermined MANU- 
antiquity, in the language of the Mo-so people. These j^E MO-SO 
manuscripts are of considerable importance, since they LANGUAGE, 
represent the largest : group in this particular script to be brought into 
Europe. They were acquired through the instrumentality of Mr. 
George Forrest, who obtained them in the remote and little- known 
country of their origin, whence he returned only a few months since. 

The manuscripts are mostly oblong in shape, measuring about three 
inches in height by ten inches in width, and are written in picture 
characters, on a thick Oriental paper of uneven texture, apparently 
brown with age. 

The Mo-so are a non-Chinese race scattered throughout Southern 
China, but their stronghold, and the seat of their traditions, is the 
prefecture of Li-Kiang-fou, called in Tibetan ** Sa-dam," and in Mo- 
so " Ye-gu,** which is in the north-west of Yun-nan. 

The present prefect traces his descent to a line of kings that go 
back as far as the year 6 1 8. 

Travellers from the days of Marco Polo have made reference to 
this people, but until quite recent years no attempt has been made to 
deal with their history and language, probably because few scholars 
had penetrated to the remote region of their habitat. The first 
scientific monograph upon the subject was read before the Academie 
des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres, in 1908, by M. Cordier. In 1913, 
another scholar, M. J. Bacot, after a residence of several months in the 
Mo-so country, published, under the auspices of the Institut ethno- 
graphique international de Paris, an interesting study of the ethnography, 
religion, language, and writing of the people, in which he was assisted 
by M. E. Chavannes, who was responsible for a translation and study 
of the texts, dealing with the genealogy of the kings of Mo-so, which 
M. Bacot obtained fi'om their direct descendant. 

The Mo-so spoken language differs from the written language. 
The latter consists of pictographic, ideographic, and syllabic characters. 

Many of the ideographic characters, M. Bacot tells us, are very 
obscure. It is for that reason we attach considerable importance to 
an excellent key to one of the manuscripts, which Mr. Forrest was 
fortunately able to obtain, through the services of a Chinese scholar, 
who was familiar vsath the people and their language. 




LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 143 

The manuscript referred to was first transcribed and then furnished 
with an interlinear translation in Chinese characters. A further trans- 
cript of both the Mo-so and the Chinese was afterwards made, to 
which was added an English translation of the Chinese version, thus 
providing us with a key which may prove to be of great service when 
the other manuscripts in the collection come to be dealt with. 

The text of the translated manuscript is of a religious character, 
opening with a version of the creation story, and as far as we are able 
at present to judge, most of the others are of a similar type. 

The religious practices of this people seem to follow the cults of 
the particular regions where they are settled, and include natural re- 
ligion, lamaism, magic, and ancestral worship. The practice of so 
many cults, differing so greatly in character, seems to indicate a certain 
indifference to religion, which may account for the failure of the Chris- 
tian missionaries, who, for sixty years or more, apparently have been 
active among this people, but hitherto without making a single convert. 

The religion proper of the Mo-so, however, is the Cult of Heaven, 
which embraces a Supreme Being endowed with infinite attributes, 
providence, and justice. They have their holy city at Bedjri, a 
shrine to which every priest or sorcerer is expected to make at least 
one pilgrimage during his lifetime. Their temples, if they may be so 
described, are enclosed spaces, or clearings in the forest, of which the 
only roof is the canopy of heaven. These enclosures are entered 
once a year, when sacrifices are offered upon the stone altar which is 
erected in the centre. 

In due course we hope to arrange for the publication of the texts 
contained in these manuscripts, and it is not unlikely that they will 
furnish new evidence as to the religious rites and ceremonies to which 
we have incidentally referred. 

In the meantime Mr. Forrest has kindly undertaken to prepare an 
illustrated article for an early issue of the BULLETIN, in which he will 
give some account of the Mo-so people, from his personal and, there- 
fore, first-hand knowledge. 

The first volume of the new and standard edition of " The Odes 
and Psalms of Solomon," published by the Manchester FACSIMILE 
University Press, for the Governors of the Library, has oDE™F 
just made its appearance. It furnishes for the first time SOLOMON ". 
a facsimile in collotype, of the exact dimensions of the original Syriac 



144 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

manuscript now in the possession of the library ; which is accompanied 
by a retranscribed text, with an attached critical apparatus. 

In working through the text of the " Odes," the editors, Dr. Rendel 
Harris and Dr. A. Mingana, became convinced that they were deal- 
ing with matter that was either purely Oriental in origin, or so coloured 
by Oriental modes of thought and expression as to be substantially 
Oriental, and they decided that it was necessary to reconstruct, as far 
as possible, the rhythms which underlay the recovered Syriac text, and 
which showed remarkable parallelism with early Syriac poetry. The 
text has accordingly been broken up ; and this made it necessary to re- 
distribute and renumber the verses as they were given in Dr. Harris's 
" editio princeps '*. 

In their preface, the editors point out that this text will enable 
students to acquire first-hand knowledge of the forms in which the 
" Odes" have come down to us, as well as occasionally to register a 
possible or probable emendation. 

In the second volume, which we hope to publish in the early part 
of the new year, it is proposed to re- translate the " Odes " into English 
versicles, with brief comments by way of elucidation. The translation 
will be accompanied by an exhaustive introduction, dealing with the 
variations of the fragment in the British Museum, with the original 
language, the probable epoch of their composition, their unity, the 
stylistic method of their first writer, the accessory patristic testimonies, 
a summary of the most important criticisms that have appeared since 
its first publication in 1909, a complete bibliography of the subjects 
and a glossary to the text. 

Those readers who may be unfamiliar with the character and im- 
portance of the document, which is now being made accessible to students, 
are referred to Dr. Rendel Harris's brief statement of its value, which 
appeared in the October, 1914, issue of this BULLETIN. 

The price at which each of the volumes will be issued is half a 
guinea net. The first volume is on sale, and may be procured from 
the usual publishers or their agents. 

We welcome the appearance of the first annual issue ^^.p. ^^^ 

of the *' Athenaeum Subject Index to Periodicals," cover- SUBJECT 

1 1A1C 1 /r I • I INDEX TO 

mg the year I V I j ; and we otter our heartiest congratula- PERIODI- 

tions to all who have been concerned in its production. 

The publication of this valuable aid to scholarship has been made 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 145 

possible through the co-operation of the proprietors of " The Athe- 
naeum** with the Library Association and a number of voluntary 
workers. In justice, however, to the editors, Mr. E. Wyndham 
Hulme, Librarian of the Patent Office Library, and his colleague, Mr. 
Hopwood, it should also be pointed out that it is due entirely to their 
indomitable perseverance, coupled with unwearying and self-sacrificing 
labour in the face of serious discouragements, that the work has been 
carried to so successful an issue. 

The volume consists of a consolidation, in one alphabet, of the 
series of monthly class lists, published as supplements to '* The Athe- 
naeum," with the addition of upwards of 2000 entries. The result 
may be stated as follows : 420 periodicals have been indexed, yield- 
ing 13,374 articles classified under 7054 headings and accompanied 
by 7280 author references. 

This is not the first attempt which has been made in this country 
to recover and make accessible to students some of the thousands of 
important contributions to literature which in the past have been buried 
and neglected for want of proper cataloguing or indexing, simply be- 
cause, by an accident of birth, they appear in the heart of a volume of 
the transactions of some learned society, or other periodical publica- 
tion. 

In 1890 Mr. Stead, in connection with his " Review of Reviews,** 
published an " Annual Index to Important Periodicals of the English 
Speaking World," which was continued for thirteen years (until 1902), 
after which it ceased to appear, killed by apathy and lack of support 
on the part of those in whose interest it had been undertaken. 

For the honour of the country and its librarianship, it is to be 
hoped that a better fate is in store for the new index than that which 
befell, not only the one published by Mr. Stead, but the American 
"Poole's Index to Periodical Literature," which after a useful career, 
extending from 1 848 to 1 907, also ceased to appear in the latter year. 

In order to appreciate the value and importance of this literary tool 
it needs only to be recognized that every item recovered by this means 
fi-om the buried material, to which we have already referred, adds to 
the available resources of the library, and often is of greater value than 
the purchase of many new volumes. We go so far as to say that the 
smaller the library the greater the need to have its resources expanded 
this way. Even when the library possesses few or none of the 



m 



146 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

periodicals dealt with in the Index, it surely is worth while to be able 
to refer a reader to an article likely to furnish information upon the 
subject of his quest, which may be consulted in some neighbouring 
library, or which may be borrowed from the " Loan Library," which 
has been established in connection with the Index. 

We learn that the number of periodicals dealt with in the present 
issue is to be augmented in succeeding issues, provided that adequate 
support is forthcoming. 

It is to be hoped, therefore, that every library and every learned 
society throughout the country will feel it to be, not only to their 
advantage to subscribe for the Index, but also a duty to assist those 
who have undertaken the responsibility of this work purely in the 
interest of scholarship, and by so doing, relieve them from any 
financial anxiety. 

The present issue of the Bulletin, which is a double number, 

will be found to contain a classified list of the most im- . .o-r of 

portant of the recent accessions to the library, in the de- RECENT AC- 

. . . CESSIONS 

partments of Literature and History. A combined 

author index to the lists appearing in the current volume will be 

published in the following issue. 

The next issue may be looked for early in the new year and 

will include an article by Professor C. H. Herford, en- qur NEXT 

titled ** National and International Ideals in the English ISSUE. 

Poets," being the substance of a lecture delivered in the library, in 

January last ; and the fourth of Dr. Rendel Harrises articles on Greek 

Mythology, dealing with ** The Cult of Aphrodite,** in addition to 

the usual list of accessions, and other regular features. 



«t' 




Gx^r^^fiwz^i^^- .^z^,'U<rrektce'rh0 



From Sibthorp's '^ Flora Graeca". 

a. Involucrum. B. Unum e foliolis involucri, magnitudine auctum. 

C. Flosculus, valde auctus. b. Unum e foliolis involucri. 

c. Flosculus. 



I 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS.^ 

By J. RENDEL HARRIS, MA., Litt.D., LL.D., D.Theol., etc., 
Hon. Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. 

THE attempt which we have made to disentangle the strands 
which make up the complexity of the Cult of Apollo, and 
to determine the starting-point for the evolution of that cult, 
leads on naturally and necessarily to the inquiry as to the meaning of 
the cult of the twin-sister of Apollo, the Maiden- Huntress of Greek 
woods and mountains. It might have been imagined that the resolution 
of one cult into its elements would lead quite inevitably to the interpre- 
tation of the companion cult, but this is far from being the case. 
The twins in question are quite unlike the Dioscuri, Castor and Poly- 
deuces, whose likeness is so pronounced and whose actions are 
generally so similar that Lucian in his " Dialogues of the Gods " 
sets Apollo inquiring of Hermes which of the two is Castor and 
which is Polydeuces, " for," says he, "I never can make out." And 
Hermes has to explain that it was Castor yesterday and Polydeuces 
to-day, and that one ought to recognise Polydeuces by the marks of 
his fight with the king of the Bebryces. 

Artemis, on the other hand, rarely behaves in a twin-like manner 
to Apollo : he does not go hunting with her, and she does not, 
apparently, practise divination with him ; indeed, as we begin to 
make inquiry as to Apollo and Artemis in the Pre- Homeric days, 
we find that allusions to the twin-birth disappear, and a suspicion 
arises that the tv^n relation is a mythological afterthought, rendered 
necessary by the fact that the brother and sister had succeeded, for 
some reason or other, to a joint inheritance of a sanctuary belonging 
to some other pair of twin-heroes, heroines, or demi-deities ; and if 
this should turn out to be the case, we must not take the twin- 
relationship and parentage from Zeus and Leto as the starting-point 
in the inquiry : it may be that other circumstances have produced 
the supposed family relation, and that Leto, who is in philological 

^ A lecture deliyered in the John Rylands Library, 14 March, 1916. 

147 



148 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

value only a duplicate of Leda, may turn out to be a very palpable 
fiction. In that case we shall have to explore the underlying 
parallelism in the cults of the two deities, outside of the twin relation 
and anterior to it. The relation of the cults to one another must be 
sought in another direction. Now let us refresh our memory as to 
the method which we pursued, and the results which we obtained in 
the case of the Cults of Dionysos and Apollo. It will be remembered 
that we started from the sanctity of the oak as the animistic reposi- 
tory of the thunder, and in that sense the dwelling-place of Zeus ; 
it was assumed that the oak was taboo and all that belonged to it ; 
that the woodpecker who nested in it or hammered at its bark was 
none other than Zeus himself, and it may turn out that Athena, who 
sprang from the head of the thunder-oak, was the owl that lived in 
one of its hollows : even the bees who lived underneath its bark 
were almost divine animals, and had duties to perform to Zeus him- 
self. The question having been raised as to the sanctity of the 
creepers upon the oak, it was easy to show that the ivy (with 
the smilax and the vine) was a sacred plant, and that it was the 
original cult- symbol of Dionysos, who thus appeared as a lesser Zeus 
projected from the ivy, just as Zeus himself, in one point of view, 
was a projection from the oak. Dionysos, whose thunder-birth 
could be established by the well-known Greek tradition concerning 
Semele and Zeus, was the ivy on the oak, and after that became an 
ivy fire- stick in the ritual for the making of fire. From Dionysos 
to Apollo was the next step : it was suggested, in the first instance, 
by the remarkable confraternity of the two gods in question. They 
were shown to exchange titles, to share sanctuaries, and to have 
remarkable cult-parallelisms, such as the chewing of the sacred 
laurel by the Pythian priestess, and the chewing of the sacred ivy by 
the Maenads : and since it was discovered that the Delphic laurel 
was a surrogate for a previously existing oak, it was natural to inquire 
whether in any way Apollo, as well as Dionysos, was linked to the 
life of Zeus through the life of the oak. The inquiry was very 
fruitful in results : the undoubted solar elements in the Apolline cult 
were shown to be capable of explanation by an identification of 
Apollo with the mistletoe, and it was found that Apollo was actually 
worshipped at one centre in Rhodes as the Mistletoe Apollo, just as 
Dionysos was worshipped as the Ivy Dionysos at Acharnai. Further 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 149 

inquiry led to the conclusion that the sanctity of the oak had been 

transferred by the mistletoe from the oak to the apple-tree, and 

that the cult betrayed a close connection between the god and the 

apple-tree, as, for instance, in the bestowal of sacred apples from the 

god's own garden upon the winners at the Pythian games. In this 

way it came to be seen that Apollo was really the misdetoe upon 

the apple-tree, for the greater part of the development of the cult, 

just as Dionysos was the Ivy, not detached as some had imagined, 

but actually upon the oak-tree. It was next discovered that the 

garden at Delphi was a reproduction of another Apolline garden in 

the far North, among the Hyperboreans, the garden to which Boreas 

had carried off Orithyia, and to which (or to another adjacent garden) 

at a later date the sons of Asklepios were transferred for the purpose 

of medical training. Some said it was a garden at the back of the 

North Wind, and some said it was in the far-away Islands of the 

Blessed ; it was, however, clear that the garden in question was not 

an orchard, but that it had plants as well as trees, and that the 

plants were medicinal, and so the garden had no relation to the 

flower gardens of later times. If a flower grew there, say the peony, 

it grew there as a part of the primitive herbal. Apollo came from 

the North as a medicine man, a herbalist, and brought his simples 

with him. His character of a god of healing was due in the first 

instance to the fact that the mistletoe, which he represented, was the 

All-heal ^ of antiquity, as it was to the Druids whom Pliny describes, 

and as it is among the Ainu of Japan at the present day. His 

apothecary's shop contained mistletoe, peony, laurel, and perhaps a 

few more universal or almost universal remedies, and upon these he 

made his reputation. He must have been a Panakes in his first 

period of medical practice, but the title passed over to a young lady 

in the family, who was known as Panakeia, who has furnished the 

dictionary with the medical word Panacea. Apollo continued to be 

known as the Paian or Paeonian ; and connection was made in 

Homer's day with the Paeonians on the Danube, in the Serbian 

^ The belief in All-healing medicines appears to be innate and persistent 
in human nature. John Bunyan represents Mr. Skill in the "Pilgrim's 
Progress'* as operating with "an universal Pill, good against all the 
Diseases that Pilgrims are incident to ". 



150 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

area, who appear to have been the progressive herbalists of the day, 
and to have kept the first medical school to which the Greeks re- 
sorted. Moreover, since primitive medicine was magic, as well as 
medicine, the garden of Apollo contained dXefK^ap/xafca, or 
herbs which protected from witchcraft and evil spirits, of which the 
mistletoe appears to have been the chief. An attempt was then made 
to show that the very name of Apollo was, in its early form, Apellon, 
a loan-word from the North, disguising in the thinnest way his con- 
nection with the apple-tree. The apple had come into Greece from 
the North, perhaps from Teutonic peoples, just as it appears to have 
come into Western Italy from either Teutons or Celts, giving its 
name in the one case to the great god of healing, and in the other to 
the city of Abel la, in Campania, through the Celtic word A ball. 

The importance of the foregoing investigations will be evident : 
and they furnish for us the starting-point of our investigations of 
Artemis. We cannot get further back in the Cult of Apollo than 
the medical garden, behind which lies the apple-tree, the mistletoe, 
the oak-tree, and the sky-god. It seems probable that it is on the 
medical side that we shall find the reason for the brotherly-sisterly 
relation of Apollo and Artemis, for, as we shall show, she has a 
medical training and a garden of her own, which analogy suggests to 
have been a medical garden. 

Before proceeding to the inquiry as to the character of the rela- 
tionship between Apollo and Artemis, and the consequent interpre- 
tation of the latter in terms borrowed from the former, we will 
indulge in some further speculation on the Apollo and the apple 
that came into Greece from the back of the North Wind. 

We have already expressed the belief that the apple reached the 
West of Italy from a Celtic or Teutonic source, and that the ancient 
city of Abel la was an apple- town, named after the fruit, and not the 
converse. There is nothing out of the way in naming a town or a 
settlement from the apple-tree. There are a number of apple-towns, 
for instance, in England, such as Appleby, Appledore, Appledram, 
Appledurcombe : and although in some cases there has been a 
linguistic perversion from some earlier name, in which case the apple 
disappears from the etymology, there are enough cases left by which 
to establish our statement : the name Appledore, for example, can 
only mean apple-tree. Look at the following place-names from 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 151 

Middendorff's " Alt-Englisches Flurnamenbuch " and see how places 
are identified by sweet apple-trees and sour apple-trees : — 

apiildre, apelder, etc., sw. f. Apfelbaum ; of da sfiran apael- 
dran 158; on sfiran apuldran 610 ; swete apuldre 1030; wohgar 
apeldran 356 ; haran apeldran 356 ; maer apelder 356 ; pytt apulder 
610; apeltreo 219; appeldore 279A ; apeldorestoc 458; appel- 
thorn 922(daselbst als lignum pomiferum bezeichnet) O.N. (i.e. place- 
name). Appeldram, Sussex, gleich appuldre ham ; Appuldur 
Combe auf Wight. 

The foregoing references to the Anglo-Saxon Cartulary will show 
how impossible it is to rule the apple and the apple-tree out of the 
national landmarks : the form, for instance, which we have underlined, 
is conclusive for the " stump of an apple-tree " as a place-mark, and 
for appledore as being really an apple-tree, and the equivalent of a 
number of related forms : when, moreover, we look into the Middle 
High Dutch, we find to our surprise that, instead of a form related to 
the German Apfelbaum, there occur the following terms, apf alter, 
affalter, affolter, which show the tree-ending nearly in the Anglo- 
Saxon and Scandinavian form. 

The first result of these observations is the confirmation of the use 
of the apple-tree as a place-mark ; and what is proved for England 
is possible for Italy. There is really nothing to prevent the deriva- 
tion of Abella from Abdl, and it is quite unnecessary to derive " apple " 
from Abella and so leave Abella itself unexplained. That is to say, 
the apple is a northern fruit and has come from the North to the 
Mediterranean on two routes : we may call them for convenience 
the b route and the p route, according as the import comes from the 
Celtic or Teutonic side : more correctly the import is due to tribes 
in two different states of the sound- shifting which goes on in the 
northern languages. 

The fact is, that as soon as we have recognised in our own 
country the existence of towns and villages named after the apple and 
the apple-tree, we are bound to examine for similar phenomena else- 
where. We cannot, for instance, ignore the meaning of Avallon in 
the Department of the Yonne, when we have found the Celtic form 
for apple, and interpreted the happy valley of Avilion : and if 
Avallon is an apple-town, it did not derive its name from Abella in 
Campania. 

II 



152 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

There is, moreover, another direction of observation which leads 
to a complete demonstration of the dependence of Abella on the 
apple. No one seems to have noticed that in the South-west of 
France, in the region that borders on the Pyrenees, there was an ancient 
cult of an apple-god, exactly similar, judging from the name of the 
deity, to the Cult of Apollo. Holder in his " Altkeltischer 
Wortschatz" describes him as a Pyrenaean local god in the upper 
valley of the Garonne. For instance, we have at Aulon in the 
ValUe de la Noue an inscription 

DEO ABELLIONI 

Here Aulon is evidently a worn-down form of Avalon, so that we 
actually discover the apple-god in the apple- town.^ In the same way 
we register the inscriptions 

Aulon .... 

S. B^at. {Basses Pyr^n^es) 



Valine de Larboust . 

)> >> • • 

St, Bertrand de Comminges 



Abellioni deo. 
Abelioni deo. 
Abelioni deo. 
Abelioni deo. 
Abellionni. 
Abellioni deo. 
Abelion(i) deo. 
Abellionni. 



Fabas, Haute Garonne'^ 

This list can be expanded and corrected from Julian Sacaze's 
Inscriptions Antiques des Pyrdndes^ but for the present the references 
given above may suffice. 

Here, then, are nine cases of a god, named abeli07i and abelhon. 
The parallel with the early Greek spellings of Apollo, Apellon^ 
Apeljon is obvious, and we need have no hesitation in saying that we 
have found the Celtic Apollo in the Pyrenees. (The identification 
with Apollo, but not with the apple, had already been made by 
Gruter, following Scaliger, Lectiones Ausonianae, lib. i. c. 9.) The 
curious thing is that Holder, while discussing the origin of the name 
Abella, and landing in a final suspense of judgment as to the question 
which came first, the apple or the Abella, had on the very same page 
registered the existence of the Western apple-god. (Holder is, no 

^ " Revue Archeologique/' 16, 488. 
2 "Bull. Soc. Ant. Fr.*' 1882,250. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 153 

doubt, descended from the blind god Holdur of the Norsemen !) 
There is evidently not the slightest reason for supposing that Abel la 
can be the starting-point for all these names of towns and deities : 
Abel la is an apple- town for certain, and a Celtic apple- town. We 
may evidently carry our inquiries after apple-centres a little further : 
if the apple came from the North into the region of the Pyrenees, and 
into Campania, it will be strange indeed if it does not find its way 
across the mountains into Spain. We shall actually find a province 
and a city named Avila (it is Teresa's birthplace) and no doubt 
was a centre of early apple- culture.^ 

^ In the supplement to Holder there is a good deal more about the apple 
and the apple-town. 

Aball-o(n) is definitely equated with apple-town. 

Other towns are recognised ; L'avalois in the diocese of Autun ; 
Avallon in the Charente Inferieure, and again in the Dept. Isere. 
I Then we are told that the modern Avalleur in the Dept. of the Aube 
is = Avalorra, Avalurre, Avaluria of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and 
goes back to a primitive Aballo-duro-s or apple-fort : and that the modern 
place-names Valuejols in Cantal, Valeuil in Dordogne, and again in the 
Dept. of the Eure, go back to a primitive Aball6iSl6-n, which Holder says 
means apple-garden. 

Holder also traces Vaillac, in the Dept. Lot, and Vaillat in the Char- 
ente, to an original Avalli-acus and so to Avallos ; and also the place-names 
Havelu (Eure-et-Loire), Haveluy (Nord) and Aveluy (Somme) to an 
original Avallovicus. 

Who can believe that Abella in Campania is responsible for all this 
wealth of nomenclature? 

It is interesting to notice that not very far from Abella there is another 
apple-town, this time due to a Greek Colony. It has been pointed out that 
the name of Beneventum is a change from the evil-omened Maleventum, and 
that this latter is formed from the Greek MaXoFevra. ** The Romans 
generally formed the name of a Greek town from the Greek accusative " 
(Giles, - Short Manual of Comp. Philol.,*' § 273, n. 2). 




! ^ This leads us at once to the inquiry whether Apollo Maloeis is the local 
deity of Beneventum : the quickest way to decide this is to examine the 
coins of the city. Coins of Beneventum are rare ; a reference to the British 
Museum •' Catalogue of Greek Coins in Italy " (p. 68, fig. ; see also Rasche, 
*'Lex. univ. rei. numm." Suppl. i. 1355) will show us the head of Apollo 



154 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Another very interesting direction of inquiry is Northern Syria. 
The student of the New Testament knows the district of Abilene, 
over which Lysanias is said to have been the tetrarch. One rides through 
this district on the way from Baalbek to Damascus. Its capital city 
was Abila, over whose exact identification there is, I believe, still some 
dispute. There is no dispute, however, about its power of producing 
apples, as I know by experience : the village of Zebedany, for 
instance, is famed all over the Lebanon for its excellent apples, one 
of which was presented to my companion when we sojourned there 
for a night, by an old lady who took it as a token of extremest friend- 
ship, from her own bosom. The climate of the Lebanon appears to 
suit the apple, which was in all probability imported from the 
Levant. There is another Abila town on the east side of the Lake of 
Galilee. Whether that also is an apple-town I am not prepared to say. 

Now for some remarks with regard to the first form of the word : 
we accentuate apple on the first syllable, but it is clear that the Celts 
accentuated it on the last [abhdl, for instance, in Irish) and this 
appears from another consideration to be primitive ; the double n at 
the end of the word and in the name of the god requires a forward 
accent It is curious that, as with ourselves, the accent in Lithuanian 
has shifted back to the first syllable. 

This shift of the accent is not, however, universal. When we 
search more closely for apple- towTis on English soil, we find traces of 
the forward accentuation. For if we follow the analogy of places 
named after the oak, Oakham, Acton, and the like, we find not only 
such place and personal names as Applet 07i (of which there are nine 
or ten in " Bartholomew's Gazetteer ") but also the forms both in names 
of persons and names of places, Pdlham, Pelton, which are most 
naturally explained as derived from Appdlham, Appdlton. (Three 
Pelhams in Herts, a Pel ton in Durham, not far from Chester-le-street.) 
To these we may add what appears to be an English formation from 
Pembrokeshire ; for Pelconib appears to be parallel in structure and 
meaning to Appeldurcombe in the Isle of Wight.^ 

on the coins of Beneventum. It is not a little curious that we have found 
the Greek apple-town and the Celtic apple-town in Central Italy, within a 
day's march of one another ! 

^ The alternative derivation will be a personal name of the type of John 
Peel. See Skeat, " Place-names of Hertfordshire." 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 155 

The whole question of apple names needs a close and careful 
investigation. 

There is another question connected with this one of the apple 
origin that needs inquiring into. Every one knows the Norse story of 
Balder the Beautiful, and of his death at the hand of the blind god 
Holdur, who, at Loki*s malicious suggestion, shot him with an arrow 
of mistletoe. No one has been able to explain the myth of the death 
of Balder, but there have been various parallels drawn between the 
beautiful demi-god of the North and the equally beautiful Apollo 
among the Olympians : etymology has also been called in to explain 
Balder in terms of brightness and whiteness, and so to make him more 
or less a solar personage : but nothing very satisfactory has yet been 
arrived at. The Balder myth stands among the unsolved riddles of 
antiquity, complicated by various contradictory story- tellings, and 
apparently resisting a final explanation. Grimm was of the opinion 
that there was a Germanic Balder named Pal tar, who corresponded 
to the Norse Balder, thus throwing the myth back into very early times 
indeed ; and he brought forward a number of considerations in support 
of his theory, of greater or less validity. 

It has occurred to me that, perhaps, the Apel-dur, Apel-dre, 
and Appeldore, which we have been considering, may be the origin 
of Balder, and of the Pal tar of Grimm's hypothesis, in view of the 
occurrence of the corresponding forms mentioned above in the Middle 
High Dutch. If, for instance, the original accent in apple (ab51) is, 
as stated above, on the second syllable, then it would be easy for a 
primitive apal-dur to lose its initial vowel, and in that case we should 
not be very far from the form Balder, which would mean the apple- 
tree originally and nothing more. That the personified apple-tree 
should be killed by an arrow of mistletoe is quite in the manner of 
ancient myth-making ; ^ and the parallels which have sometimes been 

^ Or we may adopt a simpler explanation, viz. that the ancients had 
observed that the mistletoe does kill the tree on which it grows, a bit of 
popular mythology which has recrudesced in Mr. Kipling's Pict Song : — 

Mistletoe killing an oak — 
Rats gnawing cables in two — 

The damage done by mistletoe to conifers in the N.W. of America is the 
subject of a paper by James R. Weir, Forest Pathologist to the United 
States. 



156 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

suggested between Balder and Apollo would be not parallels but 
identities. Apollo would be Balder and Balder Apollo. 

Leaving these speculations for the present on one side, we now 
come to the question of the relation between Artemis and Apollo, 
that which the later myth- makers expressed in the language of twin- 
cult. Was there any common ground of cult similar to that which 
we detected in the case of Dionysos and Apollo, where the coinci- 
dence in titles, in functions, in cult- usages and in sanctuaries, led us to 
the interpretation of the second god, like the first, in terms of a vege- 
table origin ? It will be admitted that there is some similarity in 
titles, that Apollo is Phoebus and Artemis Phoebe, and that he is 
Hekatos, or implied as such in the titles given to him, and that 
Artemis is, if not exactly Hekate, at all events very closely related 
to her. This does not, however, help us very much ; it suggests sun 
and moon-cult for Artemis and Apollo, and it is admitted that the 
mistletoe introduced a solar element into the conception of Apollo : 
but the actual development of the solar and lunar elements, which 
made Apollo almost the counterpart of Helios, and Artemis of 
Selene, must be much later in date than the origins of which we are 
in search. We must, therefore, go in other directions if we are to 
find a cult-parallelism between the two deities. And the direction 
which promises real results is the following : it is quite clear that both 
Apollo and Artemis are witches, witch-doctors of the primitive type, 
who stand near the very starting-point of what becomes ultimately 
the medical profession. He is a personified All-heal, and to his 
primitive apparatus of mistletoe berries, bark and leaves, he has 
added a small number of simples, more or less all-heals, or patent 
medicines, which taken together constitute the garden of Apollo, 
the original apothecary's shop. It is quite possible that the very 
first medicine of the human race was the mistletoe, and it is sur- 
prising to note how tenaciously the human race has clung to its 
first all-heal. In this country, for example, we are told by Lysons 
that there was a great wood in the neighbourhood of Croyland 
(Norwood) which belonged to the archbishop, and was said to 
consist wholly of oak. Among the trees was one which bore 
mistletoe, which some persons were so hardy as to cut down, for the 
gain of selling it to the Apothecaries, in London, leaving a branch 
of it to sprout out ; but they proved unfortunate after it, for one of 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 157 

them fell lame, and others lost an eye/ It will be seen that the 
medical and magical value of mistletoe (and especially of oak-mistletoe, 
as the old herbals are careful to point out) has continued almost to 
our own time. If Apollo is a herbalist, as all the primitive leeches 
were, and had a medical garden, it seems quite clear that Artemis 
was also in the herbal profession, and that she also had a garden of 
her own, in which certain plants grew, whose power of healing and 
persistence in human use have continued down to our own times. 
This we must now proceed to prove, for if we establish this parallel- 
ism, we shall know why Apollo and Artemis are brother and sister, 
and we shall presently be able to track the latter as we did the former, 
to her vegetable origin. 

The first thing to be done is to prove that they both belong to the 
medical profession : the next to examine the pharmacopoeia of each one 
of them. In fact we have done this pretty thoroughly for Apollo : 
where is the proof that Artemis graduated in medicine, and what were 
the means of healing that she employed ? 

The first direction of inquiry suggested by the Apollo Cult for the 
Artemis Cult is to ask whether there is any magic herb (magical being 
understood as a term parallel with medical, and almost coincident 
with it in meaning) which will rank, either for medicine or for magic, 
along with the well-known All-heal of Apollo, the mistletoe. 
Suppose we turn to a modern book on " Flowers and Flower- Lore '* ^ 
we shall find the author discoursing of the virtues of St. John's wort 
as "a safeguard against witchcraft, tempest, and other demoniacal 
evils ". In fact, the plant is an All-heal: in Devonshire, the vnld 
variety of the plant is known as tutsan, or titsan, which is the French 
tout-sain. We used to gather the leaves when we were children and 
place them in our Bibles. Its medical value can be seen from its 
occurrence in old-time recipes. For instance, here is one which begins 
thus : — 

** Take . . . french mallows, the tops of tutsans, plantin leaves, 
etc. "^ Or look in Parkinson's "Herbal," and you will find a 
section devoted to Tutsan, and another to St. John's wort, which is 

^ Quoted in Friend, " Flowers and Flower-Lore,** I. 305. 
^ Friend, *' Flowers and Flower-Lore," I. 74, 75. 
^Lewer, '* A Book of Simples," p. 186. 



158 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

identified with the HypeHcon of Dioscorides, and accredited with all 
kinds of virtues. So we are in the old Greek medical garden with 
St. John's wort. 

The writer referred to above goes on to speak of the magical 
value of the mistletoe which " might well share with St. John's wort 
the name of Devilfuge". '' Another plant possessed, according to 
popular belief, of the power of dispelling demons is the well- 
known mugwort or wormwood, which on account of its association 
with the ceremonials of St. John's Eve (Midsummer Eve) was also 
known on the Continent as St. John's Herb ... or St. John's 
Girdle. Garlands were made at that season of the year composed of 
white lilies, birch, fennel, St. John's wort, and Artemisia or worm- 
wood, different kinds of leaves, and the claws of birds. These 
garlands, thus comprising seven different kinds of material, were 
supposed to be possessed of immense power over evil spirits." 

The writer, unfortunately, does not give the detailed authority for 
his statements ; but as regards the magic powers of the mugwort or 
Artemisia, we shall be able abundantly to verify the statements. 
Every herbal will say something about it : and we have, therefore, 
reached the point of discovering that there was a plant of immense 
magical and medical value, named after Artemis herself, and which 
must, therefore, be accredited to her garden, in the same way as we 
credited the mistletoe and the peony to the garden of Apollo. We 
note in passing that the plant Hypericon (St. John's wort) has also 
to be reckoned with as a part of the ancient pharmacopc3eia, and that 
a place ought to be found for it somewhere. As to the magic 
garlands that are spoken of, it is quite likely that they also vyrill turn 
out to be ancient ; in which case observe that even when composed 
of flowers, they are not flower-garlands in our sense of the term, but 
prophylactics. The distinction may be of importance — for instance, 
in the Hippolytus of Euripides, we find the hero of the play making 
a garland for his goddess. Here is the language in which he dedi- 
cates it, in Mr. A. S. Way's translation : — 

For thee this woven garland from a mead 
Unsullied have I twined, O Queen, and bring. 
There never shepherd dares to feed his flocks, 
Nor steel of sickle came : only the bee 
Roveth the springtide mead undesecrate : 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 159 

And Reverence watereth it with river-dews. 

They which have heritage of self-control 

In all things, purity inborn, untaught. 

These there may gather flowers, but none impure. 

Evidently the mead of which Hippolytus speaks was " a sealed 
garden " belonging to initiates : the shepherd would not dare to come in : 
no iron is allowed within its limits : ^ iron and magic are enemies ; may 
we not assume that the garden in question is the garden of Artemis 
herself ? One wishes much that Euripides had told us what were 
the plants and flowers that went to make up the garland, and whether 
one of them was the Artemisia. 

If we have not a detailed description in this case, we are better 
placed in the companion garden of Hekate, if that be really different 
from the garden of Artemis, at this period of religious evolution ; for 
we have already pointed out the close connection of Apollo, Artemis, 
and Hekate. As regards the medical garden of Hekate, we are, as I 
have said, better placed for an exact determination. The Orphic 
*' Argonautica" describe the visit of Medea to the garden in question, 
and tell us what sort of a place it was : here are some of the lines : — 
eV Se o-<jf>ty Trvfidrq) yu.f%a> €/o/C€09 a\<To<; afieu/Sety 
hevhpeatv evOaXieaat KardcTKCOv, w ivl iroXkai 
8d(j)vai t' T^Se xpavecac IB^ evfxrjKei,^ TrXardvtarToc • 
iv Be TToac pi^rjcrc KaT7]p€(f>e€<; ^(OaiJLaXfiaLv, 
dacpoSeXof;, /tXu/zez^o? t€, koI ev(oB7j<i dBiavTO<i, 
Kol Opvov r)Be KVTreLpoVf dpia-Tepecov re dveficovi], 
opfjLCvov T€, KoX elpvaifiov, KVK\afjbL(; r lo6i8y<;, 
^avBpayoprji;^ ttoXlov t , eirl Be yfra<f>apov BiKTafivov, 
evoBfio^ T€ KpoKOf;, KOL KdpBafxov • ev S' dpa KrjfjLO<;, 
(Tfjuka^, '^Be 'x^a/xalfjLijXov, fjbrjKwv re fjuiXacva, 
dXKeir], irdvaKe^^ koX KapTraaop, 97S' aKovtroPj 
dXXa re Bi^Xtjevra Kara ')(Qova TroXXd Tre^vKCL.^ 

Here then, the writer of the poem has pictured for us the witch's 
garden as it should be : there are trees, such as the laurel, the cornel, 
and the plane : there is asphodel, convolvulus (?), the maiden-hair, 
the rush, the cyperus, the vervain (?), the anemone, the horminus, the 
erysimon, the cyclamen, the stoechas, the peony, the polyknemos, the 

^ Cf . the practice of the Druids in cutting the mistletoe or in gathering 
(sine ferro) the plant se/a^o, as described by Pliny, ** H.N.," XXIV. 62. 
'Orph., ••Argonaut.," 915 1 



160 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

mandrake, the polion, the dictamnys, the crocus, the cardamon, the 
kemos, the smilax, the camomile, the black poppy, the alcaea, the 
mistletoe (?), the flax, the aconite, mid other baneful plants. 

No doubt this as a Greek medical garden of a late period, but it 
shows what a garden of Hekate was imagined to be by the author ; 
and it is instructive. It is composed of roots and banes, and of 
flowers whose medical value we can verify from other quarters. The 
mistletoe must surely be the All-heal covered by 7rdvaK€<; ; ^ it and 
the peony and the laurel come from Apollo's garden ; the smilax is 
borrowed from Dionysos, the vervain and mandrake are well-known 
in witchcraft : the dictamnys is related in some way to Artemis, for 
one of Artemis* names is taken from Dictynna (Dictamnos) in Crete, 
and the medicine is used for Artemis' own department, the delivery 
of women in child-birth, of which more presently. 

We can thus form an idea of the herb-garden of antiquity : it was 
really more a root-garden than an herb-garden. When Sophocles 
describes the operation of Medea and her companions, apparently in 
these very gardens of Hekate, he gives to the play the title of 
01 yot^ord/Aot, the Root-cutters. The root is either for medicine 
or for magic, and as we have said there was no sharp line drawn 
between the two. Supposing, then, that on the analogy of the 
gardens of Apollo and Hekate, and in harmony with the language of 
Hippolytus to his goddess, we say that Artemis had a garden, we 
may be sure that the mugwort ^ was there. We must certainly look 
more carefully into the virtues of a plant so closely linked by name 
with the goddess. 

Before doing so, we may mention in passing that both Hekate and 
Artemis, who is so nearly related to her, used to grow in their 
gardens a famous magical plant which had the witch's power of 
opening locks. This flower is called the spring-wur^zel (or 
spring-wort), in the literature of Teutonic peoples, and everywhere 
there are strange and wonderful stories about it. It appears to have 
been under the protection of the Thunder, in the person of the wood- 
pecker. The plant was wanted by Medea in order to make the way 

^ This is not quite certain ; there are a number of all-heals beside the 
mistletoe. 

^ The English name mugwort is merely fly-plant ; of. Engl, midge^ 
Germ. Milcke. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 161 

for Jason to find the golden fleece, in one of the poems of the Argonaut 
legend. The person who had it could say 

Open locks 

Whoever knocks. 

Now it seems certain that Artemis as well as Hekate had this 

magic plant : for among her many titles corresponding to many 

functions and powers, she is called /cX€i8oi})(09, she that has the 

key. Thus in the opening Orphic Hymn to Hekate, she is described 

as 

TravTO^ Koafiov k\€lSovxov avaaaav 

and in the very next hymn, Prothyraea, the goddess of the portal, is 
addressed as Kkeihov^o^ and as 

^ApT€fjut,<; etXeiOvia koI evaifivr) IIpo6vpa[a, 

along wdth many epithets addressed to Artemis as the woman's 
helper in travail. We point out, therefore, in passing that the spring- 
wort, which gave the possessor the entree everywhere, was also a 
plant in the garden of Artemis. 

We are now able to see, from the combination of magic with 
medicine, and the difficulty of imagining them apart in early times, 
the reason for that curious feature in the character of Artemis and her 
brother, which makes them responsible for sending the very diseases 
which they are able to cure. It is magic that causes diseases, magic 
as medicine that heals them. If the god or goddess is angry, we may 
expect the former, if they are propitiated, we look for the latter. The 
myths will tell us tales of Apollo and Artemis under either head. If 
women in actual life have troubles, Macrobius^ will tell us that they 
are Artemis- struck, dyorefttSo^Xr^rov?, which is not very different 
from witch-overlooked, as it occurs in the West of England : yet this 
very same Artemis will be appealed to when the time of feminine 
trouble is at band ! ^ 

Our next step is to go to the herbals and find out what they say 
of the properties of the medical plants that we may be discussing, and 

^•'Sat.'M. 17, 11. 

^That is always the way with witches ; of. Hueffer, "The Book of 
Witches," p. 280 : "In the capacity of the witch as healer and conversely as 
disease-inflicter, her various spells must cover all the ills that flesh is heir to. 
She must be able to cure the disease she inflicts." 



162 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

determine how far they reproduce the beliefs of primitive times. The 
task is not without interest ; one of the first things that come to light 
is the astonishing conservatism of the herbalists, who repeat statements 
one from another without correction or sensible modification, statements 
which can be traced back to Pliny or Dioscorides and even earlier, 
and which, when we have them in the form in which they are 
presented by Pliny or Dioscorides, are easily seen to be a traditional 
inheritance from still earlier times. Pliny, in fact, used the herbals of 
his day, much as Culpeper and Gerarde used Dodonaeus. Even when 
the herbalists are professing to be progressive, and throv^ng about 
their charges of superstition against those who preceded them, there is 
not much perceptible progress about them. Gerarde is often found 
using the language of the rationalist, and is doing his best to let the 
light of accurate science fall on his page, but Gerarde himself relates to 
us how he himself saw, vnth ** the sensible and true avouch of his own 
eyes," that brant-geese were produced from the shells of barnacles, and 
gives us a picture of the actual occurrence of this feat of evolution ; it 
was a story which, if I remember rightly, Huxley employed in his 
discussion of the evidence for miracles. Culpeper, too, denounces 
superstition roundly and cries to God against it ; but he denounces 
also the Royal College of Surgeons and colours all his medical 
theories with the doctrine of signatures and the influence of the 
planets. No medicine for him without astrology, which he treats 
with the same assurance as a modern doctor would have as to the 
influence of microbes. In reality, we ought to be thankful for the 
limitations which we at once detect in the herb -doctors ; their tradi- 
tionalism is just what we want ; it is the folk-lore of medicine, and 
like folk-lore generally our surest guide to the beliefs and practices of 
primitive man. 

Let us then see what the herb -doctor Culpeper has to say on the 
subject of themugwort : he begins with a description of the plant and 
then intimates the places where it may be found, as that " it groweth 
plentifully in many places of this Land, by the water-sides, as also by 
small water-courses, and in divers other places". The time of its 
flowering and seeding is then given. Then follows the " government 
and vertues " of the plant. The government means the planet that rules 
the plant and the sign of the Zodiac that it is under. Then we have 
the fol loving vertues : " Mug wort is with good success put among other 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 163 

herbs that are boiled for women to sit over the hot decoction, to draw 
down their courses, to help the delivery of their birth, and expel the 
after-birth. As also for the destructions and inflammations of the 
mother [sc, matrix]. It breaketh the stone and causeth one to make 
water where it is stopped. The Juyce thereof made up with myrrh, 
and put under as a pessary, worketh the same effects and so doth the 
root also/* 

He continues with the effect of the herb to remove tumours and 
wens, and to counteract over- dosing with opium, but it is evident 
that, according to Culpeper, it is a woman's medicine meant for 
women's complaints, even if it should have occasionally a wider refer- 
ence. We begin to see the woman-doctor Artemis operating with 
the women's medicine Artemisia. But where did Culpeper get all 
this from ? And how far back does this chapter of medical science 
go? 

Here is another great English herbal, the " Theatrum Botanicum " 
of Parkinson. He arranges the matter very much as in Culpeper, but 
with more detail and learning. First he describes the plant Artemisia 
vulgaris, or common mugwort. Then he says where it is to be 
found, much as in Culpeper. After this he has to discourse on the 
meaning of the name, which I transcribe : — 

** It is called in Greek 'Apre/xio-ta, and Artemisia in Latin also, 
and recorded by Pliny that it took the name of Artemisia from 
Artemisia the wife of Mausolus, King of Caria ; when as 
formerly it was called Parthenis, quasi Virginalis Maidenwort, and 
as Apuleius saith, was also called Parthenium ; but others think it 
took its name from "Apre/xi?, who is called Diana, because it is 
chiefly applied to women's diseases. The first (kind of Artemisia) is 
generally called of all writers Artemisia and vulgaris, because it 
is the most common in all countries. Some call it m^ater her- 
darum, . . ." Here we have some really ancient tradition taken 
from Pliny, from Dioscorides, and others. The plant is traced to 
Artemis ; its virtue consists in its applicability to the diseases of women 
and, most important of all, it is the mother of all medical herbs. 

Parkinson then goes on to the virtues of the plant, beginning with 
the statement that " Dioscorides saith it heateth and extenuateth," after 
which we have very nearly the same story of its medical uses as in 
Culpeper. He continues, " It is said of Pliny that if a traveller binde 



164 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

some of the hearbe with him, he shall feele no weariness at all in his 
journey ; as also that no evill medicine or evill beast shall hurt him 
that hath the hearbe about him ". Here we are in the region of pure 
magic and begin to suspect the reason why Artemis is the patron of 
the travellers, and why she is said to tame wild beasts. Parkinson 
remarks upon these opinions as follows : — 

" Many such idle superstitions and irreligious relations are set 
down, both by the ancient and later writers, concerning this and other 
plants, which to relate were both unseemly for me, and unprofitable 
for you. I will only declare unto you the idle conceit of some of our 
later days concerning this plant, and that is even of Bauhinus ^ who 
glorieth to be an eye-witness of his foppery, that upon St. John's eve 
there are coales [which turn to gold] to be found at mid-day, under 
the rootes of mugwort, which after or before that time are very small 
or none at all, and are used as an amulet to hang about the necke of 
those that have the falling- sickness, to cure them thereof. But oh ! 
the weak and frail e nature of man ! which I cannot but lament, that 
is more prone to beleeve and relye upon such impostures, than upon 
the ordinance of God in His creatures, and trust in His provid- 
ence." 

We could have done profitably with less of Parkinson's pious 
rationalism and more of the superstitions that he deplores and occasion- 
ally condescends to describe. 

Now let us try the herbal of John Gerarde. This is earlier than 
Parkinson's "Theater" which dates from 1640. The first edition is 
published in 1 597, the second, with enlargements and corrections by 
Johnson, is dated 1633. The copy in my possession is the latter, 
from which accordingly I quote. 

First he describes the plant which he calls Artemisia, mater 
Herb arum, common mugwort, then says where it is to be found, and 
when ; then comes the dissertation on the name, nearly as above, 
which I transcribe : — 

" Mugwort is called in Greek 'Apre/xto-ta ; and also in Latine 
Artemisia, which name it had of Artemisia, Queene of Halicar- 
nassus, and wife of noble Mausolus, King of Caria, who adopted it 
for her own herbe ; before that it was called Parthe^iis as Pliny 

^Bauhinus, ** De Plantis a divis sanctisve nomen habentibus," 1591, 
•and "Prodromus Theatri Botanici,'* 1620. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 165 

Avriteth. Apuleius affirmeth that it was likewise called Parthenion ; 
who hath very many names for it, and many of them are placed in 
Dioscorides among the bastard names ; most of these agree with the 
right Artemisia, and divers of them with other herbes, which now 
and then are numbered among the mugworts : it is also called Mater 
Herbaruni; in high Dutch, Beifitss, and Sant Johanns Gurtell ; 
in Spanish and Italian, Arte^nisia ; in Low Dutch, Bijvoet, Sint 
Jans Krtiyt ; in English Mugwort and common Mugwort/* Then 
comes a note on the temperature of the plant : — 

" Mugwort is hot and dry in the second degree, and somewhat 
astringent." 

After this follow the virtues : beginning with " Pliny saith that 
Mugwort doth properly cure women's diseases'* as we had noted 
above ; details are given, nearly as in Parkinson, after which Gerarde 
concludes by saying that " Many other fantastical devices invented by 
poets are to be seene in the workes of the ancient writers, tending to 
v^tchcraft and sorcerie, and the great dishonour of God : wherefore I 
do of purpose omit them, as things unworthy of my recording or your 
reading," which is evidently what Parkinson has been drawing on. 
Bad luck to them both ! 

It must not be supposed that all these writers have verified for 
themselves what Pliny and Dioscorides or the rest say : they 
commonly transfer references from one to another. The value of the 
repeated statements lies in the evidence which the repetition furnishes 
of the constancy of the beliefs and practices involved. 

Suppose we now try the herbal s of a century earlier, those 
which belong to the period immediately following the invention of 
printing. I have examined several of these early book rarities in the 
Rylands Library in order to see whether they say the same as the 
great English herbals. Here, for instance, is the " Hortus Sanitatis," ^ 
published in Mainz in 1491 ; the description of Artemisia and its 
virtues is as follows : — 

Arthemisia. Ysido (i.e. Isidore) Arthemisia est herba dyane a 
gentibus consecrata unde et nuncupata. Diana siquidem grece 
artemis dicitur. Pli. H. XXV. (i.e. Pliny, bk. XXV.) Arthemisiam 
quae autem parthenis vocabatur ab arthemide cognominatam sicut 

This is merely a Latin translation of ** Garden of Hygieia ". 



166 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

quidam putant. Etiam dicitur Arthemisia quoniam sic vocabatur 
uxor regis masolei qui voluit earn sic vocari quae antea, ut inquit 
plinius, parthenis vocabatur. et sunt qui ab arthemide arthemisiam 
cognominatam putant. quoniam privatim medicatur feminarum 
malis. Dyoscorides. Arthemisia tria sunt genera. Unum est quod 
vocatur Arthemisia monodos (I. monoclos), i.e. mater herbarum quae 
est fruticosa et similis absinthio : folia majora et pinguiora habens et 
hastas longas. nascitur in maritimis locis et lapidosis. florescit 
autem estatis tempore floribus albis. arthemisia tagetes (1. taygetes) 
nominatur. quae tenera est semen habens minutum et ynam hastam 
foliis plenam. Nascitur in locis mediterraneis et altioribus. florem 
mellinum atque tenuem et iocundiorem comparatione prioris ferens. 
Haec a grecis vocatur tagetes (i.e. taygetes) vel tanacetum. Et nos in 
lingua latina vocamus eam thanasiam. vel secundum quosdam athan- 
asiam. Et est tercia arthemisia que leptafillos dicitur. nascitur circa 
fossas et agros. flosculum eius si contriveris samsuci odorem habet. et 
ipsa amara. Has species arthemisie dyanem dicunt invenisse et 
virtutes eorum et medicamina chironi centauro tradidisse. Haec herb a 
ex nomine dyane quae artemis dicitur accepit nomen arthemisia quae 
calefacit et siccat. Ga. sim. fac. ca. d. arthemisia. (i.e. Galen in 
the chapter of de simp, fac, on artemisia). Arthemisia duplex quidem 
est herb a. ambae tamen calefaciunt mediocriter et siccant. ..." 

So much for the description of the plant as given in the *' Hortus 
Sanitatis " : and vsre can already see that we are getting fresh informa- 
tion. The first kind of Artemisia is called monoclos which is ap- 
parently a corruption of a Greek word fiopoKXcopo^^ meaning that 
the plant grows on a single stem ; the second is twice over described 
as taygetes^ which can only refer to the mountain in Laconia (Mt. 
Taygetus) which is more than any other district sacred to Artemis. 
The writer does not, however, know any Greek : he says he is 
working from Dioscorides, but he appears to confuse the tansy 
(tanacetum) with the Artemisia, and says that its Latin name is 
Athanasia ! The reference to Mt. Taygetus is of the first importance, 
for if the plant is found there, then the presence of Artemis in the 
mountain is due to the plant, and Artemis is the plant. Last of all, 
the vmter has a third variety which Diana is said to have discovered 
and confided to the centaur Chiron. We must evidently follow up 
these links of the plant with the goddess and see where they take us. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 167 

The writer then goes on to describe in detail the virtues of the plants, 
and it will be useful to follow him in detail. 

Operationes. 

A. Dyas (i.e. Dioscorides) Arthemisia virtutem habet acerrimam 
purgativam attenuantem calidam et leptinticam. 

B. Elixatura eius causas mulieris mitigat. menstruis imperat. sec- 
undinas excludit. mortuos infantes in utero deponit. constrictiones 
matricis resolvit. omnes tumores spargit. accepta calculos frangit. 
urinam provocat. herba ipsa tunsa et in umbilico posito menstruis 
imperat. 

C. Succus eius mirre (i.e. myrrhae) mixtus et matrici suppositus 
omnia similiter facere novit. 

D. Coma eius sicca bibita. z.iii. stericas (i.e. hystericas) causas 
componit. 

E. Si quis iter fadens earn secum portaverit non sentiet itineris 
laborem. 

F. Fugat etiam demonia in domo posita. Prohibet etiam male- 
dicamenta et aver tit oculos malorum. 

G. Item ipsa tunsa cum axungia et superposita pedum dolorem 
ex itinere toUit. 

H. Arthemisia quae taygetes vocatur facit ad vesicae dolorem et 
stranguriam succo dato ex vino. z.ii. 

I. Febricanti ex aqua ea ciatis (1. cyathus) duas potui datur. 

K. Succus tunsa cum axungia et aceto coxarum dolori medicatur 
ligata usque in tercium diem. 

L. Ut infantem hilarem facias incende et suffumigabis et omnes 
incursiones malorum avertet. et hilariorem faciet infantem. nervorum 
dolorem et tumorem trita cum oleo bene subacta miriflce sanat. 

M. Dolorem pedum gravitur vexatis radicem eius da cum melle 
manducare et ita sanabitur ut vix credi posset eam tantam virtutem 
habere. 

N. Succo eius cum oleo rosarum febriens perunctus curatur ea. 
Hanc herb am si confricaveris lasaris odorem habet. 

O. Galienus. Ambae species arthemisiae conveniunt lapidibus 
in renibus existentibus et ad calefactiones et extractiones secundarum 
(1. secundinarum). 

When we read through this list of virtues and operations, we see 

12 



168 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

the origin of many things in the later herbals. It is quite clear that 
to the author of the Hortus Sanitatis the herb in question was 
women's medicine. We might roughly group the operations as 
follows : — 

Women's medicine. B.C.D.O. 

Child's medicine. L. 

Pains in the feet. E.G.M. 

Vesicary troubles. H.O. 

Fevers. I.N. 

Pains in the hips. K. 

Magical values. E.F. 

It is clear that the real value of the herb lies in its influence upon 
women and children and upon travellers, and in the power as an 
amulet. The reason for its connection with travellers does not yet 
appear : the other curative and prophylactic qualities are thoroughly 
Artemisian. Especially interesting is the appearance of Artemis as 
the one that takes care of the baby, the /couporpdc^o?. We are evi- 
dently coming nearer to the source of the magic and of the medicine. 
Now let us see what Dioscorides says about the plant, since it is 
clear that the herbals in part derive from him ; the Artemisia is 
described in Dioscorides, " De materia medica," lib. III. cap. 117, 
118. 

117. 'ApTc/xtVta 17 [ikv TTo\vKk(iivo% 7) 8e flOVOKXcJVOS . . . 7) 
fjL€v 7ro\-uK\o)vo<; (jyverai cus to ttoXv iv TrapaOakacrcrioi^ roTTot?, 
TToa daiLvotihri^;, irapofJuoLO^; axIfwOico, p.eit^(x)v Se koX XiwapajTepa 
ra (j)vkXa e)(Ovcra • /cat 7) /leV rt? aurrjs icmv evepvrjsf TrXarvrepa 
eypvcra to. <^vXXa /cat tov^ poi^Sov<; • rj Se XenTOTepa, avOrj 
IJLiKpa, XeTTTct, XevAca, ^apvocrjia * 6epov<; Se avdel ' 

*E/^tot Se TO iv fjiecroyeioL^ XeTTTOKapirov, airXovv tco /cavXw, 
<r^6Spa fjLLKpov, avdovs TrepiirXeoiv KTjpoeihov'i Tjj ^poia • XeTrrou 
KokovcTLV apTeyncriav fiovoKkcovov ' €(ttl Se evcjSecTTepa ttj^ irpo 
avTrj<;. 

^Afji(j>6T€paL Se dep'fXaivovcri /cat Xeinvvovcnv ' aTrol,evvvpievai 
Se appiotpvcriv eU yvvaiKeia ey/ca^tcr/xara irpo^ ayoiy-qv ifjLfirjvcjv 
/cat SevTepcjv /cat ifx/Bpvojv, pLvcriv re /cat <f)Xeyixovrjv Trjs v(TT€pa<; 
/cat OpvxjjLV XiOdiv /cat iiro^v ovpcov. 7) Se TToa /caret tov 7)Tpov 
KaTaTrXaaOeicra ttoXXt], e/x/iT^ra KLvel ' 6 Se e^ avT7J<; x^Xos 
Xeai^^et? crvv crfx-upvy, /cat Trpocrre^et?, ayet ano /xT^rpag, ocra /cat 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 169 

TO iyKdOiafJia • koL TroTL^eraL rj KOfir) 7Tpo<; dyojyrji' tcov avrtav. 
7rkrj0o<; < y. 

118. 'A/OT€/Lttcrta k€TrT6(f)v\\o<; rJTL<; yevvdrai Trepl 6x€tov<; kol 
<j)payfxovs Koi eU ^d)pa^ cnropLfjLOVS ' to dvOo^ ovv avrrjs kol tol 
(f)vX\a rpL^oixeva oo-fJLrjv aTroStScucrt cra/xi//i;^ov. el ovu rt? TTOvel 
TOP a-TOfiaxoVj Kal Koxfjeu rrjv ^ordirqv ravTr)'; fjuerd dfivySaXivov 
iXacov KaXw?, kol Troirjcrei ct)9 fJidXayfia /cat OrjoreL inl tov 
aroixayoVy OepaTrevOrjoreTai. el 8e kol tol vevpd rw iroveT., tov 
y^vXov Tavrrjs jxeTa pohivov eXaiov /xt^a? \pi^eiy OepaTrevOrjcreTai. 

A careful comparison of these passages of Dioscorides will show 
that almost every sentence has been transferred to the herbals. The 
prominence of the woman's medicine in Dioscorides is most decided. 
The magical qualities do not appear in this passage, nor is there any 
reference to Mt. Taygetus. The plant grows, according to Dioscorides, 
by runnels, and in hedges and ditches and fields. The same promin- 
ence of the woman- medicinal factor appears in the description given 
by Pliny in his *' Natural History" (XXV. 36) as follows : — 

*' Mulieres quoque banc gloriam affectavere : in quibus Artemisia 
uxor Mausoli, adopta herba, quae antea parthenis vocabatur. Sunt 
quae ab Artemide Ilithyia cognominatam putant, quoniam privatim 
medeatur feminarum malis, etc." 

These sentences also can be traced in the herbals. It is quite 
likely that Pliny is right in giving the plant the alternative name of 
*' maid's medicine," though we need not trouble further about Artemisia, 
the wife of Mausolus. She is an obvious after- thought. 

That the mugwort has continued as a maid's medicine to our own 
time may be seen by a pretty story which Grimm quotes from 
R. Chambers,^ but without seeing the bearing of the tale. 

**A girl in Galloway was near dying of consum'jDtion, and all had 
despaired of her recovery, when a mermaid, who often gave people 
good counsel, sang : — 

Wad ye let the bonnie may die i* your hand, 
And the mugwort growing in the land ! 

They immediately plucked the herb, gave her the juice of it, and she 
was restored to health. Another maid had died of the same disease, 

'Grimm, *' Teut. Myth." Eng. tr. III. 1211 ; R. Chambers, "Pop. 
Rhymes,*' p. 331 ; Swainson, "Weather Folk-Lore," p. 60. 



170 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

and her body was being carried past the port of Glasgow, when the 
mermaid raised her voice above the water and in slow accents cried : — 

If they wad nettles drink in March, 
And eat muggons in May, 
Sae mony braw maidens 
Wad na gang to the clay.** 

So it appears that the plant continued as a maids medicine in Scotland 
till recent times. 

We have now accumulated enough material, or nearly so, to en- 
able us to decide on the relation between Artemis and Artemisia. 

It is clear that it is one of the oldest of medicines : it is the mother 
of herbs ; in that respect it ranks with the peony, of which Pliny says 
(" H.N." XXV. 1 1) that it is the oldest of medical plants.^ It is also 
clear that it is first and foremost women's medicine, and this must be 
the principal factor in determining the relation between the woman's 
goddess and the woman's pharmacopoeia. 

Amongst the special places where the plant is found we have 
mention of Mt. Taygetus, after which one of the principal varieties of 
the plant appears to have been named. Now Mt. Taygetus is known 
from Homer to be the haunt of Artemis, e.g. "Od." VI. 102, 3 : — 

oXt) 5' "ApTCfii^i €iacv tear ovp€0<; lo')(^eaLpa^ 
7] Kwra T7]\rf€T0v rreptfjLTjfcerov rj ^Epvfiavdov. 

Or we may refer to Callimachus' hymn to Artemis, in which the poet 
asks the goddess her favourite island, harbour, or mountain ; and 
makes her reply that she loves Taygetus best : — 

Ti9 he vv Tot, vrjawv, irolov B' 6po<; evaSe ifKelarov ; 
Ti<; Be Xcfirjv ; iroirj Be iroXi^ ; riva 8' e^o')(^a vvfjL<\>ea)v 
<f>LX.ao, Kol 'jroLa<; r)pcotBa<; ecr%e? eTaipa<^ ; 
elire, 6ea, (tv puev apupuv, iyco S' erepoiaiv aeiao). 
Nijacov fjuev AoXL')(rj, irdXictiv Be rot evaBe IlepyTf 
TrjvyeTov B' 6p€(ov, Xi,/jLeve<; ye fiev EvpiiroLO. 

If, then, the plant is found on the mountain, then it is the plant 
that loves the mountain, and not Artemis in the first instance ; or 
rather, the plant is Artemis and Artemis is the plant. Artemis 
is a woman's goddess and a maid's goddess, because she was a 
woman's medicine and a maid's medicine. If the medicine is good at 

^ Vetustissima inventu Paeonia est, nomenque auctoris retinet. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 171 

child-birth, then the witch-doctress who uses it becomes the priestess of a 
goddess, and the plant is projected into a deity, just as in the cases 
previously studied of Dionysos and Apollo. 

If the plant is good for the rearing of beautiful and happy children, 
then the person who uses it is a /covpoT/)d(^o9, which is one of the 
titles of Artemis. So far, then, the problem is solved ; we can 
restore the garden of Artemis, and give the chief place in it to the 
common mugwort who is the vegetable original of the goddess. 

This does not explain everything, it raises some other questions : 
we have not shown why Artemis became a goddess of the chase ; nor 
have we shown why the plant Artemisia is good for travellers and 
keeps them from having tired feet. Was this a real operation of the 
plant ? It is not easy to say. It is clear that the belief that mug- 
wort had such virtue has been very persistent ; it is, to be sure, in 
Pliny, who tells us (" H.N." XXVI. 89) :— 

" Artemisiam et elelisphacum alligatas qui habeat viator, negatur 
lassitudinem sentire." 

From Pliny it may have passed into the herbals ; it is this faculty 
of never tiring that seems to be involved in the Teutonic name beifuss, 
and Grimm says the name is early, and quotes from Megenborg 
(385, 16) the statement that *' he that has beifuss on him wearies not 
on his way ". This may be from Pliny, but where did Pliny get it, 
and where did the name beifuss come from ? ^ The magical power 
of the herb is also a persistent folk- tradition and not merely a bit of 
medical lore. " Whoso bath beifuss in the house, him the devil may 
not harm ; hangs the root over the door, the house is safe from all 
things evil and uncanny." ^ 

There is more investigation to be made in the interpretation of the 
tradition : but at all events we have found our spring-wort and 
opened the locked mythological door. 

We know now why Apollo and Artemis were brother and sister, 
and why they became twins. They are the father and the mother 
respectively of Greek medicine. Their little gardens of simples were 
next door to one another. 

^ In Baden, the bride puts beifuss in her shoe, and a blossom of the 
plant on the wedding-table. See Wuttke, ** Deutsche Volksaberglaube," 
133. 

^ Grimm, I.e. 



172 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Now let us indulge for a little the art of speculation, if we may do 
so without endangering results that have already been arrived at. 

To begin with, does the discovery of the plant Artemis help us to 
the understanding of the meaning of the name of the goddess ? We 
recall the fact that the road by which we reached our identification of 
the plant with the goddess had for its starting-point the personal 
relation between Apollo and Artemis. When Apollo was tracked 
to his appropriate vegetable, Artemis couldn't be very far off. 
Analogy may help us in the solution of the nomenclature ; we are in 
the region of medicine ; Apollo is the mistletoe, and its name is All- 
heal, it is the first and greatest of the line of patent medicines : may 
not the name of Artemis cover also some such meaning ? The 
Homeric d/ore/^T/?, safe and sounds would perhaps meet the 
requirements of nomenclature for a healing plant. A more doubtful 
solution has been proposed by some writers on mythology, to take a 
derivation from the intensive prefix apt — attached to the name of 
Themis ; thus *A/3re/it9 = apidi[Li% = very right, almost as if we had 
discovered an all -right to go with the all-heal. The true solution 
does not seem to have been yet reached. 

Now for another point. We have discovered a great god and a 
great goddess of medicine, witch-doctor, and witch- doctress with 
appropriate vegetable emblems and origins. We have tried to con- 
construct ab mitio the gardens of herbs from which every existing 
pharmacy is evolved ; and we have acted on the supposition that 
primitive medicine was herbalism and nothing more. The question 
arises whether we have not gone too far in excluding altogether the 
presence of animal and mineral medicines. When Shakespeare's 
witches make medicine for Macbeth, a main part of the ingredients of 
the charmed pot are animal : — 

Toad that under a cold stone 
Days and nights hast thirty-one 
Swelter*d venom sleeping got, 
Boil thou first i' the charmed pot. 

And so on. This must be sufficiently true to the witchcraft tradition 
to have verisimilitude. When did the toad and the tiger and the rest 
of the witches' larder become available for hag-work ? To put it 
another way, if we take up the treatise of Dioscorides, " De materia 
medica," we find that in the second book he treats of animals, oils, 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 173 

odours, unguents, and when we come near the end of the fifth book 
that we are introduced to a section De metallicis omnibus in which 
metals and their oxides are described and estimated medically, after 
the fashion of the four books of more or less botanical medicine which 
have preceded. Various products of rust, lime, and corals and 
sponges are introduced. Medicine was not merely herbal to Dios- 
corides, as we may see further on reference to the remedies proposed 
in his treatise ir^pX evnopicrTcop. 

It is, however, Pliny that tells us in the most convenient form 
what really went on. When he comes to his twenty-eighth book he 
tells us plainly that he has exhausted the herbals and that a larger 
medicine is to be found in animals and in man. The blood of 
gladiators, the brains of babies, and every part of the human body 
have their medical value, down to his spittle which is a protection 
against serpents, and the hair of his head which can be used to ward 
off gout. And of course, if human medicine has been carried to such 
a degree in the extension of the pharmacy, the animals are not ex- 
cluded, nor their parts and products. An elephant's blood cures 
rheumatism ; I wish some one would lend me a small elephant ! The 
elephant having been admitted to the drug-store, we may be sure the 
ant has not been left out. Pliny is often ashamed of the remedies 
which he reports, and confesses that they are abhorrent to the mind and 
only justified by the results. From his manner of treating the subject 
it seems clear that magic and cruelty and indecency have had a witch's 
revel in the surgery and the dispensary, and that the introduction of the 
animal remedies was not something of recent invention when Pliny wrote. 
So it is quite open to us to make the inquiry as to the extent to which 
the herb-garden opened into the farm-yard or the zoological garden. 
Did they really stop a toothache by the use of stag's horn, or find a 
medicine in a bone which lies hid in the heart of a horse ? Does a 
wolfs liver really cure a cough ? Who first discovered this admirable 
use to which a wolf can be put ? and who found out that bears cure 
themselves by the eating of ants' eggs, and taught us to do the same ? 

In order to show the persistence of peculiar animal remedies I am 
going to take the case of the mouse. I propose to show that the 
mouse is medicine down to our own times, then that it was widely 
used as a medicine in Pliny's day ; after which I shall conjecture that 
it was a very early and primitive medicine. 



174 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

We will begin with a recipe in a MS. book in my own possession, 
the still-room book of Mistress Jane Hussey, of Doddington Hall : the 
MS. is dated in 1692. In this MS. we are advised that " Fry'd 
mice are very good to eat. And mice flead and dry*d to powder, 
and the powder mixt v^th sugar- candy is very good for the chinn 
cough. You must flea the mice when you fry them. These I know 
to be good." If I remember rightly one of the herbalists denounces 
this medicine as a superstition. Anyway, there it is, and it would be 
ancient enough if we replaced sugar-candy by honey, which is 
the pharmacist's sweetener of ancient times. We may compare with it 
the use of mice as medicine in the Lebanon at the present day to cure 
ear-ache. Now did they use mouse-medicine in early times ? Let 
us see what Pliny says : — 

XXIX. 39. The ashes of mice into which honey is dropped will cure 
earache. This is not very far from the powdered mice with sugar- 
candy in the Doddington MS. nor from the Lebanon custom. (If 
an insect has got into the ear use the gall of a mouse with vinegar.) 

XXX. 21. There is medicine against calculus made of mouse- 
dung. 

XXX. 23. Ulcers are cured by the ashes of a field-mouse in honey, 
and apparently, when burnt alive, they are good for ulcers on the 
feet. 

Warts can be cured by the blood of a freshly killed mouse, or by 
the mouse itself if torn asunder.^ 

If you want a sweet breath (XXX. 29) use as a tooth-powder 
mouse-ashes mixed with honey. 

That will be enough to show that our seventeenth-century recipe 
is of the same kind, at all events, as those which were current in the 
first century ; and if this be so, may it not very well be the case that 
Apollo Smintheus, or the mouse- Apollo, is best explained by saying 
that the mouse was an early element in the healing art ? I know it is 
usual to explain the mouse- Apollo on the assumption that Apollo, as 
the Averter, had rid the country of a plague of field-mice, and that 
this is the reason why the mouse appears with Apollo on the coins of 
Alexandria Troas. My solution appears to be the more natural. 

^ Cf. Diosc. **De mat. med." B. 74: Mva^ rov<; KaroLKi^iovf; 
ava(T')(^La6evra<; . . . ^pcoOevTa^ 5e otttov^ ktL 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 175 

Moreover, there is another reason for explaining the concurrence of 
Apollo and the mouse in this way. The mouse is not the only little 
animal that Apollo is interested in. Archaeologists will remember the 
famous statue of Apollo Sauroktonos, where the god is in the act of 
catching a lizard. Now we have no reason to suppose that there was 
a plague of lizards ; on the other hand, we do know that the lizard 
has a very important place in medicine. For instance, Pliny will tell 
us that to cure sores (xxx. 1 2) you must bind a green lizard on you, 
and change it every thirty days. If you are a woman use the heart of 
a lizard : (xxx. 23) the blood of a green lizard is a cure for the feet 
of men and cattle : (xxx. 49) a lizard killed in a particular way is 
an anti- aphrodisiac : (xxx. 24) its head, or blood, or ashes will remove 
warts : (XXVIII. 38) lizards are employed in many ways as a cure for 
the troubles of the eyes or (XXVIII. 39) of the ears. 

From all of which we conclude that the lizard is very ancient 
medicine, and may very well have been in the Apolline pharma- 
copoeia. 

Now let us try a similar inquiry for Artemis. We will begin 
again vsath the Doddington Book, and extract some swallow- medicines. 
For instance, there is a recipe for making " oyle of swallows" by 
pounding them alive with various herbs. Then there is 
My Aunt Markam*s swallow- water. 

'* Take forty or fifty swallows when they are ready to fly, bruise 
them to pieces in a morter, feathers and all together : you should put 
them alive into the mortar. Add to them one ounce of castorum in 
pouder, put all these into a still with three pints of white wine 
vinegar ; distill it as any other water, there will be a pint of very good 
water, the other will be weaker : you may give two or three spoonfuls 
at a time with sugar. This is very good for the passion of the mother, 
for the passion of the Heart, for the falling- sickness, for sudden sound- 
ing fitts, for the dead Palsie, for Apoplexies, Lethargies, and any other 
distemper of the head, it comforteth the Braine, it is good for those 
that are distracted, and in great extremity of weakness, one of the best 
things that can be administered ; it*s very good for convulsions." There 
is another similar remedy to Aunt Markham*s in the book, which 
operates with '* two doosen of Live swallows ". 

Evidently we have here the survival of a very ancient medicine ; 
its preparation is not a modern invention, except as regards the distil- 



176 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

lation of the j mixture ; and its comprehensiveness (for it is well on the 
road to beitig an all-heal) is also a mark of the early stages of the 
medical art. That Artemis is the patron of the swallow has been 
maintained : for instance, there is the story which Antoninus Liberalis 
tells (c. II) from Boios, how she turned the maiden Chelidonia into a 
swallow, because she had called upon her in her virgin distress. 
This story, however, hardly proves of itself the point that we are 
after. The transformation comes in the midst of a number of other 
bird-changes, and need not carry any special meaning. If we could 
infer from it or from elsewhere that Artemis is patron of the swallow, 
we could easily go on to show from Pliny the prevalence of swallow- 
medicines in the same way that we found mouse-medicine and lizard- 
medicine ; and these swallow- medicines might be in the medical 
apparatus of Artemis. I have not, however, been able to make a 
consistent or a conclusive argument to this effect. 

Amongst the plants that were in the garden of Artemis it seems 
clear that there was one marsh plant, whether it be the mugwort or 
not : for the title Ariemis LimncBa or Limnatis is a well-known 
cult- expression. It must be old, too : for, by some confusion between 
Limnd and Li7fun she came to be credited with the oversight of 
harbours, which, almost certainly, is not the function of the maid and 
woman's doctor. The expression Artemis of the Harbou7^ 
seems to have had some diffusion, for, as we showed above, Calli- 
machus asks the goddess which mountain she prefers, and which 
harbour she likes best. The most natural explanation of the Harbour 
goddess seems to be what we have suggested above. 

The herbalists tell us to look for the plant by runnels and 
ditches, and some add (perhaps with Mt. Taygetus in mind) in stony 
places. We must try and find what the earliest of them say as to the 
habitat of the plant. If they mention marshes or lakes, then Artemis 
Limncea is only another name for the Artemisia, or for some other 
plant in her herb-garden. 

It is agreed on all hands that Artemis, in her earliest forms, is a 
goddess of streams and marshes : sometimes she is called the River- 
Artemis, or Artemis Potamia (see Pindar, " Pyth.'* II. 12), and 
sometimes she is named after swamps generally as Limnaea, the Lady 
of the Lake (Miss Lake), or Heleia (eXeta) the marsh-maiden (Miss 
Marsh), or from some particular marsh, as Stymphalos {STvii(j)T]\La), 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 177 

or special river as the Alpheios ('AXc^etata). It seems to me 
probable that this is to be explained by the existence of some river or 
marsh plant which has passed into the medical use of the early Greek 
physicians. Artemis has been called the " Lady of the Lake," or 
" She of the Marsh " ; that is a very good nomenclature for a magical 
marsh plant, as well as for the patroness of marshes and streams. 

It is possible that there is a variety of the Artemisia which is 
peculiar to marsh- land. Pallas, in his " Voyages en differentes Pro- 
vinces de Russie" (iV. 719), speaks of a variety "which is quite 
different from Artemisia palustris " / but I do not see the latter name 
in Linnaeus. [I notice, however, that in the British Museum copy of 
Gmelin, Flora SibeiHaca, ll. 1 19, against Artemisia herbacea is a 
note in the handwriting of Sir Joseph Banks, Artemisia pahtstris 
Linn.^ 

Now that we have established the existence of the garden of herbs 
(medical and magic) belonging to Hekate and Artemis, it is proper 
to ask a question whether the name of Artemis came to be applied to 
any other of the plants in the herbarium beside the mother- plant, the 
mugwort. There are certain things which suggest that the name 
Artemis could be used like an adjective with a number of nouns. It 
will be noticed that this is almost implied in the title TToXvoivvfios which 
is given to Artemis in the Orphic hymns and elsewhere. The ob- 
jection to this would be that other gods and goddesses are sometimes 
called TrokvMvviio<; without suggesting that they are adjectival in 
character to other objects. In the case of Artemis the suggested 
adjective appears to be applied not only to the plants in the herbarium 
which she governs, but to the diseases to which the plants serve as 
healers. Gruppe points out the traces of an Artemis Podagra, the 
herb that cures gout, and Artemis Chelytis, which seems to be a 
cough mixture ! ^ There is one case of extraordinary interest in which 

^He is quoting from Clem. Alex, protr., pp. 32, 33. and Clement is 
quoting from Sosibius : it is not quite clear whether the goddess is the 
disease to be propitiated in the Roman manner, or whether she is thought of 
as governing it. The Artemis Cults in question are Spartan, and therefore 
can be thought of in medical terms, for Artemis was certainly the Healer in 
Laconia. 

Mugwort is still in use in China in the treatment of gout, as may be 
seen in the following extract from a letter of Prof. Giles : — 

••There is quite a 'literature* about Artemisia vulgaris. L., which 



178 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

we can register the transfer of the name of the goddess to a particular 
plant. We have already drawn attention to the spring-woH, which 
opens all doors and has the entree to all treasure chambers ; and we 
have shown that Artemis and Hekate are called by the epithet 
/cX€tSo{};^o9, the one that holds the key, and that Artemis shares this 
title with another shadowy goddess, a kind of double of her own, 
whose name is UpoOvpaCa, My suggestion is that the epithet 
belongs to the spring-wort. Artemis holds the key because she is 
the spring-wort before which everything opens. If this can be 
made out for the origin, or rather for one of the first developments of 
the Artemis Cult (for we have given the first place to the mugwort), 
then we must, in view of the antiquity of this primitive medicine and 
these primitive and still widely spread superstitions, look for the same 
elements in the early Roman Cult. The Romans also must have 
believed in and honoured the spring-wort : it was not indeed their 
Diana who was /cX€tSo{};(09, it was the male counterpart and conjugate 
of Diana, viz. Dianus or Janus, One has only to recall the 
extraordinary antiquity of the Cult of Janus, and the position assigned 
to him as the opener and closer of all doors, and the genius of the 
opening year, and his actual representation as a key-bearer,^ to 
justify us making a parallel between Janus with the keys, and Artemis 
(or Hekate) /cXetSoO^^o?. The connection which the Latins make 
between Janus and Janua turns upon the same rights of ingress and 
egress. If Artemis is equated with UpoOvpaia^ what are we to say 
to Macrobius '^ when he tells us that 

apud nos Janum omnibus praeesse januis nomen ostendit, quod est 
simile ^vpaico . . . omnium et portarum custos et rector viarum. 
He is almost called UpoOvpaio^ in Diosc. (73, 1 3) where he is spoken 
of as 

T(p ^Idvcp To5 irpo T03V Ovpcov. 

has been used in China from time immemorial for cauterizing as a counter- 
irritant, especially in cases of gout. Other species of Artemisia are also 
found in China." 

^ For the representation of Janus with the key (whether interpreted 
sexually or otherwise) see Ovid, ** Fasti,'* I. 9. : — 

Ille tenens baculum dextra, clavemque sinistra : 

or Macrobius, *' Sat.*' I. 9, 7 : cum clavi et virga figuratur. 
2Macr., •'Sat..'* 1.9, 7. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 179 

The connection of Artemis and Prothyraea is not unnaturally inter- 
preted in the light of the phenomena of conception and child-birth 
over which they both preside : but the very same functions, or almost 
the same, are assigned to Janus by the Latins. The following 
references are given by Roscher (s.v. ** Janus," col. 36). Aug. 
" de dvit. Dei," 7, 2 :— 

Ipse primum Janus cum puerperium concipitur. . . . aditum aperit 
recipiendo semini. 

Ibid. 6, 9. Varro . . . enumerare deos coepit a conceptione 
hominis, quorum numerum exorsus est a Jano. 

Ibid, 7, 3. I Hi autem quod aperitur conceptui non immerito 
adtribui : and for the key of Janus take 

Paul. (*' Epit. ex Festo," 56, 6) : clavim consuetudo erat mulieri- 
bus donare ob significandam partus facilitatem. 

Following the analogy between the two cults in question, that of 
the Roman Janus and the Greek Artemis, we are led to conclude 
that each of them is in one point of view a personification of the 
powers and qualities of the spring-wort. Nor shall we be surprised 
when we find that Janus turns up with Picus in the oldest stratum of 
Roman religion, for the tradition of folk-lore connects the woodpecker 
and the spring-wurzel, and has much to say as to the guardianship of 
the former over the latter ; the early stratum of folk-lore answering to 
an early stratum of religion, when the vegetable and bird- forms have 
become human. 

The spring-wort is obtained in the following manner, as described 
by Grimm ^ : — 

" The nest of a green or black woodpecker, while she has chicks, 
is closed tight with a wooden bung ; the bird, on becoming aware of 
this, flies away, knowing where to find a wonderful root which men 
would seek in vain. She comes carrying it in her bill, and holds it 
before the bung, which immediately flies out, as if driven by a power- 
ful blow. Now if you are in hiding and raise a great clamour on the 
woodpecker's arrival, she is frightened, and lets the root fall. Some 
spread a white or red cloth under the nest, and then she will drop the 
root on that after using it.** 

Grimm goes on to quote from Conrad von Megenberg, who says 

^ "Teut. Myth." (Eng. tr.) III. 973. 



180 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

that the bird is called in Latin Me7'ops, and in German Iwmheckel^ 
and that it brings a herb called bomheckel-krut, which it is not good 
for people generally to know of, as locks fly open before it. What is 
this mysterious herb which they call wonder-flower, key-flower, or 
spring- wurzel ? The tradition is in Pliny (lib. 10, 18), *' adactos 
cavernis eorum a pastore cuneos, admota quadem ab his herba, elabi 
creditrur vulgo. Trebius ^ auctor est, clavum cuneumve adactum quanta 
libeat vi arbori, in qua nidum habeat, statim exilire cum crepitu 
arboris, cum insederit clavo aut cuneo.'' 

We can only say of this magic herb, this key- plant or key-flower, 
that it was Janus and related to Picus ; its mythological name was 
Janus, its botanical name is unknown. 

It will have been remarked in the course of the argument that, 
although we have a very strong case for relating the mugwort to the 
patronage of Artemis and for identifying the patroness with the plant, 
yet the descriptions given of the plant's habitat are, perhaps, not 
sufficiently precise to make us safe in identifying the mugwort v^th the 
Artemis Limnaea. 

There is, however, another famous magical and medical plant 

of antiquity that may meet the case more exactly. In Friend's 

** Flowers and Flower- Lore *' - we find the following description of the 

Osmunda Regalis, or Kin^ Fern: "No one who has seen this 

stateliest of ferns in its most favoured haunts — some sheltered Cornish 

valley, the banks of a rushing Dartmoor stream, or the wooded 

margin of Grasmere or Killamey : — 

Plant lovelier in its own retired abode 
On Grasmere' s beach, than Naiad by the side 
Of Grecian brook, or Lady of the Mere, 
Sole sitting on the shores of old romance, 

will doubt that its size and remarkable appearance . . . must always 
have claimed attention." 

Here we have the very title ** Lady of the Lake " given by Words- 
worth to the Osmunda Fern.^ This is very like to Artemis Limnaea. 
Let us see what the herbals say of the places where it is to be found. 
Parkinson says of it,* " It groweth on moores, boggs, and watery 

^ r. 150 B.C. See Plin., " H.N." ix. 89. 

2 l.c. I. 1 59. ' *' Poems on the Naming of Places," IV. 

***Theatrum Botanicum," p. 1039. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 181 

places, in many places of this land. I took a roote thereof for my 
garden, from the bogge on Hampstead Heathe, not far from a small 
cottage there." ^ 

It is not easy, however, to decide whether the Greek herbalists 
used the King Fern as distinct from other varieties. The ordinary 
fern is gathered religiously on Midsummer Eve, as Parkinson says, 
"with I know not what conjuring words," and fern-seed thus acquired 
is a very ancient medicine for producing invisibility, and for the 
discovery of treasure : but whether the same thing applies to the 
Osmunda is not clear. All that we have made out with certainty is 
that its habitat would suit an Artemis Limnaea, or Heleia, or 
Stymphalia. We need further light on the meaning of the gathering 
of the Midsummer fern, as well as the parallel rite of the finding of 
the St. John's wort, and we also want to know much more about the 
spring-wort. What was it ? It is not easy to decide. Several of the 
magical plants of antiquity can open doors and locate treasure. As 
we have already stated it was employed by Artemis- Hekate. 

Here is another passage in the Orphic " Argonautica," which shows 
how closely Artemis and Hekate were identified in the quest for the 
Fleece. Hekate is described as follows : — 

7]p re vu K6\')(^0L 
"Apre/jLLV i^irvXiTjv KeXaBoBpofjuov IXdaKovrai. 

Here we note the title of " Our Lady of the Gate," which may be a 

description of her functions as birth-helper, but applies equally well to 

the more general power of opening gates and bars, such as is involved 

in the possession of the spring- wort : and certainly it must be this plant 

which is answerable for the foUovring 11. 986 ff. : — 

iv S' a^ap ' Aprefiiho^; (f)povpov ^e/xa? rJK6 ')(^dfia^€ 

irevKa^i €k y^eipcov, e9 3' ovpavov rjpapev oo-ae. 

aalvov ok a/cv\aK€<; irpoiroXoi, \v ovr o 8' o^^^e? 

K\ei6 pcdv dpyaXecov, dv a 8' eirr aro k aXd 6 v per pa 

T€LX€o<; evpvfjLevov'^, vTT6(f>aiveTo 3' dXao^; ipavvov. 

^ The belief that the Osmunda was to be found on Hampstead Heath 
has come down to our own time. Mrs. Cook of Hampstead, mother of 
Mr. A. B. Cook, an old lady of eighty-six, knows the tradition well. She 
writes that she has herself seen it there : ** I well remember seeing the 
Osmunda Regalis growing beside the * Leg of Mutton ' pond on Hamp- 
stead Heath, though I can't say whether it is there now, for I cannot go 
out to look **. 



182 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Here the action is precisely that of the magical spring-wort. This 
may then be taken as having been in the possession of Artemis. 

Artemis, then, may be regarded as a witch with a herb garden^ 
the patroness of women's medicine and of women's magic. Her most 
powerful charms are the Artemisia (mugwort) and the spring-wort 
(not yet identified with certainty). She is content with the normal 
processes of nature over which she presides, and does not operate 
with philtres or artificial stimulants. Her magic is mainly protective. 
Its chief form consists in the plucking of the mugwort on St. John's 
Eve and wearing it in the girdle. For this reason the mugwort is 
called St. John's girdle ; it was really Diana's girdle, or Our Lady's 
girdle. The Venetians call it " Herba della Madonna".^ 

In Rutebeufs " Dit de I'Herberie,"^ we are told as follows : — 

** Les fames en ceignent le soir de la S. Jehan et en font chapiaux 
seur lor chiez, et diete que goute ne avertins (i.e. neither gout nor 
epilepsy) ne les puet panre (i.e. atteindre) n'en chiez, n'en braz, n'en 
pie, n'en main." 

The passage is interesting in that it shows that the Artemisian 
magic is protective in character, and also incidentally that one thing 
against which protection is obtained is the gout, which throws light on 
the meaning of Artemis Podagra to which we were referring previously. 
It must be taken to mean that she wards off the gout and other 
troubles. This protective magic obtained by herbs gathered on St. 
John's Eve can be illustrated from other plants besides the mugwort. 
The inhabitants of the island of Zante, for example, gather the vervain 
at the same time of the year, and " carry this plant in their cincture^ 
as an amulet to drive away evil spirits, and to preserve them from 
various mischief ".^ 

1 think it can be shown that in certain cases the plants were not 
merely placed in the girdle, but actually made into a cincture. For 
instance, J. B. Thiers in his "Traite des Superstitions" gives a sum- 
mary of practices condemned by the Church, including : — 

Se cemdre de ceHaines herbes la vielle de Saint Jean, precise- 
ment lorsque midi sonne, pour etre preserve de toutes sortes de 
malefices. 

^ Lenz, *' Botanik u. mineralogie der alien Griechen u. Romer,*' p. 185. 

2 Rutebeuf, I. 257. 

^ Walpole, ** Memoirs of Travels in Turkey," p. 248. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS 183 

Bertrand in " La Religion des Gaulois" (p. 408) quotes a corres- 
pondent's description of the Midsummer fires as practised in Creuse et 
Correzes : The fathers and mothers warm themselves at the bonfire, tak- 
ing care to put round their middles a girdle of rye stalks. Aromatic 
plants are gathered by the young people, and kept throughout the 
year as specifics against sickness and thunder. 

It will be remembered that in discussing the origin of the healing 
powers of Apollo, and locating them in the first instance in the mistle- 
toe, we were able to show that this elementary medicine, without an 
external anthropomorph to preside over it, was still current among 
the Ainu of Japan, who regard the mistletoe as an Allheal, after the 
manner of the Celtic Druids. From the same quarter, or nearly the 
same, comes the interesting verification of the correctness of our belief 
in the primitive sanctity of the vegetables that became respectively 
Dionysos and Artemis. 

We learn from Georgi, the editor of eighteenth-century travels in 
Siberia, and author of a book entitled " Description de toutes les nations 
de I'Empire de Russie,'* that '' the pine-tree, a kind of mugwort and 
the ivy of Kamschatka are the plants consecrated to the gods, and 
their scent is agreeable to them ; that is why they decorate their idols 
and their victims with these plants ". 

Here are Dionysos and Artemis on their way to personification : 
we must not take too seriously what the writer says about the gods 
and the idols. No doubt he is right that they had sacrifices of some 
kind to spirits, but it is not necessary to assume that Kamschatka, any 
more than Northern Japan, was at the Greek level in religion. 

Georgi adds a note to his description of the mugwort in Siberia, 
to the effect that the plant is called Irwen by the Katchins in Burma 
and some other peoples. Apparently this means that mugwort has 
come into Northern Burma as a medicinal plant. If this can be 
established, the antiquity and diffusion of the Artemis medicine is 
sufficiently established. The evidence which Georgi brings forward of 
the cult use of ivy amongst the Kamschatkans will require an important 
correction to one of our speculations in the Essay on the " Cult of 
Dionysos." It will be remembered that we explained the title of 
Perikionios applied to Dionysos as being a Greek variation on a title 
Perkunios, implying that Dionysos was affiliated to the Thunder-god 
Perkun. Let us see what Georgi has further to say about the Ivy-Cult. 

13 



184 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

" Les Kamschatdales erigent dans leur deserts de pedtes colonnes 
qu*ils entourent de lierre, et les regardent comme des Dieux, en leur 
addressant un culte religieux " (I.e. p. 1 49). 

It seems that this is the same cult as that of Dionysos Perikionios 
among the Greeks, and in a very early form. We may therefore 
discard, as Mr. A. B. Cook suggested, the derivation of Perikionios 
from Perkun. 

Enough has been said to illustrate the magic of Artemis, and we 
only need to be reminded once more that the medicine of the past lies 
close to the magic, and cannot be dissociated from it. Artemis is at 
once a plant, a witch, and a doctor. Her personification may be 
illustrated from "The Times'* obituary for 24 February, 1916, which 
contains the name Beifus ! The name is more common than one 
would at first imagine. My friend, Conrad Gill, writes me that 
" there was a lieutenant named Bey f us in the battalion of which my 
brother was medical officer **. I noted recently a by-form of the same 
name in a book-catalogue : — 

Beibitz (J. H.) : Jesus Salvator Mundi : Lenten Thoughts : 

This is the same name as the German Beiboz. 

When Aristides, the Christian philosopher of the second century, 
denounced the irregularities of the Olympians, he said of Artemis that 
it was " disgraceful that a maid should go about by herself on mountains 
and follow the chase of beasts : and therefore it is not possible that 
Artemis should be a goddess ** ; the form taken by the apologetic is 
hardly one that commends itself to the present generation ; even in 
Wordsworth's time it would have been subject to the retort. 

Dear child of nature, let them rail ! 

Our investigation, then, is a missing link in the propagandist literature 
of Christianity ! 



THE ENGLISH CIVIL SERVICE IN THE FOUR- 
TEENTH CENTURY/ 

By T. F. tout. M.A.. F.B.A. 

BISHOP PHASER PROFESSOR OF MEDI/EVAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL 
HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER. 

THERE is little need to expatiate to a twentieth-century audience 
on the nature and functions of the Civil Service of the modem 
British state. To us the civil servant is v^th us alv^ays. He 
rules us from a score of palaces of bureaucracy in Westminster and 
beyond. Each time that our benevolent rulers extend for our benefit 
the sphere of state intervention, they are compelled to make a new call 
on the activity of this ever-increasing class. The result is that those who 
fondly imagined that modern England was a democracy are gradually 
discovering that it is in reality a bureaucracy. Our real masters are 
not the voters. Still less are they the vote-hunting politicians who 
flit from office to office, either singly or in whole packs. Our masters 
are the demure and obscure gentlemen in neat black coats and tall 
hats who are seen every morning flocking to the government offices in 
Western London at hours varying inversely with their dignity. 

I am far from saying that our masters do their work badly ; on 
the whole they perform their task quite well. It is true that their 
point of view as governors is not always ours as the governed, and 
that the loyalty to tradition, which springs up, like a mushroom, in the 
youngest office, seems to us outsiders occasionally to degenerate into 
what we irreverently call the cult of red tape, and that their noble 
sense of their own dignity may occasionally incline towards pomposity 
and superciliousness. Our masters mainly live and work in London, 
and only rarely and reluctantly do the higher grades of the class 
establish themselves permanently in the ** provinces ". But they are 
always glad to inspect or to visit or in some other way to direct the 

^ An elaboration of the lecture delivered in the John Rylands Library, 
15 December, 1915. 

185 



186 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

benighted provincial into the right road of progress. Thus we in the 
North, though we see but seldom in our midst the more exalted types 
of bureaucrat, have constant occasion to realize their activities. We have 
been forced to protect ourselves from them by the homoeopathic method 
of creating lesser bureaucracies of our own. How successful we are is 
shown by the fact that our own local palace of bureaucracy in Albert 
Square is, for all its vastness, insufficient to contain the myriad of 
servants of the city corporation that should normally pass within it 
their working lives. 

However much we may grumble, this growth of bureaucracy is 
inevitable. It is in fact a result of the increasing complexity of modem 
civilization, and is emphasized by the constant growth of state inter- 
vention. Time was when a serious effort was made by our grand- 
fathers to realize the ideal of laissez /aire ; but laissez faire was 
always much more theory than practice, and in neither relation did it 
ever come near success. 

Our life could not be lived on the hypothesis that the state was 
nothing more than a glorified policeman. Now we are all more 
or less socialists : we all recognize that the mission of the state 
covers the whole of life. To discharge so wide a function the public 
service, both central and local, requires all the skill that training 
and knowledge can give. We have therefore imperative need for 
the trained specialist who makes administration the work of his 
life. At his best, his skill enables us to be well governed. At his 
worst, he may still save us from the vagaries of the amateur, who, 
whether as member of parliament or city councillor, thinks that the 
leisure of a busy life is sufficient to devote to the highly technical and 
difficult trade of government. We cannot therefore do without the 
professional administrator, the bureaucrat. Our amateur politicians, 
on the other hand, have the equally indispensable task imposed upon 
them of calling the tune which the bureaucrat should sing, and of 
watching over his restless activity and turning it into profitable 
channels. 

We are sometimes told that the elaboration of the political 
machinery of the state, which involves the existence of a bureaucratic 
class, is the work of quite modern times. No doubt many of the 
refinements of permanent officialism are modern enough. The very 
words, civil service, civil servant, which we familiarly use to describe 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 187 

the permanent public official, are things of yesterday. No instances of 
the use of these terms can be found in our language before the reign of 
George III. It originated apparently among the early British ad- 
ministrators of India rather than in the British Islands. It seems first 
to have been used by the East India Company, after Clivers conquest 
of Bengal, to distinguish the administrative officers of the company v^ho 
were not military by profession. It was only slowly that the technical 
phrase of the Anglo-Indian was also adopted for home use. The 
New English Dictionary gives us no instance of the wider em- 
ployment of these terms earlier than some sixty years ago. Indeed 
I can find no earlier example of the familiar use of the phrase civil 
service, as applied to the officials of the British crown, than in the 
title of the report, issued in 1 853, on " the organization of the permanent 
civil service ". This report is memorable as having first suggested to 
an unheeding generation of place-hunters the policy of the free admission 
to the public service, without jobbing or nomination of all such male 
persons of sound health as have acquitted themselves best in a stiff 
competitive examination. It was the work of two officials. Sir Charles 
Trevelyan of the Treasury, and Sir Stafford Northcote of the Board 
of Trade, who were encouraged to persevere in their views by the 
reforming zeal of the new chancellor of the exchequer, W. E. 
Gladstone. If we study the correspondence and discussions pro- 
voked by Trevelyan' s report, we find — for the first time so far 
as I can find — ^the word "civil service" applied to the permanent 
public servants of the English state. We can read it in 1854 
in the letters of Lord John Russell opposing Trevelyan's revolu- 
tionary plans, in those of Gladstone advocating them, and in the 
note to Gladstone in which Queen Victoria gives a very guarded 
and reluctant assent to the general idea. The establishment of the 
Civil Service Commission in 1855, to carry out the new plan of 
examinations, made the term, so to say, official. It did not at once 
spread outside political circles. Thus Dickens, who published in 1857 
in Little Dorrit his well-known denunciations of the Circum- 
locution office and of the Barnacle clan, never speaks of the civil 
service, though one Mr. Barnacle describes himself as a "public 
servant ". In the light of these suggestions it seems as if the notice of 
the phrase civil servant in the New English Dictionary would be 
the better for a little elaboration. If I may venture to hazard a guess 



188 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

on a topic quite outside my ordinary studies, it almost looks as if Sir 
Charles Trevelyan, a retired Indian civil servant, to w^hom the phrase 
was an everyday one, was perhaps unwittingly responsible for ex- 
tending into general currency a term restricted in an earlier generation 
to the civil service of India. Within a few years the term civil 
service was to be heard from every one's lips. 

Whether or not we have the name, we have the thing, hundreds 
of years earlier. The public servants of the crown, whose special 
sphere was administration and finance, and who were professional 
administrators, not professional soldiers, go back to the earliest ages 
of the English state. They existed, but barely existed, in the later 
days of the Anglo-Saxon monarchy. They first became numerous, 
powerful, and conspicuous when the Norman kings gave England a 
centralized administration and a trained body of administrators. 
Their influence rose to a high level in the reigns of Henry II and his 
sons, when England, thanks to their work, was the best governed 
and most orderly state in all Western Europe. By this time another 
process was beginning. The early civil servants, like all early public 
officials, were simply members of the king's household. The king's 
clerks, accountants, and administrators belonged to the same cate- 
gory as the king's cooks, scullions, grooms, and valets. The public 
service of the state then was hopelessly confused with the domestic 
service of the court. Bit by bit, however, we get to the first stages of 
the long process by which the national administrative machine was 
slowly disentangled from the machinery which regulated the domestic 
establishment of the monarch. The time was still far distant when 
the modern distinction was made between the king in his private and 
public capacities, between the royal officers who ruled the king's 
household, and those who carried on the government of the country. 
Our mediaeval ancestors were moved even less than ourselves by 
theoretical considerations. But for very practical reasons the kings 
found it impossible not to draw some sort of line between the men who 
helped them to govern the country and the men who waited on the 
monarch or strove to keep in order his vast and disorderly household. 
For one thing the king was always on the move. A Norman or 
Angevin monarch had no fixed "residence" and still less a fixed 
*' capital ". Business and inclination united to make him live a wander- 
ing life from one royal estate to another. Economic necessity alone 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 189 

kept him plodding through his continued journeys. So great was the 
dearth of means of communication, and so difficult was the transport 
of bulky commodities, that it was much easier to take men and horses 
to their food than to bring their food to them. 

The whole administrative machine of our early kings was a part of 
the court. Accordingly it followed the king on his constant wander- 
ings. It was not the least of the troubles of those, who wished to 
transact business with the government, that they had to find out where 
the king was and to attend him in his restless movements from place to 
place. So long as the magnates of each district ruled each one over 
his own estate, so long as the freemen of shire, hundred, or borough 
were mainly governed in their local courts, these inconveniences occurred 
so seldom that they counted for very little. But by Henry IFs reign 
the English king had centralized so much authority under his immediate 
direction that all men of substance had frequent occasion to seek jus- 
tice or request favours at the court. Moreover, as the administrative 
machine became more complex, it became a constantly harder task to 
carry about with the court the ever-increasing tribe of officials, to say 
nothing of the records, registers, and rolls that they found necessary 
for business or for reference. The remedy was found in establishing 
a headquarters for each administrative department at some fixed spot, 
where permanent business was transacted and where the records of 
the office were preserved. It was for this practical reason that the 
civil service slowly differentiated itself from the domestic environment 
of the king. For similar practical reasons London, or rather West- 
minster, was found the most convenient fixed spot for each permanent 
central bureau. 

The financial administration was the first to acquire a separate life 
of its own. In days when government meant exploitation, the highest 
aim of the ruler was to get as much out of his subjects as he could. 
The good king of those days promoted his people's welfare because he 
had the wit to see that a prosperous community could afford to pay 
more taxes and was likely to yield them up with less friction or rebel- 
lion. It was natural then that finance should loom largest in the royal 
scheme of the universe, and that the greatest attention should be devoted 
to the collection and administration of the royal revenue. Accordingly 
the good old days when Edward the Confessor kept his treasure in a 
box in his bedroom passed away. Under Henry I the first of modern 



190 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

government offices arose in the king's Exchequer, and under Henry 
II the king's ELxchequer had a permanent home of its own at West- 
minster. If the title of chamberlain, borne by some of the king's 
Exchequer officials, shows its origin in the king's bedroom or chamber, 
the Exchequer was before the end of the twelfth century in all 
essentials an independent office of state. Its staff was quite separate 
fi'om the service of the court. It was in modern phrase a branch — for 
the time being the only branch — of the king's civil service. 

I have spoken of the Exchequer as a financial office, and I have 
done so because its ipain concern was with finance. But we must not 
expect meticulous distinctions in these days between various branches 
of the royal service. The business of government was still so primi- 
yti^e : the number of skilled officers so small : their resources so 
V limited, that every servant of the king had, like the modern country 
workman or the present Indian civilian in a remote district, to turn his 
hand to any job that came in his way. If he did not do it, there was 
no one else who could, and the job remained undone. Accordingly 
the Exchequer officer is often found trying lawsuits, going on missions, 
and transacting all sorts of business that had no close relation with 
finance. As time went on, this proved inconvenient, and just as the 
twelfth century saw the creation of the financial department, so did 
the thirteenth century witness the slow separation from the court of a 
second office of state, whose main business was administration. This 
administrative department grew out of the little office where the chaplains 
of the court occupied themselves in writing out the king's letters 
between the hours of divine service. One of these chaplains, called the 
chancellor, was entrusted with the custody of the king's seal. Now 
in an age when wi'iting was a rare art with laymen, and when all writing 
looked much alike, a great man did not authenticate his letters by signing 
them but by affixing his seal to them. The keeping of the king's seal 
then involved responsibility for the composition of the king's corre- 
spondence. Now the confidential clerk, who writes a man's letters, 
may generally more or less suggest the policy these letters involve. It 
resulted that, as the king's general secretary, the chancellor became 
the most trusted of all the king's ministers, his secretary of state 
for all departments, as Stubbs has rightly called him. He was, in 
effect, prime minister, and to do his work he had to gather round him 
a staff of skilled officials. The result was the complete separation 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 191 

of the king's scribes from the king's chaplains, the growth of a class 
of clerks of the Chancery who by the fourteenth century were the 
ablest, most powerful, and most energetic of all officers of state. The 
Chancery, however, long remained a part of the court, mainly because 
it was to the king's interest to have his chief minister always by his 
side. But as the office became larger, and as its prudent habit of 
enrolling all its acts swelled its official records to an enormous size, 
the same reason, which separated the Exchequer from the court, began 
to apply also to the Chancery. The process was made more impera- 
tive when the barons put in their claim to control the government of 
the country equally or almost equally with the king. At last a sort 
of compromise was arrived at by which the Chancery, though still partly 
following the court, wandered less freely and in smaller circles. It 
now had headquarters of its own in London, where the clerks lived a 
sort of collegiate life in common. It kept there its ever-increasing 
mass of records, and kept them in the very same place where the 
Public Record Office now preserves the accumulated archives of every 
great department of state. By the days of Edward II the Chancery, 
like the Ejcchequer since Henry II, had become a government office, 
self-contained, self-sufficing, with its own staff, traditions, and methods, 
and plainly separated from the court. 

The Exchequer and the Chancery, the office of finance and the office 
of administration, were the two first government departments in the 
modern sense. A third and lesser office separated itself from the 
court in the reign of Edward III. This was the office of the privy 
seal, whose keeper and clerks gradually drifted out of court in the 
generation succeeding the differentiation by the Chancery from the 
household. The king's privy seal was originated about the reign of 
John when the great seal, and its keeper the chancellor, became so 
much public officers that they were no longer always at hand when 
their lord wished to write a letter. Moreover, the chancellor was a 
great man, who, though nominally the king's servant, often had a 
will of his own and often agreed with the barons rather than his royal 
master. The result was that, as Chancery and chancellor drifted out 
of court, there still remained, as closely attendant as of old on the 
monarch in all his wanderings, the ancient writing and administrative 
department which continued to do for the king's household the work 
originally done by the chancellor. It was soon natural for the king 



192 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

to set up his domestic chancery against the public chancery, the 
privy seal against the great seal. The barons tried to stop this by 
claiming the control of the household office as well as the public one. 
Neither king nor barons could get all their way, and in the long 
run a sort of compromise was again arrived at. The privy seal 
went "out of court". It became a minor administrative office, some- 
times perhaps relieving the Chancery, more often, I suspect, clogging 
the wheels of the administration. The result was a third type of 
fourteenth century civil servant in the clerks of the privy seal. 

Though all these offices of state arose one after the other from the 
royal household, the household itself went on much as before. Even 
under Edward III the line between domestic and public administration 
was not yet drawn. The household offices continued to overlap the 
offices of state. If the Exchequer controlled the national revenues, it 
had a rival in the domestic office called the king's chamber, which 
remained, as in primitive times, the household office of finance. The 
king's wardrobe in the same way was no longer the cupboard where 
the king hung up his clothes, but a well-equipped office of domestic 
administration. It was in effect the private chanceiy of the court, and 
almost rivalling the public chancery of state. Each branch of the king's 
household was now manned in part at least by skilled professional ad- 
ministrators. The clerks of the chamber and the clerks of the wardrobe 
might well be included as a fourth type of mediaeval civil servant. If I 
speak but little of this class it is because, with all its importance in the 
administration, its best work was over by the death of Edward III. 
As we near the fifteenth century, it became increasingly absorbed in 
its domestic work and less and less employed in the public government 
by the state. Yet no sooner had this process gone forward to a consid- 
erable degree than new court administrative offices began to take the 
lead in directing national affairs. I should, however, get far beyond 
my period were I to speak of the secretariat of state, the signet office 
and the newer administrative machinery of the last period of the middle 
ages. We must remember, however, that these new departments 
had their origin in the course of the fourteenth century. 

So much for the offices : and now for the men who filled them. 
My apology for troubling you so much with the growth of the 
administrative departments is that some knowledge of them is indis- 
pensable for the appreciation of the work and position of the official 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 193 

class with whom we are primarily concerned. It will be my business 
now to try and suggest what manner of man was the civil servant 
who filled these offices of state. 

The bare sketch of the growth of the offices will suffice to 
dissipate the illusion that the middle ages had no civil servants. In 
some ways the bureaucrat was as active and vigorous in the fourteenth 
centuiy as he is in the twentieth. But we should be rash to think 
that he closely resembled the civil servant of the modern state. 
Mediaeval society was always on a small scale even in great kingdoms. 
Mediaeval resources were miserably feeble as compared with those 
of modern times. Men were as clever then as they are now ; they 
were almost as " civilized ". But they were overwhelmingly inferior 
to moderns in the command of material resources, and but a fraction of 
the meagre material forces at the disposal of society was under the 
control of the mediaeval state. Hence the very slight extent to which 
the division of labour could be pushed. When the principle of differ- 
entiation had gone so far as to make a civil service possible, its members 
were but imperfectly specialized. The offices of state were few ; 
nevertheless they overlapped hopelessly ; everything was in a state 
of flux ; and the mediaeval civilian, like the modern blue-jacket, was 
compelled to be a "handy man" by the situation in which his lot 
was cast. Even in our own highly organized society it is possible, 
especially in times like this, for clerks to be shifted from one office to 
another, or for outsiders to be called in to discharge temporary war work. 
Under mediaeval conditions the same end was attained by everybody 
doing everybody else's job, sometimes to the neglect of his own. 
The mediaeval civil servant then was much less specialized than his 
modern counterpart. 

Another striking point of dissimilarity between the modern and 
the mediaeval civilian is that the great majority of the latter were 
clergymen. We still call the civil servant a clerk, just as we speak of 
the clerks of a bank or a merchant's office. If we ever ask ourselves 
what "clerk" means, we should probably say that it involves a life 
devoted to the mechanical task of writing, book-keeping, accounting, and 
copying. But historically a clerk means simply a clergyman, a member 
of the broad class of actual or potential ministers of the Church. In 
the early middle ages it was a matter of course to regard all men of educa- 
tion as clerks. Writing and accounting were rare gifts for a layman, the 



194 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

more so since all letters were written and all accounts kept in Latin. It 
was because they knew how to write and keep accounts in Latin that 
clerks were alone trusted to man the primitive offices of state. Now 
these clerks were not necessarily "clerks in holy orders" ; they were 
not even necessarily "clerks in minor orders *\ You could enter the 
clerical profession as soon as you had induced some prelate to give 
you the " first tonsure **. With the shaven crown went the clerical 
dress and the important privilege of benefit of clergy, that is the 
right of being judged for all offences by members of your own order, 
and in practice the useful privilege of committing your first crime 
with comparative impunity. The tonsured clerk might, if he would, 
afterwards proceed to ** orders," minor or holy ; but in numerous 
cases he did not even enter minor orders, and it was quite common 
for him not to take holy orders, that is he never became a sub- 
deacon, deacon, or priest. Very often he passed through these 
stages, hastily and perfunctorily, when his service to the state received 
its crowning reward in a bishopric. There were few instances of 
mediaeval civil servants declining the office of bishop, the highest stage 
of holy orders. Now for the majority of clerks in government offices 
there was little need to assume more clerical responsibility than 
prudence required. For holy orders were permanent and indelible ; 
the tonsure alone gave benefit of clergy, and the worldly clerk 
only needed orders to qualify him for a benefice. Thus the clerical 
class was very elastic and very large. In fact it comprehended all 
educated men, most lawyers, most physicians, all scholars, graduates, 
and students of universities, and most boys in grammar schools. And 
the clerk, when a clerk, had the disabilities as well as the advantages 
of his profession. All professional men then were compulsory celibates ; 
by abandoning the clerical status they lost all prospect of worldly 
advancement in the one profession that had great prizes to offer. 

By the fourteenth century this state of things was already passing 
away. There was an ever- increasing number of educated laymen, and 
a new lucrative profession was fully open to lay enterprise. This was 
that of the pleaders and exponents of English law. The schools of the 
*' common lawyers ** in London were the first schools in England 
where men could study for a profession without becoming clerks. But 
we have not got to the time when to be a barrister was to possess the 
master key to politics. The lawyers had, then as now, more than their 



1 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 195 

share of good things ; but the common lawyer at least was rarely a civil 
servant, though he might sometimes become a minister. It was the 
civil and canon laws, the law of Rome and the law of the church, not 
the common law, that were most pursued by those who aspired to the 
public service. The civil and canon laws were the only laws studied 
in the universities : their students then were all necessarily clerks. 

There were some advantages in the clerical official. He was better 
educated on the average ; often a graduate, sometimes a distinguished 
doctor, or master, of Paris or Oxford. He was generally a man with 
a career to make, and likely therefore to be more devoted and less 
scrupulous in the service of his master. Moreover, clerks could easily 
be rewarded vsdthout expense to the king. They could be enriched 
by livings, dignities, prebends, bishoprics ; while the laymen could 
only be satisfied by grants of land that belonged to the royal domain 
or by the custody of royal wards or by the hand of heiresses in the 
king's guardianship. At the worst, the clerk could be quietly got rid of 
ty being given some job that kept him away from his office. Moreover, 
a strong practical disadvantage that told against lay officials was the fact 
that in the early middle ages all lay offices tended to become hereditary. 
For instance in the Exchequer, the oldest of the offices of state, there had 
been from the beginning a considerable lay element. Originally the 
layman did the rough work, while the clerks wrote, directed, and kept 
accounts. But by the fourteenth century laymen were as often as 
competent as clerks for these delicate operations. Long before that, how- 
ever, the original lay offices of the Exchequer had become "hereditary 
sergeantries,*' and had fallen into the hands of families so swelled by the 
profits of royal service that their representatives were too dignified to do 
their work. Accordingly, they were allowed to appoint some person of 
inferior social status who was not too much of a gentleman to be afraid 
of soiling his hands with labour. The result was that many actual work- 
ing members of the Exchequer staff were appointed not by the king but 
by some nobleman, and that nobleman was often a bitter enemy of the 
royal policy. We may well pity Edward II when one of his fiercest 
opponents, the grim Earl of Warwick, nicknamed by the royal favourite 
the Black Dog of Arden, had the right to nominate the man who did 
the work of his hereditary office of chamberlain of the Exchequer. 
The Black Dog showed that he could bite by killing Gaveston ; but 
until the earl's dying day the king had to accept the man his enemy 



196 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

chose to discharge the functions in the Exchequer which devolved by 
inheritance to the house of Warwick. There is no wonder then that 
to the king the clerk, who could not legally found an hereditary house, 
was a better servant than a layman who expected to be the source 
of a new landed family. It was only by employing clerks that the 
monarch could be master of his own household. 

This state of things was beginning to pass away by the fourteenth 
century, but the warning of the Exchequer sergeantries had not been 
lost. In the Exchequer clerks did, under the Edwards, the work which, 
under Henry II, was performed by laymen, holding office from father 
to son. Moreover, Elxchequer business was nov^ largely in the hands 
of personages called "barons of the exchequer". It was perhaps 
for reasons like this that the Elxchequer clerical staff was larger in the 
fourteenth than in the twelfth century. For instance, the barons 
could be, and were, indifferently clerks or laymen. But the head of 
the office, the treasurer, was always a clerk and generally was, or 
became, a bishop. The most rigidly clerical office was that of 
chancellor of the Exchequer, an officer who had the pay and status of 
a baron. This post remained clerical because the chancellor kept the 
Exchequer seal, and seal keeping was still looked upon as essentially 
clerical work. Of our modem famous chancellors of the Exchequer 
perhaps Mr. Gladstone might have felt a greater satisfaction in the 
early clerical traditions of his office than, say. Sir William Harcourt or 
Mr. Lloyd George. 

As contrasted with the Exchequer the newer offices of state, one 
and all, opened up few chances to the layman. The Chancery, for 
instance, was entirely staffed with clerks. Not only was there a 
clerical chancellor, but the very numerous Chanceiy clerks who worked 
under him were clerks in fact as well as in name. The Chancery 
clerks were, I imagine, both the most important and the ablest of 
mediaeval civil servants. Many of them were doctors of the civil and 
canon law. Among their special spheres was diplomacy and foreign 
politics. In the fourteenth as in the twentieth century diplomacy was the 
genteelest of professions. To this day the Foreign Office is spared the 
disastrous results on its manners and tone that might have followed had 
its officials, like those of less dignified departments, been selected by 
open competition. Perhaps brains and social graces do not always 
go together, and even nowadays a little more brains might have its 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 197 

use in diplomacy. But the practical mediaeval mind secured the happy 
mixture of good breeding and capacity necessary, let us say, to persuade 
or coerce a Balkan prince of German origin, by putting a great noble- 
man at the head of a foreign embassy, while associating with him 
a bishop, who had, perhaps, begun life as a chancery clerk, to help out 
his intelligence, and a chancery clerk or two still on the make, to supply 
the necessary hard work and technical knowledge. At home, even 
more than abroad, there were many fields open to the zealous Chancery 
clerk. Accordingly the Chancery was thronged by the academic youth 
of ability anxious for distinction in the public service. Fourteenth- 
century Oxford had already marked out this career as its own ; but 
while the modern lay Oxonian prepares himself for the public service 
by reading for a stiff examination, his mediaeval prototype, already 
pledged to a clerical career, was forced to avail himself, to procure 
office, of the methods of influence and intrigue by which a few of our 
public offices are still staffed. And if the lay civil servant seemed to 
the mediaeval mind almost the last word in radicalism, it goes v^thout 
saying that mediaeval conditions and ideals made it unthinkable to 
employ women in the public service of the state. 

Let us next speak of methods of appointment. In the beginnings 
of the public service under the Normans, the crown sold offices of 
state to the highest bidders, who recouped themselves for their capital 
outlay, not only by the legitimate profits of office but still more by the 
unlawful but customary peculations and extortions in which the early 
mediaeval functionary delighted. By the fourteenth century this primitive 
method had been partly outgrown ; though we had a modern re- 
crudescence of it in the sale of commissions in the army, only abolished 
in 1 87 1 . I have already spoken of the prevalence and of the incon- 
venience of the hereditary transmission of office. There was only one 
alternative v/ay to it, for the modern method of recruiting the civil service 
by open competition was inconceivable in an age when the cult of the 
examination was a novelty. This other way was the method of 
nomination, sometimes perhaps by conscientious selection, more often 
I fear by jobbery, local, family, or personal. Still under the circum- 
stances then prevailing, I am fairly sure that the young man of parts 
and push had nearly as good a chance then as he has nowadays. 
Yet jobbery there was to almost any extent. There were innumerable 
mediaeval instances of the sublime method of appointment still pre- 



198 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

valent in subordinate posts in the law courts by which, we are told, it 
happens that at present of nine chief officers of the King*s Bench 
seven are relatives of judges and of the eight clerks of assize five are 
sons of judges. This is the system than which a luminary of the 
Scottish bar ingenuously tells us that he ** does not know of any 
better ". It would be impossible to draw from contemporary politics 
a more happy and complete survival of the mediaeval mind. 

It was one of the happy results of the clerical element in the 
mediaeval service that our celibate clerical officials had not, or ought not to 
have had, so many opportunities of jobbery for their sons as are vouch- 
safed to the sages of the law in modern democratic Britain. Here 
again the layman had a better chance than the cleric, though the 
cleric's family feeling could find plenty of scope in promoting the 
interests of his numerous nephews. But there are other forms of 
jobbery besides hereditary jobbery ; and although family influence was 
very strong in the middle ages, the commonest of all sorts of mediaeval 
jobbery seems to have been ** feudal" and local, rather than personal. 
The official that had *' got on" planted not only his kinsfolk but his 
tenants and retainers and their families, in humbler cases the youth 
of his own village or district, in any posts of which he had the 
patronage. In the same way the king, as the ultimate fountain of 
office, always bestowed special favour on men sprung from manors on the 
royal domain. It is astonishing how large a propoition of mediaeval 
officials showed by their surnames — surnames of the local type — that they 
traced their origin to some royal estate. Nor was this method of selec- 
tion merely the result of favouritism. The close personal tie of lord and 
vassal was, under fourteenth-century conditions, the strongest possible 
guarantee of faithful service. And loyalty and fidelity were then 
plants so rare that they deserved cultivation on whatsoever soil they 
were able to grow. If a mediaeval minister had been asked to justify 
his methods of appointment, he could have said v^th a better con- 
science than a modern lawyer that he " knew no better ". Anyhow, 
as things went in these days, the king was often ably and sometimes 
honestly served. In the atmosphere of slackness and peculation which 
prevailed in the middle ages, we can expect no more than this. 

The modern civil servants are proud to be non-political and 
permanent. Can we say the same of their mediaeval comrades ? 
The answer, as to so many other historical questions, is both ** yes * 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 199 

and "no". The public servant was " non- political" in the same 
sense that we use the term to-day, that is, the sense of non-party. 
This was inevitable since there were no parties such as we modems 
are only too familiar with. To a limited extent there was the nucleus 
of a party system, to say nothing of a pretty rank growth of faction.- 
The chronic struggle between courtiers and the barons of the opposition,, 
the contest between bureaucracy and aristocracy, which we can dis-^ 
cem all through the fourteenth century, foreshadows to a modest 
extent the more recent strife between Whig and Tory. But these 
factions represent tendencies rather than organized parties. Mediaeval 
principles were too fluid, political conditions too unstable, to permit of 
the growth of permanent parties, aiming at the control of the state. 
There was consequently only the faintest suggestion of party govern- 
ment, for it was universally allowed that the king governed England 
with the help of such ministers as he personally chose to help him. 
The most that the politician could hope to do was to induce the king 
to take his advice. If the king could not be persuaded to listen to 
his minister, that functionary had, like Venezelos, to retire into private 
life and let the king do as he would. Failing this, his only resources 
were coercion, conspiracy, or rebellion, courses which, under a 
weak king, an Edward II or a Richard II, had always a good 
chance of success. But even the feeblest king had a way of turning 
the tables on the successful opponent of the royal will. The best 
way of securing a permanent change of policy was to depose or 
kill the peccant king, and put somebody with sounder principles in 
his place. This happened twice v^thin seventy years, and on the 
whole the process did as much good as harm. 

You may say that I am straying from my subject and am digress- 
ing from civil servants to politicians. But this is not so, for another 
of the distinctions between mediaeval and modern political conditions 
is the fact that there was no clear line of division between the 
politicians in high office and the permanent public officials. A few 
great earls and barons might have an hereditary right to take a leading 
share in the king's councils without the preliminary training of the 
public service. But the greater lay magnates ruled by influence rather 
than as officials, for the highest dignitaries in the administration, the 
chancellor and the treasurer, were ecclesiastics, and in many cases had 
worked themselves up to these posts and to the bishoprics, which were 

14 



200 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

the material reward of their political services, as public servants in the 
Chancery, the Elxchequer, and, still more often, in the wardrobe and 
^household. In fact the minister of state was 2ls likely as not to be a 
(promoted civil servant. Mediaeval England, down to and including 
Tudor times, was ruled, like the modern Germem Ejnpire, by ministers 
who had made their mark in the civil service of the crown. In Great 
Britain the best of modem dvil servants can aspire to nothing higher 
than the influential obscurity of a permanent under- secretary » acting 
under the orders of the ** lawyer politician," the party leader, the 
Cabinet minister, whose ignorance of the technicalities of the work for 
which he is responsible, causes him, if a prudent man, to adopt his more 
experienced underling's advice. But our greatest political ministers 
of the fourteenth century were, like the leading German statesmen 
from Stein and Bismarck down to Bethmann-Hollweg, promoted 
civil servants. Thus Robert Bumell and Walter Langton, the 
strongest ministers of Edward I, William of Wykeham, the best- 
known chancellor of Edward III, were alike in this that they were 
officers of the household, raised by their talents and royal favour to 
-the highest ministries of state. 

Under these conditions the English civil service was almost as " non- 
political** and a good deal more ** permanent** than were the mighty 
ministers of state who so largely emerged from the official class. This 
is seen when, among other foreshadowings of modem condi- 
tions, we find in the reign of Edward III something like the 
beginnings of parties and two ministerial crises, those of 1340 and 
1371, in which one party drove its rivals from the king's favour and 
therefore from office. In both these years the whole ministry was 
turned out, really because the king disliked their policy, nominally 
because they were clergymen. Let us not, however, look upon even 
this as a clearly marked party triumph. To the shrewdest of con- 
temporary chroniclers it was a struggle not between parties but between 
the king's confidential household advisers and the ministers holding the 
great offices of state.^ But when in 1 340 the clerical treasurer and 
chancellor gave way to the first laymen appointed to these offices, the 
chief clerks of the Chancery and Elxchequer, numerous judges, sheriffs, 
and other minor officials shared their fate. The underlings went into 
the wildemess along with the heads of the departments, just as in the 
^ Murimouth, Continuatio Chronicarum, p. 323. 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 201 

United States every petty office is vacated when the swing of the 
political pendulum replaces a democratic by a republican president. 
The doctrine, sacred to Tammany and the machine politician, that to 
the victor belong the spoils was one which might well have appealed 
to the politician of the fourteenth century. 

Such general changes as those in 1340 were extremely ra e. 
They were the more infrequent since the mediaeval placeman — |- ii[h 
and low, and especially the low — was as a rule very much of the 
vicar of Bray's way of thinking. Whatever king or policy reigned, he 
regarded it to be the very root of the matter that he should cling tightly 
to the emoluments of office. And his easy-going masters seldom dis- 
turbed him as long as he did his daily task decently and did not criticize 
the higher powers. Nor need we blame the mediaeval placeman for 
his apparent want of principle. High affairs of state were no more his 
business than they were the concern of the man in the street. He was a 
paid functionary, not always a well-paid functionary, when duty was 
obedience to his masters. He trusted his masters to do his think- 
ing for him and to understand what it was no business of his to study. 
Obedience, loyalty, discipline were the ideals before him. Thinking 
out the rights and wrongs of policy was outside his job. Inspired by 
these conceptions, the rank and file of the civil service grew grey in their 
offices, vacating them only by reason of promotion, death, or incapacity 
to discharge the daily task. Even if they moved from office to office, 
they remained functionaries for the whole of their working lives. 

Let us turn from the principles, or the want of them, of the 
mediaeval placeman to the payments given for his services, to his pro- 
fessional prospects, as we should say. His direct pay was inconsider- 
able and irregular, and it was only after his particular office got 
separated hom the household that the mediaeval civil servant had the 
advantage of pay at all. To this scanty wage, when he got it, he clung 
with touching devotion. Let us not blame him, for the labourer is worthy 
of his hire, and it was a hard job under mediaeval conditions to secure 
a living wage. But let us not think that the mediaeval public servant 
was an idealist. Like most mediaeval men, he would do nothing until 
he saw the chance of getting something out of it. The richest of 
mediaeval members of parliament saw no harm in taking the few 
shillings a day, paid them by their constituents, for each day's atten- 
dance at parliament. The sentiment of an eminent modern statesman, 



202 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

which I read in to-day's paper, ** I take my salary and am going to 
continue taking it," would have struck a sympathetic chord in every 
mediaeval breast, and have elicited even warmer emotions than the 
" loud cheers " which greeted the utterance in yesterday's House of 
Commons. The mediaevalist may again stray v^de of his subject to 
express his satisfaction that the impalpable ** mediaeval atmosphere *' 
is not altogether dissipated by the drab-coloured conditions of modern 
times. 

If the pay of the mediaeval public servant was scanty and ir- 
regular, the indirect advantages of serving the state were open, gross, 
and palpable. Here the clerical official had the same pull over his lay 
colleagues that the clerical schoolmaster — another curious survival of the 
one profession period — still has over the lay instructor of youth. 
Besides the chances of his immediate career, the prizes, small and 
large, of a great profession were open to him. Clerical preferment 
increased the scanty wages of his post, while he held it ; clerical 
preferment enabled him to retire betimes and enjoy a comfortable old 
age on his living, his prebend, his deanery or even his bishopric. We 
have an interesting survival of the state of things when the church 
decently eked out the scanty wages of the state in the fact that a large 
amount of ecclesiastical preferment is still in the hands of the modem 
lord chancellor, who in name, though not in reality, represents the 
chancellor prime- ministers of the middle ages. The *' chancellor's 
livings," still coveted in some clerical circles, go back, I imagine, to 
the time when the chancellor was at the head of a corporation of 
clerical subordinates who saw that their easiest and most natural way 
of increasing their income was to obtain preferment to livings in the 
king's gift. While the king dispensed the larger patronage, it saved him 
trouble for the chancellor to scatter directly the small bones that were 
meaty enough to attract the hungry dogs kennelled in the inferior stalls 
of the Chancery. To this day " chancellor's livings " are mostly bad 
ones. As there are no longer clerical officials to receive them, they 
fall to ordinary non- official divines. 

Besides ecclesiastical preferment, the worn-out civilian could look 
for pensions from the crov^, transference to less laborious or nominal 
service, or, at the worst, to what was called a ** corrody," that is authority 
to take up his quarters in some monastery and be fed, clothed, and 
lodged at the expense of the monks. These latter resources were 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 205 

particularly welcome to laymen or to those clerics who had disqualified 
themselves for advancement in the church by matrimony. A still better 
refuge was a pension from the exchequer. But there was one 
drawback t© the enjoyment of this most satisfactory of direct sources of 
support, a royal pension. It was that it was not always regularly 
paid. In those days the dependents on the state were always the first 
to suffer when war or some other exceptional cause of expenditure 
restricted the royal bounty, or when a careless or extravagant king 
neither v^shed nor could keep his plighted word. Lastly, we must not 
neglect among these supplementary sources of income the perquisites, law- 
ful and unlawful, of office. Mediaeval propriety was not outraged by 
public officers receiving gratifications in money or kind from all who 
came to transact business with them. It was natural that the receiver 
of a favour should pay a fee to the source of his satisfaction. The 
preparation of a writ was immensely expedited when a suitable 
douceur from the applicant quickened the activity of the chancery or 
privy seal clerk responsible for its issue. We find that religious houses 
regularly entered in their accounts the sums they had given to ministers 
to obtain their good will. On a much lower plane was the direct bribe 
to do something known to be wrong ; yet that also was by no means 
rare. Mediaeval man used the discreet term "curialitas" (courtesy) 
to indicate transactions that varied between perfectly permissible 
presents and open and shameful corruption. And there were few 
public servants who did not take advantage of their position to do a 
good deal of business on their own account, such as administering or 
managing estates, lending money, acting as sureties, as attorneys or 
proxies, and the like. 

Taking everything into account, the mediaeval civilian's prosperity 
was not to be reckoned merely in wages. Besides money payments, 
there were also wages in kind. In the old days, when the public 
servant was attached to the court, he had, as we have seen, no salary, 
or a very small one. But he made up for this by receiving lodg- 
ing, clothing, food, drink and fire-wood at the king's expense. 
He had, therefore, as little need of money as a soldier in the 
trenches or a monk in a convent. We have already noticed how 
the offices of state, one after the other, went "out of court," some, like 
the exchequer, eariy, others, like the chancery and the office of the 
privy seal, at a much later date. The records of these last two depart- 



204 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

ments show us that, when an office went ** out of court," its head, in these 
cases the chancellor and the keeper of the privy seal, lived with his 
subordinates a sort of common life in what were called the household 
of the chancery and the household of the privy seal. The expenses 
of these were kept up by a block grant to the chancellor or keeper, 
and it v/as his business to provide his subordinates with adequate 
entertainment. We have glimpses of these semi-collegiate households 
of celibate government clerks, settled down in some central establish- 
ment in London, or wandering more uneasily about the country, 
according to the needs of the public service. They do not seem to 
have had a bad time ; there was plenty of rough good fellowship and 
conviviality, and the humours of the civil servant in his leisure 
moments were not disturbed by any too exacting standard of reticence 
or decorum.^ Yet these official households were never perhaps very 
satisfactory or very comfortable. Corporate life fitted in ill with the 
fierce individualism of a greedy bachelor fighting his way through 
the world. Mediaeval colleges never had the amenities of a modem 
college, and even in colleges common rooms only came in with the 
seventeenth century, and the tavern, not the college, was the chief 
social centre. 

As time went on, the common life of the mediaeval civil servants 
began to break up. Their official chiefs were too dignified to live 
among them, and delegated the maintenance of the household of their 
subordinates to some senior clerk of the office. Many of the clerks 
grew tired of the monotony and lack of privacy involved in such 
a life. Some had money or preferment of their own ; others were 
married and wished to live with their ovm families. It was perhaps 
because the exchequer had always a large lay staff that the conmion 
life of this oldest of public offices was always less intense than that of 
the purely clerical offices of the chancery and privy seal. But it was 
one of the many signs of the incoming of the modern spirit in the days 
of Edward III that the layman began to demand his share of posts 

^ Tlie ideal of life of an unknown wardrobe clerk of the end of the 
reign of Edward I is written in the margin of a book of wardrobe accounts 
of that period, in the form of a parody of the^beginning of the Athanasian 
Creed : ** Quicunque vult salvus esse ad tabernam debet^ esse servare 
luxuriam*'. ExcK Accts. K.R, 364/13 f. 103 d. Such facetious mar- 
ginalia occasionally brighten the path of the record searcher. 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 205 

hitherto monopolized by the clergy. At first his ambition was con- 
centrated on the great ministerial charges, the chancellorship and the 
treasurership, and here, as we have seen, he triumphed both in 1 340 
and in 1371. But the lay ministers still had special difficulties 
to face. The first lay chancellors were put by reason of their 
laity into a very awkward position. Still lawyers on the make, they 
had not the hereditary resources of a baronial or the official resources 
of an episcopal chancellor. As married men with households of their 
own, they could not be expected to leave their comfortable homes to 
be the resident heads of a celibate college of poor and pushing clergy- 
men. As men of limited means, they could not treat their *' house- 
holds" so generously as their episcopal predecessors. An attempt 
was made to meet their cases by increasing the public allowance made 
to them for the support of themselves and the '* household of the 
chancery " ; but the extra expense involved did much to promote the 
reaction which soon brought back well- endowed bishops to the chief 
office of the state. Meanwhile their difficulties were increased by the 
difference of profession, outlook, and life between the lay chancellor 
and his clerical staff. The latter " knew the ropes" better than their 
chief. They were not only more useful ; they were cheaper to the state. 
Small wonder then that economy and efficiency triumphed over 
theories of equal opportunity. The lay chancery clerk only came in 
with the Tudors, and by that time the chancellor's mediaeval glory as 
prime minister had passed away, and the chancery was heading 
straight towards its modern declension into a court of equity. 

The chancery did not stand alone. The year 1371, which saw a 
lay chancellor appointed because he was a layman, also saw the first lay 
keeper of the privy seal. But the office of the privy seal, like the 
chancery itself, remained a clerical preserve, though, unlike the chancery, 
its importance shrivelled up so much that the status of its staff ceases to 
be a question of much importance. Despite all this, the lay civil servant 
had got himself established before the fourteenth century was over. 
Education had ceased to be a clerical monopoly, and if the laymen 
were still outside the universities, the London law schools enabled the 
lay common lawyer to receive an education quite as complete as that 
afforded by the academic schools, and much more practical as well. 
Moreover, cultivated laymen such as Geoffrey Chaucer, himself a civil 
servant, and John Gower, showed that a complete intellectual equipment 



206 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

could be obtained outside either universities or professional schools. Yet 
for the wholesale importation of the lay element into the civil service we 
have to turn once more from the decadent mediaeval departments to 
that fountain of all honour and place, the king's court, from which 
in the transition between the mediaeval and modern periods new ad- 
ministrative organizations were to arise out of which sprang the modern 
offices of state. 

One question still remains. How did the mediaeval civil servant do 
his work ? How far was he efficient, and, if he were remiss, how far 
could the peccant official be controlled or punished ? On the whole I 
am inclined to think that a respectably high level of general competence 
was attained. Our best evidence for this is that afforded by the 
wonderfully complete and well-kept series of our mediaeval archives 
still surviving in the public record office. The mediaeval public servant 
had plenty of disadvantages as compared with his modern successor. 
All the devices by which book-keeping, letter-writing, account-keeping 
and the like are made easy were unknown to him. His works of 
reference were unpractical rolls that had to be unrolled in all their 
length before he could verify a single entry. His material for writing 
on was parchment so expensive that abbreviation of his matter was 
necessary and to waste a slip something of an offence. The exchequer 
clerk had to keep books and do sums of extraordinary complexity. The 
very addition of roman numerals was painful enough in itself. It was 
made more laborious by reckonings by scores and by hundreds, by sums, 
calculated indifferently in marks and in pounds, shillings and pence, 
being all mixed up together in the same columns of figures. Yet you 
will very rarely find mistakes in arithmetic even in the most compli- 
cated of accounts ; and if you take the trouble, which some of our 
modem historians have not done, to understand the accountant's 
system before you make use of his figures, you will not often catch 
him committing many serious errors. No one can turn over mediaeval 
official records wdthout admiration for the neatness of the caligraphy, the 
immense pains taken to facilitate reference and eliminate blunders, the 
careful correction of erroneous entries, and the other innumerable 
evidences of good honest workmanship on the part of the ordinary rank 
and file of official scribes. It is the same with the innumerable writs 
and letters, all neatly drafted in common form, and duly authenticated 
by the appropriate seals and the signatures of the responsible clerks. 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 207 

The system of enrolment of the accounts passed and the letters 
written in every office leaves nothing to be desired in completeness and 
precision. Anyhow, the mediaeval official took plenty of pains to 
discharge his daily task, and his labour was all the more praiseworthy 
since mediaeval casualness and mediaeval indifference to labour-saving 
contrivances exacted the maximum of effort and trouble in every case. 
Similarly, if we turn to the collections of examples, precedents and 
forms, which were from time to time written for the guidance of the 
various offices, we strengthen our impression of sound business tradi- 
tions, laboriously developed and meticulously maintained. A 
reforming bureaucracy too is generally an efficient bureaucracy, and a 
long series of reforming edicts, inspired by the chiefs of various depart- 
ments, bears high testimony to the useful activity of the fourteenth 
century civil service. Thus the last years of the dreary reign of 
Edward II witnessed an immense amount of administrative reform, 
notably the reform of the exchequer by the treasurer Stapeldon. 
Yet, despite all this, constant control and watchfulness were needed to 
keep clean the administrative machine and there was no control so 
effective as the personal oversight of the sovereign. In the monarch's 
absence the executive always tended to get out of gear. But the re- 
turn of Edward I in 1 289 after his three years' sojourn on the Continent, 
the return of Edward III in 1340 after his long preoccupation v^th 
war and diplomacy in the Low Countries, were immediately followed 
by the two greatest sweepings out of the Augean stables of administra- 
tive incompetence that mediaeval history witnessed. 

Up to this point I have striven to put my rather desultory obser- 
vations on the mediaeval civil service in as general a form as possible. 
If I have occasionally mentioned a name, it is from the well-known 
personalities of political history that I have chosen them, and that 
simply with the view of illustrating the wide career to official talent in 
the service of the fourteenth century English crowTi whose officers rose 
not seldom to the highest posts of both state and church, to the 
chancery and the treasury, to bishoprics by the score, to archbishoprics 
in fairly numerous instances. But my chief concern is not v^th the 
exceptional man so much as with the ordinary person, pardy because the 
personal element in history is in my opinion still somewhat overstressed, 
and partly because in the weary studies of the innumerable rolls and 
records from which I have derived the impressions here set forth, I 



208 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

have perforce had my attention devoted to the system rather than the 
individual, and so far as to the individual, to the obscure and unknown 
individual rather than to a few shining and conspicuous exceptions to 
the general rule of obscurity. It is the calibre and discipline of the rank 
and file, the competence of the subalterns and subordinate commanders 
that makes the difference between a herioc mob and a well-ordered 
military force. So it is not the occasional brilliant exception so much 
as the competence of the average official that makes a bureaucracy a 
success or a failure. Leaders of course there must be ; but leaders can 
look after themselves. If they do not arise spontaneously, there is anyhow 
no patent method, then or now, for creating the rare and divine gifts of 
inspiration and leadership. But a good system can make the average 
man competent to do his job. And this can, I think, be said to have 
been done by our mediaeval civil service despite all its shortcomings. 

The hardest problem in dealing with mediaeval records is to 
disentangle the human element from the dull forms, and to tell what 
manner of men they were whose official acts and external history wc 
know in such elaborate detail. It needs a good deal of historical 
imagination to vitalize the writs and rolls of a mediaeval office. Besides 
what we can do in that way, we must not neglect our occasional 
chance to realize the individual character of the mediaeval official. 
Accordingly I will now seek to illustrate what I have said from the 
careers of three civil servants of the fourteenth century, of whom we 
know by accident more than is the case with the majority. The first 
is a local instance of a successful, almost a brilliant, career of a typical 
civil servant who hailed from Lancashire, and whose fame is not 
perhaps quite commensurate with his deserts. Anyhow, his name, 
John Winwick, will excite little response even in historical minds. My 
other two examples are those of better known men, for they are two 
men of letters, one of whom was the most famous Englishman of his 
day, and the other, though of obscurer and more doubtful reputation, 
was at least a faithful disciple of his distinguished compeer, and is in 
no wise unknown to those who are interested in fourteenth and fifteenth 
century by-ways. I chose those two frankly because their writings 
have given them an established position ; but I also chose them 
because both were examples of official careers run by men whose 
personality is better revealed to us than is the case of most of their 
comrades. The former is an instance of a varied and successful lay 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 209 

career in the civil service, and the latter is the case of a discon- 
tented and dispirited government clerk who never got beyond the 
drudgery of a second rate office, but who beguiled his leisure with 
long-winded and dull poems, which, if an offence to the artist, are to 
the historian of the mediaeval civil service an absolutely unique field. 
My great name is of course that of Geoffrey Chaucer : my minor 
celebrity is the poet Thomas Hoccleve. Let us take these three men 
one by one. 

John Win wick came not, as his name might suggest to the 
unwary, from Winwick, between Warrington and Wigan, but from 
the parish of Huyton, near Liverpool, where his father seems to have 
belonged to that numerous class of smaller landed gentry, poor in 
resources, strong in pride of race, and simpler and rougher i life and 
manners than a modern small farmer, a class which always furnished 
mediaeval England with a large share of the men who rose to high 
posts in both church and state. John entered the royal service as 
a king's clerk and had the usual reward of a king's clerk in livings, 
pensions and grants. Among his ecclesiastical preferments the rich 
rectory of Wigan in his ovm district was one of the most important. 
It is not likely that Wigan saw much of him, though he was brought 
into its neighbourhood by the fact that he increased his otherwise 
ample resources by farming out in his non-official moments the ad- 
ministration of the estates of several rich Lancashire landowning 
families, including the Butlers of Warrington and the Hoghtons of 
Hoghton. Winwick's zeal for his kinsfolk comes out characteristically 
when his father, arraigned on a charge of homicide — a small matter 
to the mediaeval mind — was, though acquitted of the charge, adjudged 
to have forfeited his chattels for some contempt of court. They were, 
however, restored in consideration of the long service which his son 
John had rendered to the king, especially in his expeditions abroad. 
Appointed a clerk of the privy seal, John Winwick became head of 
that office as keeper of the privy seal from 1355 to 1360 at a time 
when the keeper of the privy seal ranked next after chancellor and 
treasurer among the king's ministers. Dying in 1 363, he left lands and 
estates to found a college at Oxford for students of civil and canon 
law, "desiring to enrich the English church with men of letters". 
Though his foundation received royal confirmation, the greediness of 
his heirs prevented the establishment of a Lancashire college in Oxford 
for clerks studying academic law, such as the would-be founder seems 



210 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

to have comtemplated. Altogether Winwick*s was a prosperous, 
successful, public-spirited though not particularly startling career of a 
good official who throve in all his undertakings and made the best of 
his chances in both worlds. You will note in particular how, all 
through his career, he remained in the same office, and had his reward 
by getting to the head of it. It was no disparagement to his integrity, 
that, like early civil servants of the East India Company, he traded on 
his own account as well as doing his work as a public servant. His 
service to the church, I imagine, came in as a bad third. 

Geoffrey Chaucer is one of the greatest names in English literature, 
but I have no concern here with the man of genius. I am only 
interested in the way in which the public service of Edward III 
opened up a safe way for the great poet to earn his living in an age 
when literature was no profession because there was no printing, no 
copyright, and therefore no literary profits. This aspect of his 
career is the easier to follow since enthusiasts for Chaucer the poet 
have meticulously collected the scattered references to Chaucer the 
civil servant. With their help we can easily reconstruct his official 
career in its various stages. We begin with his early service in the 
household of the king's son^ — Lionel, Duke of Clarence — culminating 
in a campaign in France and a short term of captivity as a prisoner 
of war. Next comes his transference to the king's household and his 
long years of labour there as king's yeoman or valet, and later in the 
higher rank of the king's esquire. Besides his daily work at court, he 
was sent on those embassies which gave him increased knowledge of the 
literature of France, whose "culture" he absorbed none the less be- 
cause he was often engaged in killing Frenchmen. Other missions to 
Italy perhaps brought him into personal relations with the masters of 
Tuscan verse, whose influence is so strong in his more matured work. 
Later on came marriage and his transference from household to public 
service, his controUership of the customs and subsidies of London, and his 
dwelling-house over Aldgate, handy for the shipping quarters on Thames 
side below London Bridge. Subsequently he was moved to other 
employments, such as the clerkship of works, that vnth some significant 
breaks marked his career until his death in 1 400. We must not imagine 
that Chaucer owed these posts to his literary fame. It is more likely that 
he was promoted from one good job to another by reason of his subter- 
ranean connexions with the royal family, and notably through that close 
tie with John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, which perhaps made him 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 211 

a sort of left-handed brother-in-law of the most active of the king's 
sons, and involved him also in the obscuration of his fortunes vyrhenever 
the star of Lancaster sank low, and also secured the final rays of 
success that gilded the declining months of his life when the son of 
John of Gaunt became Henry IV. We must not, also, regard 
Chaucer's official labours as nominal. We have his own word for 
his absorption in business, and we know from his appointment as 
controller of the customs at London that the rolls of his office were 
to be written with his own hand, that he was to be "continually 
present," and to discharge personally all the duties of his office. But 
despite the words of the patent, he may have managed in the good 
mediaeval fashion to have shifted the burden from his own to other less 
famous hands. 

We may thank the leisurely methods of mediaeval public service 
that they left Chaucer the civil servant the leisure to become Chaucer 
the poet, and we may in passing heave a sigh over the modem 
strenuousness of official life that bids fair in the next generation 
to make impossible the continued career of literature and state 
service of which we have had so many shining examples from the days 
of Chaucer to those of Lamb, the two Mills, and Matthew Arnold, 
not to quote some distinguished contemporary instances. It is more to 
our purpose to stress the career open to this London tradesman's son 
in the administration of Edward III and his grandson. The oppor- 
tunity to men of the middle classes, instanced by the official record 
of Chaucer at court and in the public service, affords some lessons 
of social equality even to twentieth-century democracy. 

Thomas Hoccleve was a friend and in a humble fashion a poetic 
follower of Chaucer, but while the broad sweep of the great poet's 
vision disregarded personal reminiscence and anecdotic triviality, the 
lowly muse of Hoccleve found its most congenial inspiration in the 
details of his private and official life. In all the great gallery of the 
Canterbury Pilgrims there was no public servant whose adventures and 
personality Chaucer deigned to sketch. On a different plane to his 
master as an artist, Hoccleve is immensely more useful to the historian 
of administration by reason of his habit of talking about himself. Pro- 
fessionally Hoccleve was, like John Winwick, a clerk of the privy seal. 
Though both began in the same way Hoccleve ended just where he 
began. In his official career he found no promotion, though he laboured 
at his desk for more than thirty years. He was equally unsuccessful in> 



2i2 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

his quest of a benefice, and at last cut himself off from all ecclesi- 
astical preferment by an imprudent marriage, after which he was 
perforce transferred from his comfortable quarters in the household of 
the privy seal to a '* humble cot " from which the only chance of 
escape was a debtor's prison. When at last his importunity won him 
a modest crown pension, he could never get it paid ; and his un- 
ceasing clamour for instalments of his annuity is a constant theme of 
his pedestrian muse. On his own showing Hoccleve was a poor 
creature, slack, cowardly, weak of will, mean-spirited, a professional 
begging letter-vmter, a haunter of taverns, cook-shops and houses of 
ill-fame. Extravagant in good fortune, depressed and lachrymose 
when ill-health, poverty, and ill-fortune dogged his declining years, 
Hoccleve was throughout a dissipated, drunken, disreputable fellow, 
whose mean vices might well have brought him under the ban of 
the austere criminal law of modem civilization. Yet we must not 
take too literally all that he says against himself. Anyhow there is 
a touch of humanity about him that makes it hard not to think of him 
with some sympathy, if not also with sneaking kindliness. Above 
all we owe him our hearty gratitude for giving us material for studying 
the humbler mediaeval civil servant at his job. For the rest we can 
laboriously make a skeleton of the facts and dates of their careers. A 
sort of mediaeval '* Who's Who in the Public Service " would not be an 
impossible task. I have myself made such a list of the clerks of the privy 
seal, and my old pupil. Miss L. B. Dibben, has nearly completed the 
much harder task of a classified list of the clerks of the Chancery. 
Perhaps when peace again allows austere books to be published our 
catalogues may see the Kght of day. But the material makes nothing 
more possible than the barest catalogue of dates, preferments, offices, 
and other dry details. Hoccleve' s verse alone shows us the 
mediaeval official groaning over his weary task, and exciting at once 
our compassion and our derision. 

Hoccleve is at pains to tell us the hardships of the public clerk's 
life. Many men think, says he, that writing is not hard work, but a 
game. But the clerk's task is much more difficult than it seems. 
Those who have had no personal experience of it are no more qualified 
to pass judgment on it than is a blind man equipped to distinguish 
between colours. A scribe must work at the same time with mind, 
eye, and hand. If any one of these three fail, he has to do everything 
all over again. When bending over his work the poor writer can 



CIVIL SERVICE IN FOURTEENTH CENTURY 213 

neither talk to his friends, nor sing a song, nor play, nor jest. The 
craftsman, who can sing, talk, and play over his business, labours with 
gladness, but the clerk, stooping and staring on his sheepskins, must 
work in gloomy silence. From years of such odious toils come 
pains in the stomach, back, and eyes. After twenty-three years of 
such work Hoccleve's whole body was smarting with aches and pains 
and his eyesight was utterly ruined. 

Yet even Hoccleve s tearful muse shows that there were brighter 
sides to the life of the privy seal clerk. There were the perquisites 
of his post, the modest gratuities that custom required from the man 
who went to the office to procure a letter of privy seal for his master or 
himself. There was too the comradeship and the merry common life 
with brother clerks and other boon companions. There was the 
Paul's Head Tavern, on the south side of the great cathedral, and 
the numerous and genial hostelries of Westminster, hard by the place 
where his working days were spent. There was no austere discipline 
preventing the festive clerk from sleeping off his overnight debauch and 
reproving him if he turned up late next morning at the office. When 
an instalment of the long-deferred pay or pension came to hand, the 
clerk with money in his purse could hire a boat from his lodging in the 
Strand, and be rowed up the river Thames to his desk at Westminster, 
where, office hours over, he could regale his friends with meat and 
drink. He might be a member, like Hoccleve, of a dining club, called 
the ** court of good company," which included so great a personage 
as the Chancellor of the Exchequer — a civil servant not a politician 
in those days, but already a personage wealthy enough to entertain the 
whole staff to a May day banquet of sumptuous fare at the Temple. 
Nor was the office inconsiderate when serious trouble beset the under- 
ling. When poor Hoccleve was temporarily driven out of his wits, 
his annuity was regularly paid during his enforced absence from his 
work. When he came back cured, his fellow-clerks gave him a 
rousing welcome ; his superiors allowed him to resume his work, and 
the whole staff united in maintaining his competence and sanity 
before a suspicious world. When further troubles finally drove 
Hoccleve from his desk, the long-coveted corrody enabled him to 
spend his declining years in peace, so that, freed from his irksome 
labours, the old poet went on writing his painful verses for many 
years more. 

With all his faults, Hoccleve's life was not spent in idleness. 



214 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Hundreds of writs of privy seal, drafted and signed by him, testify to 
his skill and method in official routine. Yet out of office hours he 
found time, not only for writing his voluminous poems but for the 
severe study of the literary models of which his poems were but too 
often the echo. He was well acquainted with three languages, Latin, 
French, and English, as every mediaeval public servant had to be. 
He was versed not only in the belles lettres but in some of the more 
serious literature of his age. He was emphatically free from the 
reproach of neglecting his daily task for his personal pursuits, sometimes 
urged by anxious heads of departments against the modem literary 
official. A large and solid manuscript volume, still surviving in the 
British Museum, testifies eloquently to Hoccleve's official zeal. It is a 
sort of handbook for the tiro entering upon the career of a clerk of the 
privy seal. In it are set down in businesslike and orderly fashion 
the " common forms," the typical examples of every manner of document 
or writ emanating from the privy seal office. I do not claim Hoccleve 
as a model. I have not extenuated his many shortcomings. Yet look- 
ing at his career from our administrative standpoint, rather than from the 
literary point of view of those few who have previously taken the trouble 
to think or write about him, I cannot but record the impression that the 
business methods of this mediaeval official were not much worse than 
those of more recent and more self-coipplacent days. Sordid and 
self-seeking as is much of mediaeval official life, as it is revealed to 
us, we must not think that it necessarily excluded the higher ideals 
which, as we know, many men and women of those days cherished. 
Among the court officials of the corruptest court of the period, the 
court of Edward II, there worked for years that William Melton, after- 
wards archbishop of York, whose name is famous for his sanctity and 
high purpose, and of whom it was said that his long sojourn among the 
courtiers checked neither his piety nor his charity. Even apart from 
exceptions such as these, we have every reason to believe that even a 
modern government department might learn something from the wide 
knowledge, long service, corporate feeling, kindly indulgence, and 
sufficient devotion to the task in hand that are illustrated by the self- 
revelations of this obscure and unlucky public servant of the English 
state who died nearly five hundred years ago. Perhaps if we had 
lived in those days, and had the requisite influence, we might, as thrifty 
parents, decide then as now that the public service was a good enough 
career for our boys. 



h 



V*' 








The Swan Theatre. 



SOME NOTES ON SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE 
AND PLAYS. 

By WILLIAM P0E;L, 

FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR OF THE ELIZABETHAN STAGE SOCIETY. 

A wooden dagger is a dagger of wood, 
Nor gold nor ivory haft can make it good . . . 
Or to make boards to speak I There is a task ! 
Painting and carpentry are the soul of masque. 
Pack with your pedling poetry to the stage. 
This is the money-got mechanic age I 

BEN JONSON. 

THE Elizabethan drama was written for the Elizabethan stage. 
When the Elizabethan stage disappeared it became no longer 
possible to produce Elizabethan drama, for the dramatic con- 
struction of plays of that period was to a great extent dependent upon 
the form of the theatre, which had very special features. The first 
playhouse was built in 1576, and the last of its kind had disappeared 
before the Great Fire of 1 666, and it had ceased to be used as a 
playhouse from the early days of the Civil War. Thus the Elizabethan 
playhouse was in use for a period of a little over fifty years, and hai 
a unique existence in the history of the stage. Original in design, it 
was unlike any other building of the kind built before or after, so 
much so that it excited the notice of foreigners visiting this country as 
something quite unknown out of England. The peculiarities of its 
construction were due to the fact that English drama sprang from the 
entertainments of the people, and not from those of the Court, tak- 
ng its form uninfluenced by the plays of Greece or Rome. It was 
shaped by the popular entertainments known as Mysteries, Moral- 
ities, Interludes, Bear-baitings, Wit-combats, Sword-combats, Street 
Pageants and Shows, all of which nourished the dramatic tastes of the 
people in a direction peculiarly its own. As a consequence, there 
existed nothing in the construction of the Elizabethan playhouse 

215 15 



216 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

suggestive of the Greek or Roman stage ; it embodied the varied 
conditions under which the public exhibitions of the day were given. 

For centuries the people had been accustomed to dramatic enter- 
tainments illustrating incidents from Scripture history and legends of 
the Church. These were performed without break or pause in the 
action from beginning to end, while at the same time they were devoid 
of plot and dramatic sequence ; yet this very failing gave the con- 
struction of Elizabethan drama its special character which, with one 
or two notable exceptions, was never characterized by skill in the de- 
velopment of the story. On the other hand, the popular support 
of amusements which were merely a series of loosely connected 
incidents encouraged poet-dramatists to adopt a liberty in treatment 
and variety of subject altogether forbidden in classical drama. 

The ascendency of the native drama determined those playwrights 
who, while scholars, were yet men of the world, and deeply imbued 
with the spirit of the nation and of the age, to abandon a classical 
form of play and model their work upon that which public taste de- 
manded. These brought their classical learning to bear upon the 
popular plays, and, while retaining the freedom of treatment allowed 
in them, aimed at greater coherency and stronger characterization. 
Yet Elizabethan drama would still have remained indistinctive but 
for the genius of Marlowe, who, seeing the possibilities that were pre- 
sented in the people's drama, transfigured and recreated its form of 
expression so that it became a means of inspiration for future poets. 
And among others to Shakespeare, who gave unity of design and a 
continuity of interest that was planned on a philosophical basis, thus 
securing for Elizabethan drama a fame as great as that achieved by 
the Greek dramatists. 

Naturally, there were scholars of the day who still preferred the 
classical imitations represented at Court to the popular play, upon 
which they were apt to look with contempt, as ** neither right tragedies, 
nor right comedies ** ; and undoubtedly among these must be numbered 
Ben Jonson, for, while tolerating the irregularities of native drama, 
he aimed at restoring it to classical order, and was able to some 
extent to re-establish in his own comedies the Latin form. 

With the Restoration and the re-opening of the theatre there 
was no longer any national dramatic taste ; and the theatre, as an 
amusement, was supported meunly by Town and Fashion, influenced 



SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE AND PLAYS 217 

by the Court. As a consequence, the Elizabethan playhouse was 
replaced by the proscenium, act-drop, and scene-cloth which had been 
introduced at Court by Inigo Jones during the reign of Charles I. 
From this period onward the stage has continued to represent plays 
more or less written on a classical model, and divided into acts and 
scenes. But in the new form of theatre it was impossible to give a 
proper representation of Elizabethan drama. 



To understand the principle upon which the first Elizabethan 
playhouse was constructed it is necessary to remember what were the 
conditions under which dramatic and other entertainments were pre- 
viously given, and to realize that it was English custom and tradition 
alone which guided the Elizabethan actors in designing its structure. 

The most notable feature of the Elizabethan playhouse was un- 
doubtedly the platform which was built out into the middle of the 
auditorium, having a space on three sides of it to accommodate the 
spectators. By the uninitiated it will not be readily conceived how 
absolutely the construction of Elizabethan drama depended upon this 
particular feature, and it is therefore of some interest to inquire from 
whence the actors derived the idea of thus bringing out the platform 
into the middle of the auditorium. There is no doubt that this was 
taken from the mediaeval custom of presenting plays on a platform in 
the centre of the market- square, or other open space, so that the per- 
formance could be seen from all sides ; and it is evident that in the 
innyards, where plays were given before the first playhouse was built, 
the stage, though not actually in the centre of the yard, was built 
out from one of the walls, and open to the spectators from three sides. 
It is easy, then, to understand that, in building their first playhouse, 
the actors were only following the usage familiar to the people. 

Perhaps the next most noticeable feature in the Elizabethan play- 
house was the position of the pillars carrying the roof, or " heaven " as it 
was called. This possibly answered the same purpose as the sound- 
ing-board over a cathedral pulpit. Between the two pillars in front, 
the form of which differs in no way from that of those which sup- 
ported the balcony in the innyard, ran the traverse, or small curtain, 
which was used occasionally to shut the rear part of the stage from 
view. And in the innyard originated the custom of using a balcony 



218 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

for the characters to speak from, when they were supposed to be ad- 
dressing the audience from " above ". 

The two doors at the back of the stage, which also had important 
influence on the dramatic construction of Elizabethan drama, were 
obviously suggested by the conditions of acting in the banqueting halls 
of noblemen's mansions, at the one end of which was usually a gallery 
with two doors beneath. All those who are familiar with the dining 
halls of Gray's Inn or the Middle Temple, where Shakespeare's plays 
were acted, v^U understand. 

It only remains now to account for the circular form of the first 
playhouse, and this was made round in imitation of the bear-baiting 
" rings " that existed on the Bankside. In the ** Theatre " there were 
three tiers of galleries instead of one. 

The history of the building of the first playhouse, which was con- 
structed by the father of the great actor, Richard Burbage, is one 
specially interesting to the Shakespearian student, from the fact that 
the building materials, removed from the original site at Shoreditch to 
the Surrey side of the river, were re-erected in the same circular shape 
within a few yards of the still existing cathedral Church of St. Saviour. 
This playhouse became known as the famous "Globe". It was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1613. The only knovm representation of it in ex- 
istence is the round building shown in Hollar's view of London, 1610. 



For details of the " Globe" playhouse we have to turn to another 
theatre called the " Fortune". Although probably larger in dimen- 
sions than the " Globe," and square instead of round, it had many 
features in common with its more famous rival. The contract for the 
"Fortune" stipulates for the erection of a building of four equal ex- 
ternal sides of 80 feet reduced by necessary arrangements to an 
ntemal area of 55 feet square. The length of the stage from 
side to side was to be 43 feet, and in depth it was to extend 
over half the space of the internal area. Three tiers of galleries 
occupied three sides of the house ; the height of the first from the 
ground is not named ; the second is stated as being 1 2 feet above the 
lower tier ; the third 1 1 feet from the second, and the height above 
the third 9 feet. There were four "convenient rooms," or what 
are now called boxes, for the accommodation of musicians, and the 



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4^: va 



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: " 4 









SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE AND PLAYS 219 

well-to-do citizens, partitioned off from the lower gallery, with rooms 
of similar dimensions for distinguished visitors in the upper galleries. 
The depth of the lower galleries measured 1 2 J feet from the back to the 
front, and the upper stories had an additional projection of 1 inches. 
The space between the external wall of the playhouse and the front 
of the galleries was completely roofed in with tiles (the *' Globe" had 
a thatch roof) as was also that part of the stage occupied by the 
actors, and known as the " tyring house," meaning the house of attire, 
whilst the open area, or pit, was exposed to the air. The foundation 
of the building was brick and projected a foot above the ground ; the 
rest was constructed of timber, filled in with lath and plaster. The 
"tyring house" had glazed windows, and the cost of this building 
including the tiles, the seats, and everything except the painting, of 
which probably there was not much, was estimated at £440, a sum 
equivalent in modern money to about £2500. 

This builder's contract for erecting the " Fortune ** playhouse has 
existed at Dulwich Library since the death of Edward Alleyn, the 
principal owner of the property, and it is curious that only one at- 
tempt has been made in modern times to reconstruct on paper the 
form of a building which so little resembled the modern theatre. The 
effort was not a very successful one. In 1 824 a Mr. Skottowe wrote 
a life of Shakespeare in which appeared a plan of the " Fortune," 
and referring to Alleyn 's contract he writes : ** I do not profess to un- 
derstand it, it is in fact inconsistent with itself. A square of 80 feet, 
everywhere reduced on each side by galleries of 1 2 J feet in depth, 
would certainly leave a square area of 55 feet. But as the stage 
would necessarily occupy one side of the square, and the depth 
of the stage was to extend exactly to the centre, that is to say, 
to take up half of the remaining area, nothing like the area spoken 
of could be left open. Again, the length of the stage is expressly de- 
fined, 43 feet, which leaves it 6 feet too short at each side to form a 
junction with the ends of the galleries next the stage. I have no 
doubt, therefore," continues Mr. Skottowe, " of an error in the docu- 
ment, which I take to be the omission to calculate the space occupied 
by the passages and staircases. A passage of 6 feet wide behind the 
galleries added to this width would make a reduction of 1 6^ feet from 
each side of the theatre, and leave a space between the front of one 
gallery to the front of the other of 43 feet, which is the exact width 



220 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

assigned to the platform." Here, then, it is obvious that Mr. Skot- 
towe failed to realize that in Shakespeare's time the actors performed 
at the public theatres on an open platform that projected as far as the 
middle of the pit. 

It is evident, also, that on this open platform there was no means 
of erecting any scenery, otherwise the audience seated in the galleries 
nearest I to the stage would have had its view of the actors obstructed ; 
nor in Shakespeare's plays is there a hint in the stage directions 
that there must be any change made in the mechanical arrangement of 
the stage to indicate the ** place where ". "What child is there," 
asks Sir Philip Sidney in his *' Apology of Poetry " written about 
1583, ** that, coming to a play, and seeing 'Thebes ' written in great 
letters on an old door, doth believe that it is Thebes ? " Apparently, 
then, the name of the country, where the action of the play took place, 
was posted upon some door — perhaps the entrance door to the theatre ; 
— the bill of the play, with its title and author's name, was certainly 
so posted. "It is as dangerous to read his name at a play door as a 
printed bill on a plague door." These words appear in Marston's 
play, ** Histriomastic " (1 598). When, in the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century, Davenant produced his ** Siege of Rhodes," and for the 
first time a painted scene was used upon the stage, a label bearing the 
name of " Rhodes " was painted on the frieze. The elder Hieronimo, 
in the play within the play of "The Spanish Tragedy," directs 
the title to be hung up, and announces : " Our scene is Rhodes". 
But often the bill, posted upon the outer door, within the theatre, was 
not hung up about the stage but carried by the Prologue, or one of 
the players would come forward with it before the play began. In 
Brome's " City Wit " Sarpego — who delivers the prologue — speaking 
of the play, says : "I that bear its title ". 



Acting in this country began about the twelfth century when 
vagrants, who amused the villagers with their tumbling feats, were 
paid to assist the trade guilds in the presentation of their religious plays, 
impersonating the imps and devils who were expected to be very 
nimble in their movements. In course of time the actors of interludes 
and moral plays became attached to some nobleman who maintained 
a musical establishment for the service of his chapel ; they then formed 



SO'O 




Soo"- 




I 



SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE AND PLAYS 221 

part of his household. When not required by their master these 
players strolled the country, calling themselves servants of the magnate 
whose pay they took, and whose badge they wore. Thus Burbage's 
company first became known as " Lord Leicester's Servants," then as 
** Lord Strange' s Men," afterwards as the " Lord Chamberlain's 
Men," and finally in the reign of King James as ** The King's Ser- 
vants ". It is certain, however, that acting reached a high standard 
in the days of Burbage and AUeyn. The absence of theatrical 
machinery necessitated that dramatic poets should excel in their de- 
scriptive passages, and the actors' ability to impersonate stimulated 
literary genius to the creation of characters which the author knew 
beforehand would be finely and intelligently rendered. On all sides, 
the more we study its conditions, the better we perceive how work- 
manlike and businesslike a thing the drama was ; it had nothing 
amateurish about it. For instance, we read how Elizabethan ** old 
stagers " discussed a raw hand. 

Burbage, Now, Will Kemp, if we can entertain these scholars 
at a low rate, it will be well ; they have oftentime a good conceit in 
a part. 

Kemp, It is true indeed, honest Dick ; but the slaves are some- 
what proud, and, besides, it is great sport in a part to see them ne'er 
speak in their walk, but at the end of the stage ; just as though, in 
walking with a fellow, we should never speak but at a stile, a gate, or 
a ditch, where a man can go no farther, I was once at a comedy at 
Cambridge, and there I saw a parasite make faces and mouths of all 
sorts in this fashion, 

Burbage, A little teaching will mend these faults. 



The wardrobe of the playhouse formed indisputably its most costly 
possession, for attention was so concentrated upon the actors in 
their parts that they had to be richly as well as appropriately 
attired ; cloth of gold and of silver, and copper lace, were lavishly 
used. Thus we read : — 

" Two hundred proud players jet in their silks," And, when 
not in their parts, the King's servants were allowed four yards of 
bastard scarlet for a cloak, and a quarter of a yard of velvet for the 
cape ; the attendants of the stage wearing the blue coats of serving- 



222 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

men ; the coat of the boys, whose duty it was to draw the curtains, 
set chairs and so forth, surviving with little modification in the dress of 
Christ's Hospital —the Bluecoat School. All bore the badge of their 
master in silver. From these, and from the audience, the actors in 
the costume of their parts stood out by glitter and magnificence, while 
spectacular effects were sometimes obtained by the display of a crowd 
of actors in brilliant costumes. Collier mentions that persons from 
twelve nations, owning the sway of the conqueror, came upon the stage, 
each being represented by two actors. Thus four and twenty persons 
seem to be required to represent the conquered nations, besides the 
characters in the play, also necessarily present. Crowds, too, with 
varying outcries, were introduced ; thus in an old stage direction we 
read : Enter all the factions of noblemen, peasants, and citizens 
fighting. The ruder sort drive in the rest, and cry : ** A sacke / 
A sacke I Havocke, havocke ! Burne the lawiers bookes ! 
Tear the silks out of the shops ! " In that confusion, the scholler 
escaping from among them, they all go out, and leave hi7n upon 
the stage. 

Music there was, at all the houses, for incidental use in the play — the 
orchestra comprising viols, hautboys, flutes, horns, drums, and trumpets ; 
but evidently musical interludes breaking up the play were beneath the 
dignity of the " Globe," which maintained a high dramatic tone. 
Thus, Webster, in his induction to the ** Malcontent" which he wrote 
on the transference of that play from the ** Fortune " to the " Globe ** 
in 1 604, gives the following dialogue : — 

W, Sly, What are your additions ? 

D, Burbage. Sooth, not greatly needful ; only as your sallet to 
your great feast, to entertain a little more time, and to abridge the not 
received custom of music in our theatre. 

However, the boys of the Chapel Royal, in their scarlet, sang at 
the representations at the Blackfriars* playhouse where a concert usually 
preceded the play. 



The wealthy and fashionable spectators who went to the theatres 
to see and to be seen, sat on three-legged stools upon the stage. The 
tireman served out the stools, which were part of the furniture of the 
playhouse. Such gallants as were "spread upon the rushes'* had 



SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE AND PLAYS 223 

probably arrivecl after the supply of stools was exhausted, for it seems 
to have been first come first served throughout the house. 



It was amid such surroundings as these that the Elizabethan drama 
arose and flourished. Attention was concentrated on the actor with 
whose movement, boldly defined against a simple background, nothing 
interfered. The stage on which they played was narrow, project- 
ing into the yard, surrounded on all sides by spectators. Their action 
was thus brought into prominent relief, placed close before the eye, 
deprived of all perspective ; it acquired a special kind of realism, 
which the vast distance and manifold artifices of our modern theatres 
have now rendered unattainable. This was the realism of an actual 
event, at which the audience assisted, not the realism of a scene to 
which the audience is transported by the painter's skill, and in which 
the actor plays a somewhat subordinate part. 

Here was a building so constructed that the remotest spectator was 
within a hearing distance conveying the faintest modulation of the per- 
former's voice, and at the same time no inartistic effort was needed in 
the more sonorous utterances. 

And the dramatist's freedom with time and place was justified by 
conditions which left all to the imagination. The mind in this way 
can contemplate the farthest Ind as easily as the most familiar objects, 
nor in following the course of an action need it dread to traverse the 
longest tract of years any more than the widest expanse. 

There can be no doubt that Shakespeare, in the composition of 
his plays, could not have contemplated the introduction of scenic ac- 
cessories. It is fortunate this should have been one of the conditions of 
his work. He could the more readily use his rare gifts both as poet 
and dramatist. He knew that the attention of his public would not 
be distracted by outward decoration which he must have felt was of 
no real help to the playwright except to conceal a poverty of language 
or of invention, or want of ability to create character. Shakespeare's 
plea for the exercise of the spectator's imagination, as expressed in the 
opening chorus to " Henry V," condemns in principle the most perfect 
modern scenic representation. This is an opinion which is supported 
by many writers and among them the following : — 

** It is a noble and just advantage that the things subjected to 



224 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

understanding have of those which are objected to sense ; that the one 
are but momentary and merely taking ; the other impressing and last- 
ing : else the glory of all these solemnities ^ had perished like a blaze, 
and gone out in the beholders* eyes, so short-lived are the bodies of 
things in comparison of their souls." — Ben Jonson. 

" Now for the difference between our Theatres and those of former 
times ; they were but plain and simple, with no other scenes nor de- 
corations of the stage, but only old Tapestry, and the stage strewed 
with Rushes, whereas ours for cost and ornament are arrived at the 
height of Magnificence, but that which makes our stage the better, 
makes our Playes the worse, perhaps through striving now to make 
them the more for sight than hearing, whence that solid joy of the in- 
terior is lost, and that benefit which men formerly received from 
Playes, from which they seldom or never went away but far better 
and -wiser than when they came/' — RiCHARD Flecknoe, '* Dis- 
course of English Stage," 1 660. 

" Shakespeare's plays are said to afford a curious proof how need- 
less are scenic decorations. We are asked what plays could more 
need the whole art of the decorator than those, with their constant 
interruptions and change of scene ; yet there was a time when the 
stages on which they were performed consisted of nothing but a 
curtain of poor coarse stuff, which, when it was drawn up, showed 
either the walls bare or else hung with matting or tapestry. Here 
was nothing for the imagination, nothing to assist the comprehension 
of the spectator, or to help the actor, and yet it is said that, notwith- 
standing, Shakespeare's plays were, at that time, more intelligible 
without scenery than they became afterwards with it." — Lessing. 

" What makes Shakespeare's greatness is his equal excellence in 
every portion of his art — in style, in character, and in dramatic in- 
vention. No one has ever been more skilful in the playwright's craft. 
The interest begins at the first scene, it never slackens, and you can- 
not possibly put down the book before finishing it. , . , Hence it is 
that Shakespeare's pieces are so effective on the stage ; they were in- 
tended for it, and it is as acted plays that we must judge them. . . , 
They might succeed better still if the conditions of representation had 
not changed so much in the last century. We demand to-day a kind 

^ A masque at the Court of King James. 



SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE AND PLAYS 225 

of scenic illusion to which Shakespeare's theatre does not lend itself." — 
M. Edmund Scherer, 

"I also saw *The Tempest/ with really magical scenery; but, 
unfortunately, Shakespeare vanished in the enjoyment of the eye. 
One forgot the Poet in the wonderful decorations, and returned home 
as empty as if one had been viewing a panorama." — Hans CHRISTIAN 
Andersen to the Grand Duke of Weimar, 9th August, 1857. 

•* The short space of time — from two hours to two hours and a 
half — in which plays are said to have been acted in Shakespeare's time, 
has excited much discussion among commentators. It can hardly be 
doubted that the dialogue, which often exceeds two thousand lines, 
was intended to be spoken, for none of the dramatists wrote with a 
view to publication, and few of the plays were printed from the 
author's manuscript. This fact points to a skilled and rapid delivery 
on the part of the actor. Artists of the French school, whose voices 
are highly trained, and capable of a varied and subtle modulation, will 
run through a speech of fifty lines with the utmost ease and rapidity, 
and there is good reason to suppose that the blank verse of the Eliza- 
bethan dramatists was spoken * trippingly on the tongue '. In the 
* Stage Player's Complaynt,' a pamphlet that appeared in 1641, we 
find an actor making use of the expression : * Oh, the times when my 
tongue have ranne as fast upon the Scoeane as a Windebankes pen 
over the Ocean I ' As the plays, moreover, were not divided into 
acts, no pause was necessary in the representation ; they were, be- 
sides, so constructed as to allow the opening of every scene to be 
spoken by characters who had not appeared in the close of the pre- 
ceding one, this being done, presumably, to avoid unnecessary delay. 
So with an efficient elocution, and no * waits,' the Elizabethan actors 
would have got through one- half of a play before our Victorian actors 
could cover a third." — "Transactions of the New Shakespeare 
Society," 1887. 

In dramatic construction Shakespeare excelled all his contempor- 
aries. With the management of the verse he was throughout his 
professional career making experiments, and only in his latest plays does 
it become a facile instrument for dramatic expression. But as regards 
the constructive form of the play he seems from the first to have pre- 
ferred the method of continuity in vogue on the public stages to the 
more artificial plan of the classical play which consisted of five episodes. 



226 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

more or less complete in themselves, with a chorus or dumb show 
between each of them. It is impossible that Shakespeare could have 
been ignorant of the existence of the Latin plays which were acted 
(sometimes in English) at the Universities and at the Inns of Court, 
but the internal evidence of the plays themselves shows that he was 
very sparing in the use of chorus, avoiding the dumb show and the 
unnecessary introduction of incidental music. Shakespeare wished the 
story of his plays to develop easily and rapidly from the opening to 
the crisis which was not reached until about two- thirds of the play 
had been written. And then came the catastrophe in the concluding 
incidents. An examination of the first collected edition of his plays, 
in the 1 623 folio, confirms this view. Of the thirty-six plays which 
appear in that volume six of them have no divisions into acts and 
scenes, and of these six " Romeo and Juliet " is among the early 
written plays, while "Antony and Cleopatra" is one of the latest. 
Ten of the plays are divided into acts but without any further divisions 
for scenes, and among these ten is *' Titus Andronicus,** a very early 
play, and **Coriolanus,** a very late one. Twelve of the plays are 
irregular in their divisions ; one has an act omitted altogether as in 
"The Taming of the Shrew*' ; some of the acts are divided into 
scenes, and not others, as in ** Henry VI, Part I " ; once the opening 
of the play is divided into acts and scenes and then the division is not 
further continued, as in " Hamlet *\ Out of the whole thirty-six 
plays in this first folio there are only eight in the volume having 
divisions — in acts and scenes — similar to those shown in the printed 
editions to-day ; and these eight include ** The Two Gentlemen of 
Verona," together with " The Tempest," a comedy written twenty 
years later. Now it seems incredible that this wide divergence of 
treatment of divisions in Shakespeare's plays, collected under one 
cover, should have been accidentally overlooked by the editors, or 
sanctioned by the publishers without comment. The explanation 
would seem to be that the editors probably looked upon the inserted 
act and scene divisions as matters of little importance since they were 
aware that twenty-one of the plays had already appeared in print 
without them, many of which were still being acted at the ** Globe," 
also, it may be presumed, without regular intervals. Then if the editors 
realized that the divisions they were adding to the plays in the folio 
failed to show the conclusion of definite incidents, or to mark the changes 



SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE AND PLAYS 227 

of locality, they doubtless abandoned the task without attempting ta 
complete it. This seems the only way to account for the meaningless 
confusion in which these divisions have been left in the volume. 

For instance, to take the comedy of " Twelfth Night," one of the 
plays having its original divisions still retained on the modern stage, to 
its injury as drama. In the play the comic action culminates at the 
point where Sir Andrew, after the interrupted duel with Viola, runs 
off the stage by one of the stage-doors to immediately re-enter by 
another, and assaults her twin brother Sebastian to his own infinite 
discomfort. How out of place it was to insert an act division be- 
tween Sir Andrew's exit and re-entrance seems to have struck the 
printer who, at the end of this act, omits the words Finis Actus 
Tertius, the only act out of the five which does not receive this 
indication of finality. In the '* Midsummer Night's Dream " the 
printer again shows his ingenuity in escaping from difficulties. As 
the Elizabethan stage had no drop-curtain the conclusion of a scene or 
act was made apparent to the spectator by the return of all the actors 
to the "tyring- house". In the Dream play, where the division of 
Act III. is shown, the pair of lovers are still asleep on the stage, and in 
order that the reader may not think they rise and leave the stage the 
words They sleep all the Act are inserted. Then when the play is 
continued in the next act and the direction Exeunt appears, the reader 
again is reminded that this does not apply to the sleepers, for the 
words Sleepers Lye Still precede the word Exeunt, In the earlier 
quarto editions, where act and scene divisions are not used, the stage 
directions about the sleepers do not appear; nor would they be 
needed if the action of the play were continuous. 



Some scholars are of opinion that ** The Tempest " was written 
originally as a masque for performance at Court and not for the public 
theatre. But the play reads very much like Shakespeare's farewell 
contribution to the repertory of the King's players. The action is 
continuous, except that the dramatist for the first and only time leaves the 
stage empty between the fourth and fifth Acts, unless something has 
been omitted from the original text. The play has the appearance of 
having been printed from the author's own manuscript, and it no 
doubt was inserted in the folio by the editors as the first play among 



228 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

the comedies because it was their latest acquisition from his hand. It 
is probable, too, that this was the only one of Shakespeare's plays 
which he himself divided into acts and scenes. Moreover, the stage 
directions are undoubtedly his own, and suggest that he was writing 
instructions for those whom he would not be able to personally re- 
hearse on the stage. Whatever background may have been used in 
the way of a scene, either at the Court performance or at the Black- 
friars, Shakespeare wrote " The Tempest,** as he did all his other 
plays, v^thout visualizing any scenic accessories as forming a neces- 
sary part of the representation. The costumes worn by the char- 
acters, the properties they used, and the tapestried stage with its two 
doors, balcony, and alcove — these are the only stage adjuncts of which 
Shakespeare seems to have been conscious during the twenty years in 
which he wrote plays. 



The table on the opposite page shows unquestionably that Shake- 
speare*s plays were vmtten to be acted and not only to be read. If 
they do not act well on the modern stage it is because our actor- 
managers no longer understand how to present them. But it is diffi- 
cult to believe that the plays would not recover their vitahty in the 
theatre if they were produced on a stage similar to that of the Eliza- 
bethan period, when managers would be obliged to concentrate their 
attention on the characters and on the dialogue. To-day when it is 
asserted that a play of Shakespeare's has been given for 200 consecutive 
nights it means that it has been produced in the form of grand opera, 
and that while the claims of the author to just treatment have been 
entirely ignored those of the stage carpenter have been lavishly ac- 
knowledged and provided for. 

At the same time it must be increasingly recognized that in Eng- 
lish-speaking countries the playhouse is no longer used to foster plays 
which hold the mirror up to nature, and that classical dramas are not 
wanted by those who at present control our theatres solely for the 
purpose of commercial speculation. 



A CHRONOLOGY OF SHAKESPEARES PLAY'S. SHO 



The "THEATER". 
Shoreditch. 



Built 1576. 



Newington Butts. 
Lambeth. 



1587-1589. 

Tlios. Kyd's (?) Old 

Play of Hamlet, 

and 

Marlowe's 

Doctor Faustus 

are mentioned a.s 

having been acted 

here sometime 

before 15%. 



Feb. 26. 1591. 

Marlowe^s 
Jew of Malta. 



Mar. 3, 1591. 

Hen. VI. Part I. 

{first performance). 



June 9, 1594. 

Old Play of 
Ha/mlet 
{revised). 



The "Rose". 
Bankside. 



1592-1594. 



Jan. 23. 1593. 

Titus Andronicus 
{first performance). 



Hen. VI. Part II. 
Hen. VI. Part III. 



Edward III. 
{Countess Episode). 



Sept. 25, 1601. 

Kyd's 

Spanish Tragedy, 

with additions by 

Ben Jonson. 



The Cross Keys. 
Inn Yard, 
Gracechurch Street. 



1594. 

Burbage, with his 
players, and Shake- 
speare acted here 
some part of this 
year. 



Place of Representa- 
tion not known. 



1590-15%. 

Comedy of Elrrors. 

Love's Labour's Lost. 

Two Gentlemen of 
Verona. 

Midsummer-Night's 
Dream. 

Merchant of Venice. 

The Taming of the 
Shrew. 

Richard III. 

King John. 

Richard II. 



Som^ of tJiese plays 

ma/y have been acted 

at the " Theater.'' 



The"CURTAI 
Shoreditch. 

15%- 15%. 



Romeo and Juliel 

Be7i Jonson's 
Comedy, 'Every 1 
in his Humour ' i 
acted in this thei 
by Burbage' sploA. 
1597-8. 

All's Well That 
Ends Well. 

Hamlet 

{rewritten bh 
Shakespem 

Hen. IV. Part 1. 

Troilus & Cressidi 

Hen. IV. Part W. 

Merry Wives of 
Windsor. 



NOTE. — Thomas Kyd's Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet, also Marlowe's Faustus and Jetir^ 
time we hear of him is from the performance of Hen. VI. Part I. at Newington Butts. A year 
at the Rose, but it was written about this time. Bonieo and Juliet and Ben Jonson's Comedy we 
there. The evidence for play-ievivals at the Globe is found on the title-pages of the later editic 
taken from Cunningham's Revels, and copied from Mr. J. T. Murray's English Dramatic Comp 
states (1913) that the performances of the dramatist's plays in the royal palaces during his lifei 
inclusive, are arranged approximately in the order in which they were written.— W. POEL. 



> 



4ERE THEV WERE ACTED IN LONDON, 1591—1642. 



V 
"GLOBE". 


The "GLOBE". 


Bankside. 


Bankside. 


[J 599-1613. 


1599-1613. 


fyV. 


Revivals. 


'i Ado About 
MlHing. 


Romeo and Juliet. 


t>ou Like It. 


Richard II. 


;let 


Richard III. 


'lal veision). 


Henry IV. Part I. 


ith Night. 
5 Caesar, 
fjure for Measure. 


Merry Wives. 
Henry V. 
Hamlet. 


rlo. 




Uar. 


1614-1642. 


M«lh. 


Romeo and Juliet. 


t^n of Athens. 


Richard II. 


r^es. 


Richard III. 


lay £c Cleopatra. 


Merchant of Venice. 


»i>lanus. 


Merry Wives. 


f inline. 


Hemy V. 


i ;r*s Tale. 


Hamlet. 


•est. 


Taming of Shrew. 




Othello. 




King Lear. 




Pericles. 



Blackfriars' 
Playhouse. 



At Court. 



1 597- 1 609. For QueenElizaheth 

Rented by the Chil- 1594 Comedy of 
dren of the Chanel Errors. 

Royal who ap2Jeared,\ 1598 Love's Labour's 
1601, in Ben Jon- Lost. 



son's Comedy, 
Poetaster.' 



The 



1610-1642. 

Burbage's players 
were now acting at 
the " Globe " and at 
the " Blackfriars." 



Revivals. 
Merchant of Venice. 
Othello. 
Taming of Shrew. 



1599MenyWives(?) 
1603 Midsummer- 
Night's Dream (?) 



For King James. 

1604 Othello. 

— Merry Wives. 

— Measure for 

Measure. 

— Comedy of 

Errors. 

1605 Love's Labour's 

Lost. 

— Henry V. 

— Merchant of 

Venice. 
{twice). 

1 606 Lear. 

161 1 Tempest. 

— Winter's Tale. 

1612 Much Ado. 

— Tempest. 

— Winter's Tale. 

— Merry Wives. 

— Othello. 

— Julius Caesar. 
1613Hen.IV. Pt.L 

— Much Ado. 
1618 Twelfth Night. 

— Winter's Tale. 
1622 Twelfth Night. 

1624 Winter's Tale. 

1625 Hen. IV. PtL 



At Court. 



For King Charles. 

1633 Richard III. 

— Taming of 

Shrew. 

1634 Cymbeline. 

— Winter's Tale. 

1636 Othello. 

1637 Julius Caesar. 



At the 
Inns of Court. 



1594. 

Comedy of Errors 
(in Gray's Inn 
Hall) (?) 

1602. 

Twelfth Night, 
(in Middle Temple 
Hall). 



the most popular plays m London when Shakespeare began writing for the Stage. The first 

mentioned by Nash the dramatist. There is no mention of the play Edward III. being acted 

rf^ tw' V °i ' ^"^ P'^y' were written at the period when Shakespeare's Company was 

aos . this apphes only to plays separately printed. The names of the plays acted at Court are 

nn^k! 'j''"^ P?'"^'^ ^^^l other plays by Shakespeare were acted at Court. Mr. Ernest Law 

'. numbered upwards of one hundred. The 36 plays of Shakespeare, named in columns 2 to 6. 



STEPS TOWARDS THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE 
LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUVAIN. 

In publishing the fourth list of contributions to the new library for 
the crippled and exiled University of Louvain, which has been in 
process of; formation in the John Rylands Library since the month of 
December, 1914, we furnish fresh evidence of the generous and 
widespread sympathy which our appeal has evoked. 

One of the most gratifying features of this response to our appeal 
is that all classes of the community, not only in this country, but in 
many parts of the English-speaking world, have participated in it. 
The list of donors will be found to contain, not only the names of in- 
stitutions which have made liberal contributions of eminently suitable 
works from their stores of duplicates ; and of individual collectors who 
have given with equal liberality, from their own shelves, volumes of 
great interest, and often of great rarity ; but also the names of strug- 
gling students and working men whose gifts partake of the sanctity 
of a sacrifice, since they consist, in many cases, of treasured possessions 
which had been acquired through the exercise of strict economy and 
self-denial, and which in consequence they had learnt to love and 
prize. 

In this way upwards of 8000 volumes have been accumulated 
already, and each day brings with it fresh offers of assistance. These 
gifts constitute an excellent nucleus for the new library ; yet, when it 
is realized that the collection of books so wantonly destroyed at Lou- 
vain numbered nearly a quarter of a million of volumes, it is evident 
that if the work of replacement, which we have inaugurated, is to be 
accomplished, very much more remains to be done. 

There are those who seek to condone this insensate crime of de- 
struction by suggesting that the burning of the library of Louvain was 
an unfortunate accident ; whilst others contend that the contents of 
the library were only partially destroyed, and that portions have been 

removed to a place of safety. Unfortunately, these views are not 

229 



230 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

shared by such trustworthy eye-witnesses as Monsieur Delannoy, the 
Librarian of the University, who himself witnessed the deliberate de- 
struction of the library by German soldiers provided with special 
apparatus, without any attempt being made to spare the contents. 
Indeed, so complete was' the destruction that not a single entire leaf 
could be recovered from amongst the debris. Several charred volumes 
which had retained their shape were found, it is true, but these 
crumbled to powder as soon as they were handled. Other evidence 
of an equally convincing and trustworthy character of the wantonness 
of the crime has been furnished by Monsieur Henri Davignon, 
Secretary of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry, in a communication 
to the editor of "The Times," which appeared in the columns of that 
journal on the 19th October, 1916, where, in the interest of truth, 
we have placed before us many facts which have been established 
by Belgian and neutral v^tnesses, and even by Germans them- 
selves, in a manner which would prove satisfactory to any Court of 
Inquiry. 

Much of this damage is beyond repair, since among the manu- 
scripts alone, which numbered at least l(K)0 volumes, were many 
priceless and irreplaceable treasures. The collection contained an 
autograph manuscript of sermons of Thomas a Kempis, the author of 
"Imitatio Christi" ; a fifteenth century manuscript of ** De viris il- 
lustribus " of Cornelius Nepos, which was regarded as one of the 
most important extant texts of that author ; two autograph manu- 
scripts of Donysius Carthusiensis ; an eleventh century manuscript of 
Prudent! us ; a large number of manuscripts relating to the history of 
Belgium, many of which dealt with the history of the various religious 
houses ; and a considerable number of liturgical and other illuminated 
manuscripts. But the loss most to be deplored consists of the total 
destruction of the Archives of the University, including that most 
precious of all the muniments, the foundation Bull, issued by Pope 
Martin V in 1 425, which renders for ever impossible the complete and 
documentary history of the Alma Mater o{ the new foundation, which 
was in contemplation, if we are correctly informed, at the outbreak of 
the war. 

And it was not only in manuscripts that the library was rich. Its 
printed books included a remarkable collection of ** Incunabula, '*^ 
numbering upwards of a thousand examples, a large proportion of which 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 231 

were printed in the Low Countries. The collections of mathematical 
and medical works were equally notable, the latter containing the fine 
vellum copy of *' De corporis humani fabrica " of Vesalius, presented 
to the University by the Emperor Charles V ; whilst the collections 
of **Jesuitica" and " Jansenistica," said to be quite unrivalled, were 
amongst the possessions of which the University was justly proud. 

It is true that much of this damage, as we have already remarked, 
is beyond repair, but some of it may be at least mitigated by the 
ready co-operation of the sympathetic Allies, who realize the measure 
of their indebtedness to that great little Nation, who sacrificed all but 
honour to preserve her own independence, and thereby safeguard the 
liberties of Europe, by nullifying the invader's plans. 

Mr. Lloyd George struck the right note when he exhorted us to 
keep the fires on every national altar burning, so that they shall be 
alight when those, who are upholding the honour of the nation upon 
the various battlefields, return with the laurels of victory from the 
stricken fields of this mighty war. Unfortunately, many of the altars 
of our noble Ally in Belgium have been either desecrated or thrown 
down by the self-constituted apostles of culture. Should we not, there- 
fore, regard it as a privilege to assist her in every possible way to erect 
new altars, and to rekindle the sacred fires, which, for the time, have 
been wellnigh extinguished ? 

It is, therefore, with the utmost confidence that we renew and em- 
phasize our appeal for help in this endeavour to restore, at least in 
some measure, the resources of the crippled University, by the pro- 
vision of a library adequate in every respect to meet the requirements 
of the case, so as to be in readiness for the time of her restoration. 

It is unlikely that we shall be able to offer the equivalent of the 
thousand lost manuscripts. That equivalent must be exacted from 
Germany by means of a toll upon her rich collections at Berlin, 
Munich, Dresden, and elsewhere. And what is true of manuscripts 
applies with equal force to the other departments of the library, 
including the fine collection of *' Incunabula,'* many of which may be 
actually replaced from the collection in the Royal Library at Berlin. 
This, surely, is one of the obligations which Germany should be forced 
to fulfil on the conclusion of peace. It must, however, be borne in 
mind that the object of the toll is to make amends ; it must not be 
allowed to develop into actions of reprisal. 

i6 



232 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

We entertain the hope that the new library, which is already 
rising phoenix-like out of the ashes of the old one, will be far richer 
and more glorious than its predecessor ; and we are anxious that the 
agencies through which this is to be aecoinplished should be as widely 
representative as possible. 

For that reason we welcome the appeal which has been made by 
Lord Muir Mackenzie, Chairman of the Executive Committee, which 
was appointed early in the year at a large representative meeting, over 
which Viscount Bryce presided, for promoting the resuscitation of the 
Library of the University of Louvain, and we hope that it may result 
in giving a fresh impulse to the movement. It is to be hoped, how- 
ever, that some attempt will be made to provide for the co-ordination 
of the efforts which are being put forth in many directions to bring 
about the same result. 

It may not be out of place to explain, that when we made our 
first public appeal in April, 1915, no other definite steps or public 
announcements of any similar proposals had been made. We have 
since learned that the Classical Association had decided to make an 
appeal to its members to assist in the reconstruction of the classical 
side of the library, and that the University of Manchester had resolved 
to set aside a set of the publications of the University Press, together 
with a considerable number of duplicates from the Christie Library ; 
but for various reasons definite action was postponed for a while. 

In the meantime the present scheme was launched. It originated 
with the resolution of the Council of the John Ry lands Library, held 
in December, 1914, to give some practical expression to their deep 
feelings of sympathy with the authorities of the University of Louvain, 
in the irreparable loss which they had suffered, and it was further de- 
cided that this expression of sympathy should take the form of a gift 
of books to be selected by the librarian from the duplicates in the 
possession of the library, together with a set of the publications issued 
by the library. 

A list of works forming the first instalment of the proposed gift, 
numbering upwards of 200 volumes, was drawn up to accom- 
pany the offer, when it was made to the authorities of the Uni- 
versity, through the medium of Dr. A. Carnoy, Professor of Zend in 
the University of Louvain, who at that time was resident in Cam- 
bridge. The offer, it is needless to say, was accepted, and Professor 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 233 

Carnoy in his acknowledgment described the gift as " one of the 
very first acts which tend to the preparation of our revival ". 

As the exiled University was for the time dismembered and 
homeless, we undertook, at the request of the Louvain authorities, to 
house the volumes until such time as the new buildings were ready to 
receive them. It was then that it occurred to us that there must be 
many other libraries and similar institutions, as well as private indivi- 
duals, who would welcome the opportunity of sharing in this expres- 
sion of practical sympathy, and we announced in the pages of the 
Bulletin of April, 1915, our willingness to receive and be respon- 
sible for the custody of any suitable works which might be entrusted 
to us, with the result which we have already announced. 

Our undertaking includes the preparation of a careful register of 
the names and addresses of the contributors to the scheme, together 
with an exact record of their gifts, for presentation with the library, to 
serve as a permanent record. 

Furthermore, we have undertaken to prepare a catalogue of the 
collection, so that when the time comes for its transference to its new 
home it may be placed upon the shelves prepared for its reception, and 
be ready forthwith for use. 

In order to obviate any needless duplication of gifts the librarian 
would regard it as a favour if those who may decide to respond to 
this appeal would, in the first instance, send to him a list of the works 
which they are willing to contribute, so that the register may be ex- 
amined with a view of ascertaining whether any of the titles already 
figure therein. 

It is possible that there are, amongst our readers, or in their im- 
mediate circle of friends, many others who would gladly participate in 
this expression of practical sympathy with the authorities of Louvain Uni- 
versity, did they possess any suitable works. For their information we 
venture to point out that there are a number of modern reference works, 
such as: "The Catholic Encyclopedia'*; "The Jewish Encyclo- 
paedia" ; " The Oxford English Dictionary" ; ** Wright's " English 
Dialect Dictionary"; "The Dictionary of National Biography"; 
Baldwin's " Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology " ; " The Cyclo- 
paedia of Education " ; ** Le Grand Dictionnaire Universel " of 
Larousse ; '* La Grande Encyclopedie " ; " Patrologiae Cursus Com- 
pletus," edited by the Abbe Migne ; "Glossarium Mediae et Infimae 



234 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Latinitatis *' of Du Cange ; and others of a similar character which 
are indispensable to the efficiency of the library of any modern 
university, and which, hitherto, have not been included in any of the 
registered gifts. We should welcome offers of such sets, and we 
should be glad, in case of need, to put would-be contributors in com- 
munication with the agents who would undertake to procure them. 
Already one contributor has forwcirded a cheque for five pounds, for 
the purchase of any suitable books that we may advise, and we shall 
be glad to receive other contributions of a similar character. 

The names of donors, with a description of their gifts, will be 
published periodically in the pages of the BULLETIN. 

THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. Per P. J. Anderson. 
Esq., M.A., LL.B., Librarian. 

Aberdeen. Extracts from the Council Register of the Burgh of Aberdeen, 
1625-1642 (1643-1747). [Edited by John Stuart.] (Scottish Burgh 
Records Society.) Edinburgh, 1871-72. 2 vols. 4to. 

Selections from the records of the Kirk Session, Presbytery, and 

Synod of Aberdeen (1 562- 1 681 ). [Edited by John Stuart.] [Spalding 
Club.] Aberdeefi, 1846. 4to. 
Aberdeen University: Fasti Aberdonenses : selections from the re- 
cords of the University and King's College of Aberdeen, 1494-1854. 
[Edited by Cosmo Innes.] [Spalding Club.] Aberdeen, 1854. 4to. 

Fasti Academiae Mariscallanae Aberdonensis : selections from the 

records of the Marischal College and University, 1593-1860. Edited 
by P. J. Anderson. [New Spalding Club.] Aberdeen, 1889-98. 
3 vols. 4to. 

Roll of the Graduates of the University of Aberdeen, 1860-1900. 

By William Johnston. (Aberdeen University Studies.) Aberdeen, 
1906. 4to. 

Studies in the history and development of the University of Aber- 
deen. Edited by P. J. Anderson. (Aberdeen University Studies.) 
Aberdeen, 1906. 4to. 

Aberdeen University Library. Catalogue of the General Library of 

the University of Aberdeen. [By John Fyfe.] (Supplement to the 
Catalogue . . . being the works added 1875-87.) [By Robert Walker.] 
Aberdeen, X^l'b-^l . 3 vols. 8vo. 

University of Aberdeen. Catalogue of the books in the Library, 

Marischal College, 1874. (Catalogue of the books added to the 
Library . . . 1874-96.) Aberdeen, 1874-97. 2 vols. 8vo. 

University of Aberdeen. Subject catalogue of the Phillips Library 

of pharmacology and therapeutics '615. (Aberdeen University Studies.) 
Aberdeen, 1911. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 235 

Aeschylus. Tragoediae. Recensuit, integram lectionis varietatem notas- 
que adjecit A. Wellauer. [Greek.] Lipsiae, 1 ^I'h-l^. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Ames (William) Bellarminus enervatus, sive Disputationes Anti-Bellar- 
minianae. Editio tertia. Oxoniae, 1 629. 4 vols, in 1 . 1 2mo. 

ARCHAOLOGISCHE ZeiTUNG. Herausgegeben vom Archaologischen 
Institut des deutschen Reichs. Redacteur : Dr. Max Frankel. Jahr- 
gang XXXVI, 1878 (-XLIII. 1885). Berlin, 1879-86. 8 vols, in 4. 



4t 



o. 



Register zur Archaologischen Zeitung. Jahrgang I-XLIII. Her- 
ausgegeben vom Kaiserlich deutschen Archaologischen Institut. Berlin, 
1 886. 8vo. 

Aristophanes. Comoediae undecim, Graece et Latine, cum . . . 
emendationibus virorum doctorum praecipue Josephi Scaligeri. ^«^- 
duni Batavorum, \ 624. 1 2mo. 

BaiLLIE (Robert) Operis historici et chronologici libri duo. Amstelo- 
dami, 1663. Fol. 

BailLY (jean Sylvain) Histoire ^e I'astronomie ancienne depuis son 
origine jusq'a I'etablissement de I'Ecole d'Alexandrie. Seconde edition. 
Paris, 1781. 4to. 

Histoire de Tastronomie moderne, depuis la fondation de TEcole 

d'Alexandrie, jusqu'a I'epoque de MDCCXXX. Nouvelle edition. 
Paris, M^b, 2 vols. 4to. 

Traite de Tastronomie indienne et orientale, ouvrage qui peut 

servir de suite a I'histoire de I'astronomie ancienne. Paris, 1 787. 4to. 

IbN BaTUTA. The travels of Ibn Batuta ; translated from the abridged 
Arabic manuscript copies, in the public library of Cambridge. With 
notes ... by Samuel Lee. London, 1829. 4to. 

BecKMANN (Johann) A history of inventions, discoveries, and origins. 
Translated by William Johnston. Fourth edition, carefully revised 
and enlarged by W. Francis and J. W. Griffith. London, 1846. 
2 vols. 8vo. 

Berlin -. AcaDEMIA RegIA SciENTIARUM. Histoire de I'Academie 
Royale des Sciences et des Belles Lettres de Berlin, annee 1 745 (-1 758), 
avec les Memoires . . . tirez des Registres de cette Academie. Berlin, 
1746-65. 14 vols. 4to. 

Bible -. Gaelic. Tiomnadh Nuadh. . . . Eidir-theangaicht' o'n Ghreu- 
gais chum Gaidhlig Albannaich. Dun-Eudain, \ 161. 8vo. 

Bible : SyrIAC. Novum Testamentum Syriacum punctis vocalibus ani- 
matum. Cum Lexico et Institutionibus L. Syriacae. Accedunt notae 
difficiliora N. T. loca explicantes. Authore Aegidio Gutbirio. Ham- 
burgi, 1663-67. 3 pts. in 1 vol. 8vo. 



236 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

BlaCKWELL (Thomas) Memoirs of the Court of Augustus. Edinburgh^ 
1753-55. 2 vols. 4to. 

Book of Common Prayer. [EngHsh and Irish]. The Book of Com- 
mon Prayer. . . . Leabhar na Nornaightheadh Ccomhchoitchioun. . . . 
London, 1712. 8vo. 

Bulloch 0^^" Malcolm) Territorial soldiering in the North- East of 
Scotland during 1759-1814. Aberdeen, 1914. 4to. 

BUXTORFIUS (Joannes) Epitome grammaticae Hebraeae, . . . Adjecta 
succincta de Mutatione punctorum vocalium instructio, . . . Recensita 
. . . a J. Buxtorfio Fil. Editio octava. Basileae, \ 669. 8vo. 

Grammaticae Chaldaicae et Syriacae libri III. ELditio secunda» 

auctior et emendatior. Basileae, \ 650. 8vo. 

Cave (William) Chartophylax ecclesiasticus : quo prope MD. scriptores 
ecclesiastici. . . . Accedunt scriptores gentiles Christianae religionis 
oppugnatores ; et brevis cujusvis saeculi conspectus. Londiiii, 1685. 
8vo. 

Cicero (Marcus Tullius) Tusculanarum disputationum libri V. cum com- 
mentario J. Davisii. Editio tertia, auctior et emendatior. Cantabrigiae^ 
1730. 8vo. 

Classical Journal. The Classical Journal. Vol. l(-40). London, 
[1810]-1829. 40 vols. 8vo. 

Court de GeBELIN (Antoine) Monde primitif, analyse et compare avec 
le monde moderne, considere dans I'histoire naturelle de la parole ; ou 
origine du langage et de I'ecriture. . . . Paris, 1775. 4to. 

DeLBRUCK (Berthold) Altindische Tempuslehre. (Syntaktische Forsch- 
ungen von B. Delbriick und E. Windisch. II.) Halle, 1876. 8vo. 

Der Gebrauch des Conjunctivs und Optativs im Sanskrit und Griech- 

ischen. (Syntaktische Forschungen von B. Delbriick und E. Windisch. 
I.) Halle, 1871. 8vo. 

Du Bos (Jean Baptiste) Reflexions critiques sur la poesie et sur la peinture. 
Sixieme edition. Paris, \lbb, 3 vols. 16mo. 

Edwards (William Frederic) Recherches sur les langues celtiques. 
Paris, 1844. 8vo. 

FabRICIUS (Johann Albert) Bibliotheca Graeca, sive notitia scriptorum 
veterum. Hamburgi, 1705-24. 12 vols. 4to. 

Ferguson (James) Astronomy explained upon Sir Isaac Newton's prin- 
ciples, and made easy to those who have not studied mathematics. The 
eleventh edition. London, 1803. 8vo. 

FloRIO (Giovanni) Florios Second Frutes, ... To which is annexed his 
Gardine of Recreation yeelding six thousand Italian proverbs. [Italian 
and English.] London, 1591. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 4to. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 237 

FloRUS (Lucius Annaeus) Epitome rerum Romanarum ex recensione 
J. G. Graevii cum ejusdem annotationibus longe auctioribus. Anistelae- 
dami, 1 702. 2 vols, in 1 . 8vo. 

Foreign Quarterly Review. Vol. 1, 1827 (-Vol. 19, 1837). 

London, 1 ^21 -yj. 1 9 vols. 8vo. 

GaSSEND (Pierre) Institutio astronomica juxta hypotheseis tam veterum, 
quam Copernici et Tychonis. Ejusdem oratio inauguralis iterato edita. 
Parisiis, 1647. 4to. 

Gerard (Alexander) Dissertations on subjects relating to the genius and 
the evidences of Christianity. Edinburgh, \ 766. 8vo. 

GlACHINI (Lionardo) In nonum librumRasis . . . ad Almansorem regem, 
de partium morbis . . . commentaria. Opera . . . Hieronymi Donzel- 
lini . . . emendata ac perpolita. (Leonardi Jacchini . . . opuscula 
. . . , nempe Praecognoscendi methodus . . . ). Basileae, 1563-64. 
2 pts. in 1 vol. 4to. 

Gilpin (Richard) Daemonologia sacra. Or, a treatise of Satans tempta- 
tions: in three parts. London, 1677. 4to. 

Grimm (Friedrich Melchior) BaRON, ^^^/DiDEROT (Denis) Correspond- 
ance litteraire, philosophique et critique adressee a un souverain d'Alle- 
magne, depuis 1753 jusqu'en 1769. Paris, 1813. 6 vols. 8vo. 

HaRLEY (Robert) Earl of Oxford. Catalogus Bibliothecae Harleianae, 
in locos communes distributus cum indice auctorum. Londini, \7 43-45. 
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Harris (James) Hermes, or, a philosophical inquiry concerning universal 
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Philological inquiries, in three parts. London, \1^\. 2 vols. 8vo. 

HarrOWER (Joannes) Flosculi Graeci Boreales, sive Anthologia Graeca 
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HedERICH (Benjamin) Lexicon manuale Graecum, ... in tres partem 
videlicet hermeneuticam, analyticam, et syntheticam divisum; . . . re- 
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Hepburn (James) Earl of BothwelL Les affaires du Conte de Boduel. 
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Hippocrates. Opera omnia. Editionem curavit C. G. Kiihn. [Greek 
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HuyGENS (Christiaan) Systema Saturnium, sive De causis mirandorum 
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238 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

James IV. King of Scotland. Epistolae Jacobi Quarti, Jacobi Quinti, ct 
Mariae, regum Scotorum, eorumq : tutorum et regni gubernatorum. . . , 
Interjectae sunt quaedam exterorum principum ac virorum illustrium 
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JUVENALIS (Decimus Junius) and PerSIUS FlaCCUS (Aulus) Satyrae, 
cum scholiis veterum, et commentariis . . . fere omnium eruditorum ; 
. . . Accedit Auli Persii Flacci Satirarum liber — I. Casaubonus re- 
censuit, et commentario . . . illustravit. Editio novissima. Cura et 
opera M. Casauboni. Lugdtmi Batavonim, \b95. 4to. 

[Satires] . Translated and illustrated, as well with sculpture as notes. 

By Barten Holyday. Oxford, 1673. Fol. 

KeiLL (John) Introductio ad veram astronomiam, seu Lectiones astrono- 
micae, habitae in schola astronomica Academiae Oxoniensis. Editio 
secunda, multo auctior et emendatior. Londini, 1 72 1 . 8vo. 

Kirch MANN (Johann) De smnulis liber singularis. Accedunt G. Longi, 
Abr. Gorlaei, et H. Kornmanni de iisdem tractatus absolutissimi. 
Liigduni Batavorum, 1672. 4 vols, in 1. 12mo. 

LaMPE (Friedrich Adolph) Meditationum exegeticarum opera anecdota, 
. . . omnia recen suit. . . . Daniel Gerdes. Groningae, 1741. 4to. 

LaNZI (Luigi Antonio) Saggio di lingua Etrusca e di altre antiche d*Italia 
per servire alia storia de'popoli, delle lingue e delle belle arti. Edizione 
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LeES Oohn) The Anacreontic poetry of Germany in the eighteenth century. 
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LeipSIC. Acta Eruditorum anno 1682(-1702) publicata. Lipsiae, 1682- 
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Acta Eruditorum quae Lipsiae publicantur Supplementa. Tomus 

i.(-ii.). Lipsiae, 1692-96. 2 vols. 4to. 

LiVERE (Le) de Reis de Brittanie e Le Livere de Reis de Engleterre. 
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Luc Qean Andre de) Idees sur la meteorologie. Londres, 1786-87- 
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LUCANUS (Marcus Annaeus) Pharsalia, sive de bello civile, Caesaris et 
Pompeii libri X. Ex editione . . . H. Grotii ; cum ejusdem et Thomae 
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MaCFARLANE Goh") Antoine Verard. [Bibliographical Society's Illus- 
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Mackenzie (Henry) Report of the committee of the Highland Society of 
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MacPHERSON (John) Critical dissertations on the origin, antiquities, 
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MaIMONIDES (Moses) Porta Mosis, sive, Dissertationes aliquot a R. Mose 
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mentariis praemissae, . . . Latine editae, opera et studio E. Pocockii. 
[Arabic and Latin.] Oxoniae, 1654-55. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 4to. 

Maxwell {Sir Herbert Eustace) The early Chronicles relating to Scot- 
land, being the Rhind Lectures in Archaeology for 1912. Glasgow^ 
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Meyer (Lodewijk) Philosophia S. Scripturae interpres ; exercitatio para- 
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MiCHAELIS (Johann Heinrich) Uberiorum adnotationum philologico- 
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Murray (Alexander) History of the European languages : or, researches 
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MUSSCHENBROEK (Petrus van) Tentamina experimentorum naturalium 
captorum in Academia del Cimento . . . quibus commentarios, nova 
experimenta, et orationem de methodo instituendi experimenta physica 
addidit P. van Musschenbroek. Lugduni Batavorum^ 1 73 1 . 2 pts. in 
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Nicholson (William) A journal of natural philosophy, chemistry and the 
arts. London, \1^1 Ami, 5 vols. 4to. 

Paris : Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. Choix 

des Memoires de I'Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres. 
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PeRSIUS FlaCCUS (Aulus) Satirarum liber. . . . Editio novissima. . . . 
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PhaEDRUS. Fabularum Aesopiarum libri V. cum integris commentariis. 
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PrOPERTIUS (Sextus Aurelius) Elegiarum libri quatuor. Amstelaedami^ 
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QUINTILIANUS (Marcus Fabius) Declamationes XIX . . . et Calpurnii 
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Revue ARCHEOLOGIQUE. Troisieme serie. Tome XIII, 1889 (-XVI. 
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240 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Robertson (James) Clavis Pentateuchi ; sive Analysis omnium vocum 
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ROSINUS (Joannes) Antiquitatum Romanarum corpus . . . cum notis 
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et de senatu, cum And. Schotti electis. . . . Accurante C. Schrevelio. 
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SaLLUSTIUS CRISPUS (Caius) Opera, quae extant, omnia : cum . . . 
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SCHARPIUS (Joannes) Symphonia Prophetarum, et Apostolorum, in qua 
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Seneca (Lucius Annaeus) Tragcediae, cum notis Th. Farnabii. Amstelo- 
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Smith (Robert) A compleat system of opticks in four books, viz. a 
popular, a mathematical, a mechanical, and a philosophical treatise. Ta 
which are added, remarks upon the whole. Cambridge^ \ 738. 2 vols. 
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Sophocles. The tragedies of Sophocles, translated from the Greek ; 
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TereNTIUS AfER (Publius) Comoediae, Phaedri fabulae itsopiae, Publii 
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ThrELKELD (Lancelot Edward) An Australian language as spoken by 
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TiBULLUS (Albius) Quae exstant. . . . Accedunt notae, cum variar 
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ViRGILIUS MaRO (Publius). P. Virgilii Maronis cum veterum omnium 
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RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 241 

THOMAS P. ADIN, Esq., of Withington, Manchester. 

Calvin (Jean) Institution de la Religion Chrestienne, nouvellement mise 
en quatre livres, . . . augmentee aussi de tel accroissement, qu'on la 
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ARTHUR B. BALL, Esq., of Manchester. 

BeNTIVOGLIO (Guido) CardinaL Relationi. Relatione delle Provincie 
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MISS E. M. BARLOW, of Marple. 

Angles (Pedro Martyr) Prontuario orthologi-graphico trilingue, en que 
se ensena a pronunciar, escribir, y letrear ... en latin, castellano y 
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Aristotle. Liber de mirabilibus auscultationibus explicatus a J. 
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SCHRIJVER (Pieter) Veteres de re militari scriptores quotquot extant, 
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R. H. BARON, Esq., of Blackburn. 

Stanhope (Philip Dormer) Ath Earl of Chesterfield. Letters to his 
godson and successor, edited from the originals, with a memoir of Lord 
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ViNOGRADOFF (Paul) English society in the eleventh century. Essays 
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THE RIGHT HON. EARL BEAUCHAMP, K.G. 

Walter de MilEMETE. The treatise of Walter de Milemete De 
nobilitatibus, sapientiis, et prudentiis regum . . . together with a selec- 
tion of pages from the companion manuscript of the treatise De secretis 
secretorum Aristotelis. With an introduction by M. R. James. [Rox- 
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HENRY BRIERLEY, Esq., of Wigan. 

Aristotle. Opera ex recensione I. Bekkeri. Accedunt Indices 
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242 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Cicero (Marcus Tullius) Opera omnia ex recensione J. A. Ernesti, cum 
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Delectus commentariorum in M. T. Ciceronis opera omnia, ad 

editionem J. A. Ernesti accommodatus. Ex editione J. Oliveti. Lon- 
dim, 1819. 3 vols. 8vo. 

NiZOLIUS (Marius) Lexicon Ciceronianum ex recensione A. Scoti. 
Accedunt phrases et formulae linguae Latinae ex commentariis S. Doled. 
Juxta editionem J. Facciolati. Londini, 1 820. 3 vols. 8vo. 

PHILIP C. BURSILL, Esq., The Public Library, Woolwich. 

Balfour (Arthur James) The foundations of belief, being notes introductory 
to the study of theology. Sixth edition. London, \ 8%. 8vo. 

Balfour Oohn Hutton) A manual of botany, being an introduction to the 
study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants. New 
edition, revised by the author. Edifiburgh, 1863. 8vo. 

FaRRELLY (M. J.) The settlement after the war in South Africa. Lon- 
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Hamilton (Angus) Problems of the Middle East. London, 1909. 
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Hamilton {CxdJX) pseud. [i.e.. Miss M. A. Dodge]. A battle of the books, 
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Hand-book. The hand-book of taste in bookbinding. New edition. 
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KiNGSLEY (Charles) Health and education. London, 1877. 8vo. 

Lewes (George Henry) The history of philosophy from Thales to Comte. 
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Newman Oohn Henry) Apologia pro vita sua : being a history of his 
religious opinions. London, 1890. 8vo. 

PriDEAUX (Sarah Treverbian) An historical sketch of bookbinding, with 
a chapter on early stamped bindings by E. Gordon Duff. London, 1893. 
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PrIVAT-DescHANEL (Augustin) Elementary treatise on natural philo- 
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Ramsay (William) A manual of Roman antiquities. Eleventh edition, 
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Spears (Robert) Memorable Unitarians, being a series of brief bio- 
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RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 243 

Sully 0^"^^^) Outlines of psychology, with special reference to the theory 
of education. Second edition. London^ 1885. 8vo. 

Unitarian Christianity. Ten lectures on the positive aspects of 

Unitarian thought and doctrine, delivered by various ministers, ... in 
St. George's Hall, London, in March and April, 1881 . With a preface 
by Rev. James Maitineau. Fourth edition. London [1881 ?]. 8vo. 

C. G. CASH, Esq., of Midlothian. 

AngLERIUS (Petrus Martyr) The history of trauayle in the West and 
Elast Indies, and other countreys lying eyther way, towardes the . . . 
Moluccaes, . . . gathered in parte, and done into Englyshe by R. 
Eden. Newly set in order, augmented and finished by R. Willes. 
London: R. Jjigge, \577. 4to. 

THE CLARK UNIVERSITY, Worcester, Mass. Per Dr. Louis N. 
Wilson, Librarian. 

Clark University: Clark College Record. Vol. 10, 1915. IVor^ 

cester^ Mass, 1915. 8vo. 

Clark University Library. Publications. Edited by L. N. Wilson. 

Vol. 4, 1914-15. Worcester, Mass., [1915]. 8vo. 

Journal of religious psychology. Edited by G. Stanley Hall. Vol. 7, 

1914-15. Worcester, Mass., [1915]. 8vo. 

DR. J. GRAY CLEQQ, F.R.C.S., of Manchester. 

LiVIUS (Titus) Patavinus. Historiarum quod extat, cum perpetuis Car. 
Sigonii et J. F. Gronovii notis. Amstelodami, \blb-19. 3 vols. 8vo. 

THE CONVENT OF OUR LADY OF LORETO, Manchester. 

PenlEY (Aaron) The English school of painting in water-colours : its 
theory and practice. Accompanied with forty-seven illustrations in the 
first style of chromo-lithography. New and revised edition. London, 
1874. Fol. 

THE REV. ERNEST HAMPDEN-COOK, M.A., of Manchester. 

BraDSHAW (John) A concordance to the poetical works of John Milton. 
London, 1894. 8vo. 

James (Norman G. Brett) The history of Mill Hill School, 1807-1907. 
London, [1910]. 8vo. 

Lunn (Charles) The philosophy of voice, showing the right and wrong 
action of voice in speech and song, with laws for self-culture. Ninth 
(standard) edition. London, 1900. 8vo. 

MaTSON (William Tidd) The poetical works. Now first collected and 
including a large number of pieces not before published. Portsmouth, 
1894. 8vo. ^ ^ ^ 



244 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

PetAVEL (Emmanuel) The extinction of evil. Three theological essays. 
Translated ... by Rev. C. H. Oliphant. The preface by Rev. E. 
White. Boston \U,S.A\. 1889. 8vo. 

DR. A. K. COOMARASWAMY, of Britford, Salisbury. 

RaJENDRA. The taking of Toll, being the Dana Lila of Rajendra, trans- 
lated into English by A. Coomarasv^amy, with an introduction and notes 
and a woodcut by E. Gill. London, 1915. 4to. 

THE REV. W. J. CRAKE, of Gloucester. 

Albert, Prince Consort. The principal speeches and addresses. With 
an introduction, giving some outlines of his character. [Edited by Sir 
A. Helps.] Lo7ido7i, 1862. 8vo. 

Helps {Sir Arthur) Casimir Maremma. [Anon.] London, 1870. 
2 vols. 8vo. 

The claims of labour. An essay on the duties of the employers to 

the employed. [Anon.] London, 1 844. 8vo. 

The claims of labour. The second edition. [Anon.] London, 

1845. 8vo. 

Conversations on war cuid general culture. [Anon.] London, 1871. 

8vo. 

Essays written in the intervals of business. [Anon.] London, 

1841. 8vo. 

Ivan de Biron, or, the Russian Court in the middle of the last cen- 
tury. [Anon.] London, 1874. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Life and labours of Mr. Brassey, 1 805- 1 870. London, 1 872. 8vo. 

The life of Columbus, the discoverer of America. Chiefly by A. 

Helps [assisted by H. R Thomas]. Loftdon, 1869. 8vo. 

The life of Pizarro, with some account of his associates in the con- 
quest of Peru. London, 1869. 8vo. 

Organization in daily life. An essay. [Anon.] London, 1862. 

8vo. 

Some talk about animals and their masters. [Anon.] London, 

1873. 8vo. 

Taylor {Sir Henry) Edwin the Fair. An historical drama. London, 

1842. 8vo. 

The eve of the Conquest, and other poems. London, \ 847. 8vo. 

Isaac Commenus. A play. [Anon.] London, 1827. 8vo. 

Notes from books. In four essays. London, \ 849. 8vo. 

Notes from life, in six essays. London, 1847. 8vo. 

Philip van Artevelde ; a dramatic romance. In two parts. London, 

1834. 2 vols. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 245 

Taylor {Sir Henry) St. Clement's eve. A play. London, 1862. 8yo. 

The statesman. London, 1836. 8vo. 

The virgin widow. A play. London, 1850. 8vo. 

Victoria, Qj4een of Great Britain and Ireland. Leaves from the 
Journal of our life in the Highlands, from 1848 to 1861. Edited by 
Arthur Helps. London, 1 868. 8vo. 

JOHN CHARLES CROWE, Esq., of Manchester. 

Austin (John) Lectures on jurisprudence, or the philosophy of positive 
law. Fifth edition, revised and edited, by Robert Campbell. London, 
1885. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Ball Qohn Thomas) Historical review of the legislative systems operative 
in Ireland, from . . . (1172-1800). New edition. London: Dublin, 
1889. 8vo. 

Baxter (Robert Dudley) The taxation of the United Kingdom. London, 
1869. 8vo. 

BenTHAM (Jeremy) Theory of legislation, by J. Bentham. Translated 
from the French of Etienne Dumont. By R. Hildreth. Fifth edition, 
London, 1887. 8vo. 

ClaTER (Francis) Every man his own farrier ; or the whole art of farriery 
laid open. The twenty- third edition. London, 1817. 8vo. 

Duffy {Sir Charles Gavan) The ballad poetry of Ireland, edited by the 
Hon. C. G. Duffy. Forty-third edition. Dublin [n.d.]. 8vo. 

Irish Texts Society. Publications. Vols. 1-3, 5, 7, 10-13. London, 
Dublin, 1 899- 1913. 9 vols. 8vo. 

Justinian \, Emperor of the East. The Institutes, with English intro- 
duction, translation, and notes by T. C. Sandars. Fourth edition. 
[Latin and English.] London, 1869. 8vo. 

Maine {Sir Henry Sumner) Ancient law : its connection with the early 
history of society, and its relation to modern ideas. Fourteenth edition. 
London, 1891. 8vo. 

The early history of institutions. New edition. London, 1 890. 

8vo. 

Mill (John Stuart) Principles of political economy, with some of their 
applications to social philosophy. London, \^^\. 8vo. 

O'CONNELL (Daniel) A memoir on Ireland native and Saxon. Vol. I. 
(1172-1660). [No more published.] Dublin,\^^'b. 8vo. 

O'Reilly (Edward) An Irish-English dictionary. A new edition, care- 
fully revised and corrected. With a supplement ... by John O' Dono- 
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246 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Read (Charles A.) The cabinet of Irish literature : selections from the 
works of the chief poets, orators, and prose writers of Ireland. (Vol. 4. 
By T. P. O'Connor.) London : Glasgow, 1879-80. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Smith (Adam) An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of 
nations. With an introductory essay and notes by J. S. Nicholson. 
London, 1891. 8vo. 

TOYNBEE (Arnold) Lectures on the industrial revolution of the eighteenth 
century in ELngland. Popular addresses, notes and other fragments . . . 
together with a short memoir by B. Jowett. Third edition. London, 
1890. 8vo. 

Walker (Francis Amasa) Political economy. Third edition, revised and 
enlarged. London, 1888. 8vo. 

THE REV. ARTHUR DIXON, M.A., of Denton, Lanes. 

Benson (Edward White) Archbishop of Canterbury. Christ and his 
times, addressed to the diocese of Canterbury in his second visitation. 
London, 1890. 8vo. 

HORATIUS FlaCCUS (Quintus) Opera omnia, with English notes by the 
Rev. A. J. Macleane. Abridged from the larger edition in the Biblio- 
theca Classica. Revised edition. London, 1879. 8vo. 

Journal of Theological Studies. [Edited by C. H. Turner and 

W. E. Barnes.] Vol. 15-16. London and Oxford, 1914-15. 2 vols. 
8vo. 

MaRTIALIS (Marcus Valerius) Epigrammata selecta. Select epigrams 
from Martial, with English notes by F. A. Paley and the late W. H. 
Stone. London, 1875. 8vo. 

Mormon, Book of. The Book of Mormon : an account written by the 
hand of Mormon, upon plates taken from the plates of Nephi. Trans- 
lated by Joseph Smith, jun. Sixth European edition, stereotyped. 
Liverpool, 1866. 8vo. 

PALitONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. [Publications issued by the Society 
during the years 1847-1854.] London, 1848-54. 10 vols. 4to. 

Phillips (John) Manual of geology, theoretical and practical. Edited by 
R. Etheridge and H. G. Seeley. London, 1885. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Theocritus. The Idylls and Epigrams commonly attributed to Theo- 
critus, with English notes by Herbert Snow (now Kynaston). Third 
edition. Oxford, 1877. 8vo. 

Thomas (Aquinas) Saint. Summa theologica diligenter emendata 
Nicolai, Sylvii, Billuart et C. J. Drioux notis ornata. Editio nona. 
Londini, 1874-75. 8 vols. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 247 

THE REV. JOHN T. DURWARD, Baraboo, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 
DORWARD (B. 1.) Wild flowers of Wisconsin. Poems by B. I. Dorward. 

Milwaukee, 1872. 8vo. 
Dorward (Wilfrid J.) Annals of The Glen [n.p., 1901]. 8vo. 

DURWARD Qo^n T.) The building of a Church. Baraboo, Wis,, 1902. 
8vo. 
Holy Land and Holy Writ. Baraboo, Wis,, 1913. 8vo. 

THE VERY REV. ALOYSIUS EMERY, I.C.. of Rugby. 

AnGELERI (Francisco) Rosmini e panteista ? Risposta all* opuscolo Degli 
Universali del P. M. Liberatore. Verona, 1882. 8vo. 

BURONI (Giuseppe) Antonio Rosmini e la Civilta Cattolica dinanzi alia S. 
Congregazione dell' Indice, ossia spiegazione del Dimittantur opera A. 
Rosmini- Serbati secondo la Bolla Sollicita di Benedetto XIV. Edizione 
seconda. Torino, 1880. 8vo. 

Deir essere e del conoscere. Studii su Parmenide, Platone e 

Rosmini. Torino, \^11 . 4to. 

La Trinita e la Creazione, nuovi confronti tra Rosmini e S. Tom- 

maso . . . con un Cenno della risposta seconda al P. Cornoldi, e un* 
appendice sulla necessita di liberar la Chiesa dalla calunnia. Edizione 
prima. Torino, 1879. 8vo. 

C ASARTELLI (Louis Charles) Bishop of Salford. Dante and Rosmini, a 
lecture to the Dante Society of Manchester (March 9th, 1910). Re- 
printed from " The Ratcliffian ". Market Weighton, Yorks, [1910]. 
4to. 

A forgotten chapter of the Second Spring. [A paper read before 

the Manchester Branch of the Catholic Truth Society, and reprinted 
. . . from "The Harvest".] London, Market Weighton, \^%. 8yo. 

D. (F. C.) Teologo. Ragioni della condanna fatta dal S. Uffizio delle cosi 
dette XL Proposizioni di Antonio Rosmini esposte dal Teologo F. C. D. 
Firenze, 1889. 8vo. 

De-Vit (Vincenzo) Adria e le sue antiche epigrafi. [Vols. 8 and 9 of the 
*' Opere varie edite e inedite del V. De-Vit ".] Firenze, 1888. 2 vols. 
8vo. 

Quali Britanni abbiano dato il proprio nome all* Armorica in 

Francia, dissertazioni tre, con appendice. Edizione terza riveduta ed 
ampliata. [Vol. 10 of the "Opere varie edite e inedite del V. De- 
Vit".] Firenze, 1889. 8vo. 

FerrE' (Pietro Maria) Degli Universali secondo la teoria Rosminiana con- 
frontata . . . colla dottrina di San Tommaso d' Aquino e con quella di 
parecchi Tomisti e filosofi modemi con appendice di nove opuscoli di 
argomento affine. 6^^^^/^, 1880-86. 1 1 vols. 8vo. 

17 



248 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

FeRRE (Pietro Maria) Saint Thomas of Aquin and ideology. A dis- 
course read to the Accademia Romana, 18th August, 1870. Trans- 
lated by a Father of Charity [William Lockhart]. Second edition. 
London^ 1878. 8vo. 

[Hirst (Joseph)] Biography of Father Lx)ckhart. Reprinted, with addi- 
tions, from the autumn number of "The Ratcliflian ". Market Weigh- 
ton, 1893. 16mo. 

JaRVIS (Stephen Eyre) A history of Ely Place, of its ancient sanctuary, 
and of St. Ethelreda, its titular saint. A guide for visitors. Third 
edition. Market Weighton, 1903. 8vo. 

LaNZONI (Luigi) I nomi Eucaristici. Schizzi di meditazioni. Casale, 
1886. 12mo. 

Lockhart (William) The old religion ; or, how shall we find primitive 
Christianity ? A journey from New York to old Rome. Reprinted 
from '* Catholic Opinion ". Fourth edition. London, [n.d.]. 8vo. 

Vie d* Antonio Rosmini Serbati fondateur de I'lnstitut de la Charite. 

Traduit de T Anglais par M. Segond. Paris, 1889. 8vo. 

MezZERA (Guiseppe) Risposta al libro del padre G. M. Cornaldi inti- 
tolato II Rosminianismo Sintesi dell' ontologismo e del panteismo. 
Milam, 1882. 8vo. 

MOGLIA (Agostino) La filosofia di San Tommaso nelle scuole italiane. 
Piacenza, 1885. 8vo. 

MORANDO (Giuseppe) Le apparenti contraddizione di S. Tommaso : a 
proposito d'un articolo della " Revue de Philosophic '* sulla Psicologia 
dantesca. Lodi, 1908. 8vo. 

Esame critico delle XL Proposizioni Rosminiane, condaunate dalla 

S. R. U. Inquisizione : studi filosofico-teologici di un laico. Milano, 
1905. 8vo. 

II Rosminianismo e Tenciclica ** Pascendi **. Lodi, 1908. 8vo. 



NeDELEC (Louis) Cambria Sacra ; or, the history of the early Cambro- 
British Christians. London, 1879. 8vo. 

Pagan I (Giovanni Battista) The science of the Saints in practice. 
Third edition. London, 1903. 4 vols. 8vo. 

La vita di Antonio Rosmini scritta da un Sacerdote dell' Instituto 

della Carita. Torino, 1897. 2 vols. 8vo. 

The life of Antonio Rosmini- Serbati, translated from the Italian. 

London, [1906]. 8vo. 

La vita di Luigi Gentili sacerdote dell' Instituto della Carita. Roma, 

1904. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 249 

PaOLI (Francesco) Antonio Rosmini e la sua Prosapia. Monografia. 

Rovereto, 1880. 8vo. 

Delia vita di Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. Memorie. Torino and 

Rovereto, 1880-84. 2 vols, in 1. 8vo. 

PaROCCHI (Lucido Maria) Del lume dell' intelletto secondo la dottrina 
de' SS. dottori Agostino, Bonaventura e Tommaso d' Aquino opposta al 
sistema del soggettivismo propugnato dal Cardinal Parocchi nell' Indirizzo 
a PP. Leone XllI circa I'Enciclica Aeterni Patris. Torino, 1881. 
8vo. 

PURCELL (Edmund Sheridan) Life and letters of Ambrose Phillipps de 
Lisle. Edited and finished by Edwin de Lisle. London, 1900. 2 
vols. 8vo. 

Rosmini SerBATI (Antonio) Antropologia in servigio della scienza 
morale libri IV. Seconda edizione. Novara, 1847. 8vo. 

Antropologia soprannaturale. Opera postuma. Casale, 1884. 

3 vols. 8vo. 

Calendarietto spirituale ossia sentenze ascetiche di Antonio Ros- 
mini distribuite per tutti i giorni dell' anno. Casale, 1 883. 1 6mo. 

Catechismo disposto secondo I'ordine delle idee. Edizione VI. 

Torino, 1863. 16mo. 

Compendio di etica e breve storia di essa, con annotazioni di 

G. B. P. [i.e. G. B. Paoli]. Roma, 1907. 8vo. 

Conferenze sui doveri ecclesiastici. Opera inedita. Torino, \ 880. 

8vo. 

Discourses on moral and religious subjects selected from the published 

sermons of A. Rosmini and translated from the Italian by a member of 
the Institute. London, 1 882. 8vo. 

Della educazione cristiana libri tre. Edizione ritoccata dagli editori. 

Roma, 1900. 8vo. 

Epistolario completo. Casale Monferrato, 1887-94. 13 vols. 

8vo. 

Delle Cinque Piaghe della Santa Chiesa. Trattato dedicato al 

Clero Cattolico. Lugano, 1848. 8vo. 

Filosofia del diritto. Seconda edizione. [Vols. 19 and 20 of 

"Opere edite e inedite di A. Rosmini-Serbati"]. Intra, 1865-66. 
2 vols. 8vo. 

— ; — Filosofia della politica della naturale costituzione della societa 
civile. Rovereto, 1887. 8vo. 

Introduzione alia filosofia. Opere varie. Volume unico. [Vol. 1 

of ** Opere edite e inedite dell' abate A. Rosmini-Serbati.] Casale, 
1850. 8vo. 



250 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

ROSMINI SerBATI (Antonio) L*introduzione del Vangelo secondo Gio- 
vanni commentata. Libri tre. Torino^ 1882. 8vo. 

Sul principio, la legge dubbia non obbliga e sulla retta maniera di 

applicarlo lettere . . . con una Risposta di Monsignor Scavini ed una 
replica alia medesima. Casale, \ 850. 8vo. 

Letters (chiefly on religious subjects). London, V^\. 8vo. 

Logica libri tre. Seconda edizione eseguita sull* esemplare della 

prima usato e annotato dall* autore. Intra, 1867. 8vo. 

Massime di perfezione cristiana. Torino, 1883. 16mo. 

Maximes de perfection chretienne et explication du magnificat. 

Traduites de Titalien, avec preface et appendice par Ces. Tondini de 
Quarenghi. Paris, 1882. 8vo. 

Della missione a Roma negli anni 1 848-49 : commentario. Torino, 

1881. 8vo. 

Le nozioni di peccato e di colpa illustrate. Parte seconda. 

\Milano, 1843.] 8vo. 

The origin of ideas. Translated from the fifth Italian edition of the 

Nuovo Saggio suir Origine delle Idee. London, 1883-86. 3 vols. 
8vo. 

II sistema filosofico. Seconda edizione Torinese. Torino, 1911. 

8vo. 

The philosophical system. Translated, with a sketch of the author** 

life, bibliography, introduction, and notes by Thomas Davidson. London^ 

1882. 8vo. 

Psychology. [Translated from the Italian.] London, 1884-88. 

3 vols. 8vo. 

Questioni politico-religiose della giomata brevemente risolte . . . 

raccolte . . . dall* . . . Giuseppe Pagani. Torino, 1897. 8vo. 

II razionalismo che tenta insinuarsi nelle scuole teologiche, additato 



in vari recenti opuscoli anonimi. Torino, \ 882. 8vo. 

II Rinnovamento della filosofia in Italia del conte Terenzio Mamismi 

della Rovere ... a dichiarazione e conferma della teoria ideologica 
esposta nel '* Nuovo Saggio sull* Origine delle Idee *'. Quarta edizione. 
Lodi, 1910. 8vo. 

The ruling principle of method applied to education. Translated by 

Mrs. William Grey. [Heath's Pedagogical Library — 8.] London, 
[1887]. 8vo. 

Saggio storico-critico sulle categorie e la dialettica. Opera pos- 

tuma. Torino, 1883. 8vo. 

Scritti sul matrimonio. Roma, 1902. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 251 

ROSMINI SerBATI (Antonio) Scritti vari di metodo e di pedagogia. 
[Vol. 19 of *' Opere edite e inedite di A. Rosmini-Serbati.j Torino, 
1883. 8vo. 

Teosofia. (Opere postume). [Vols. 10-14 of "Opere edite e 

inedite di A. Rosmini-Serbati.] Torino e Intra, 1859-74. 5 vols. 
8vo. 

Theodicy : essays on divine providence. Translated with some 

omissionsfrom the Milan edition of 1845. Lotidon,\9\2. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Trattato della coscienza morale libri III. Edizione seconda riveduto 

dair autore. Milano, 1844. 8vo. 

MRS. EMMOTT. of Birkenhead. (In memory of the late Professor G. 
H. Emmott, of Liverpool University.) 

BaLUZE (£tienne) Capitularia regum Francorum. Parisiis, 1677. 2 vols. 
Fol. 

BrUNNER (Heinrich) Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte. Erster Band. [System- 
atisches Handbuch der Deutschen Rechtswissenschaft . . . herausgegeben 
von K. Binding.] Leipzig, 1887. 8vo. 

BrycE Qames) Viscount Bryce. Studies in history and jurisprudence. 
Oxford, 1901. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Butler (Charles) Horae Biblicae ; part the second : being a connected 
series of miscellaneous notes on the Koran, the Zend-Avesta, the Vedas, 
the Kings, and the Edda. [First edition.] \London\, 1802. 8vo. 

Horae juridicae subsecivae : a connected series of notes respecting 

the . . . literary history of the principal codes, and original documents 
of the Grecian, Roman, feudal, and canon law. London, 1804. 8vo. 

DaRESTE (Rodolphe) Etudes d'histoire du droit. Deuxieme edition. 
Bar4e'Duc, 1908. 8vo. 

England : Ejcchequer. Liber niger scaccarii. E codice calamo exarato 
. . . descripsit et nunc primus edidit T. Hearnius. Qui et cum duobus 
aliis codicibus MSS. contulit Wilhelmique etiam Worcestrii annates 
rerum Anglicarum subjecit. Oxonii, \ 728. 2 vols. 8vo. 

GiRAUD (Charles Joseph Barthelemy) Essai sur Thistoire du droit frangais 
au moyen age. Paris, 1846. 2 vols. 8vo. 

GlasSON (Ernest Desire) Histoire du droit et des institutions de la France. 
P^m, 1887-89. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Hardy (Ernest George) Roman law^s and charters. Translated, with in- 
troduction and notes, by E. G. Hardy. Oxford, 1912. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 
8vo. 

HeaRNSHAW (Fossey John Cobb) Leet jurisdiction in England especially 
as illustrated by the records of the court leet of Southampton, [South- 
ampton Record Society.] Southampton, 1908. 8vo. 



252 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Justinian I, Emperor of the East. Imperatoris Justiniani Institutionum 
libri quattuor. With introductions, commentary, and excursus by J. B. 
Moyle. Second edition. Oxford, 1890. 8vo. 

The digest of Justinian. Translated by C. H. Monro. Vol. 2. 

Cambridge, 1909. 8vo. 

The Institutes. Translated into ELnglish, with an index by J. B. 

Moyle. Second edition. Oxford, 1889. 8vo. 

Louis IX, King of France, Saint. Les Etablissementa de Saint Louis 
. . . avec une introduction et des notes, publies pour la Societe de 
THistoire de France, par P. Viollet. Paris, 1881-86. 4 vols. 8yo. 

Maine {Sir Henry James Sumner) Ancient law : its connection with the 
early history of society, and its relation to modern ideas. Fifth edition. 
London, 1874. 8vo. 

Normandy : Magni Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae sub Regibus Angliae. 
Opera Thomae Stapleton. Londini, 1 840-44. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Pollock {Sir Frederick) and MaITLAND (Frederick William) The 
history of Elnglish law before the time of Edward I. Cambridge, 1895. 
2 vols. 8vo. 

ROBY (Henry John) Roman private law in the times of Cicero and of the 
Antonines. Cambridge, 1902. 2 vols. 8vo. 

SeLDEN G^I^^) Opera omnia. . . . Collegit ac recensuit vitsun auctoris 
praefationes et indices adjecit D. Wilkins. Lo?idifii, 1 726. 3 vols, in 6. 
Fol. 

Viollet (Paul Marie) Droit prive et sources. Histoire du droit civil 
fran^ais. . . . Seconde edition du Precis de I'histoire du droit fran^ais 
corrigee et augmentee. Paris, 1893. 8vo. 

Droit prive et sources. Histoire du droit civil frangais. . . . 

Troisieme edition du Precis de I'histoire du droit francs corrigee et 
augmentee. Paris, 1905. 8vo. 

J. W. FARRAR, Esq., of Pendleton, Manchester. 

Robertson (William) The works. To which is prefixed an account of 
the life and writings of the author, by Dugald Stewart. London, 1840. 
8 vols. 8vo. 

THE REV. GEORGE WILSON FROGGATT, M.A., of Sunderland. 

BeRTRAND (Ernest) Une nouvelle conception de la Redemption. La 
doctrine de la justification et de la reconciliation dans le systeme theo- 
logique de Ritschl. Paris, \%9\. 8vo. 

SaBATIER (Louis Auguste) L'Apotre Paul. Esquisse d*une histoire de 
sa pensee. Strasbourg, 1870. 8vo. 

SaBATIER (Louis Auguste) Esquisse d*une philosophie de la religion 
d*apres la psychologie et I'histoire. Sixieme edition. Paris, 1901. 
8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 253 

THE REV. A. FULLER, M.A., of Sydenham Hill, London, S.E. 

BraMHALL (John) The works. With a life of the author and a collection 
of his letters. [Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology.] Oxford, 1842-45. 
5 vols. 8vo. 

BraNDES (H. B. Chr.) Das ethnographische Verhaltniss der Kelten und 
Germanen nach den Ansichten der Alten und den sprachlichen 
Uberresten. Leif^zig, 1857. 8vo. 

Brown (Robert) The miscellaneous botanical works. (Atlas of plates.) 
[Ray Society.] London, 1866-68. 3 vols. 8vo, and 4to. 

COSIN Go^»") The works. [Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology.] 
Oxford, 1843-55. 5 vols. 8vo. 

DiBDIN (Thomas Frognall) The library companion ; or, the young man's 
guide, and the old man's comfort, in the choice of a library. London, 
1824. 8vo. 

Draper (John William) History of the conflict between religion and 
science. Nineteenth edition. London, 1885. 8vo. 

Entomologist's Monthly Magazine: conducted by T. Blackburn, 

H. G. Knaggs, R. McLachlan, etc. London, X^^^A^b. 41 vols. 8vo. 

ESCHRICHT (Daniel Frederik), ReINHARDT (Johannes Theodor) and 
LiLLJEBORG (Wilhelm). Recent memoirs on the Cetacea. Edited by 
W. H. Flower. [Ray Society.] London, \ 866. 4to. 

GUENIN (Eugene) Dupleix d'apres des documents inedits tires des 
archives publiques ou privees de France et d' Angleterre. Paris, 1 908, 
4to. 

Hammond (Henry) The miscellaneous theological works. To which is 
prefixed, the life of the author, by John Fell. [Library of Anglo- 
Catholic Theology.] Oxford, 1847-50. 3 vols, in 4. 8vo. 

Hicks (George) Two treatises, on the Christian priesthood, and on the 
dignity of the episcopal order. Fourth edition. [Library of Anglo- 
Catholic Theology.] Oxford, 1847-48. 3 vols. 8vo. 

HiPPERT (T.) and LiNNIG (Joseph) Le peintre-graveur hollandais et 
beige du XIX™^ siecle. [A dictionary of artists.] Bruxelles, \ ^1^-19. 
4 vols. 8vo. 

Home (John) The history of the Rebellion in the year 1 745. London, 
1802. 4to. 

Homer. [Works.] Carmina. Recognovit et explicuit F. H. Bothe. 
Lipsiae, 1832-35. 6 vols, in 4. 8vo. 

KiDD (Benjamin) Social evolution. L^ondon, \ 896. 8vo. 

Marshall (Nathaniel) The penitential discipline of the primitive church, 
for the first four hundred years after Christ ; together with its declension 
from the fifth century downwards to its present state. A new edition. 
[Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology.] Oxford, \ 844. 8vo. 



254 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

NlTZSCH (Christian Ludwig) Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater. [Ray Society.] London, 1 867. 4to. 

OVIDIUS NaSO (Publius) Opera omnia, cum integris N. Heinsii, variorum 
notis: studio B. Cnippingii. Anistelodami , 1702. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Parker (William Kitchen) A monograph on the structure and develop- 
ment of the shoulder-girdle and sternum in the Vertebrata. [Ray 
Society.] London, 1867. 4to. 

Schmidt (Oscar) The doctrine of descent and Darwinism. Fifth edition. 
London, 1883. 8vo. 

Sclater (Philip Lutley) A monograph of the Jacamars and Puff-birds, or 
families Galbulidae and Bucconidae. London, [\ 87 9-d2]. 4to. 

SeBER (Wolfgang) Index vocabulorum in Homeri Iliade atque Odyssea 
caeterisque quotquot extant poematis. Editio nova auctior et emendatior. 
(Appendix ad Seberi indicem.) Oxonii, 1 780-82. 2 parts in 1 vol. 
8vo. 

Sophocles. Quae exstant omnia cum veterum grammaticorum scholiis 
. . . illustravit, . . . R. F. P. Brunck, . . . excerpta ex varietate 
lectionis quam, continet editio C. G. A. Erfurdtii. [Greek and Latin.] 
Londini, 1824. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Thorn DIKE (Herbert) The theological works. [Library of Anglo- 
Catholic Theology.] Oxford, 1844-56. 6 vols, in 10. 8vo. 

WaTERHOUSE (George Robert) A natural history of the Manmialia. 
London, 1846-48. 2 vols. 8vo. 

ZeUFS (Kaspar) Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstamme. Miinchen, 
1837. 8vo. 

DR. MERCIER GAMBLE, of Fallowfield, Manchester. 

Geographical, historical, and political description of the empire of 
Germany, Holland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Russia, Italy, Sicily, 
Corsica, and Sardinia. To which are added, statistical tables of all the 
States of Europe : translated from the German of J. G. Boetticher. 
London, 1800. 4to. 

MISS E. M. QELDART, of St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Bible : Greek. The Greek Testament : with a critically revised text : 
. . . and a critical and exegetical commentary by Henry Alford, Decin 
of Canterbury. London, \8bl-^\. 4 vols, in 5. 8vo. 

Vetus Testamentum Graece juxta LXX interpretes. Recensionem 

Grabiancim ad fidem Codicis Alexandrini aliorumque denuo recognovit 
. . . F. Field. Oxonii, 1859. 8vo. 

BIBLE: Hebrew. London, 1861. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 255 

BURDER (Samuel) Oriental customs : or an illustration of the Sacred 
Scriptures, by an explanatory application of the customs and manners of 
the eastern nations, and especially the Jews. Second edition. London^ 
1807. 2 vols. 8vo. 

FaiRBAIRN (Patrick) The typology of scripture: viewed in connection 
with the entire scheme of the divine dispensations. Third edition. 
Edinburgh, 1857. 2 vols. 8vo. 

ROLLIN (Charles) The ancient history of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, 
Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Grecians and Mace- 
donians. Translated from the French. The eighteenth edition, re- 
vised, corrected, and illustrated vsdth maps. London^ 1834. 6 vols. 
8vo. 

Suetonius TraNQUILLUS (Caius) Opera, et in ilia commentarius S. 
Pitisci. Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1 690. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Winer (Georg Benedict) A grammar of the New Testament diction : in- 
tended as an introduction to the critical study of the Greek New Testa- 
ment. Translated from the sixth enlarged and improved edition of the 
original by Edward Masson. Fifth edition. Edinburgh, 1864. 8vo. 

H. T. QERRANS, Esq., of Oxford. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science. Re- 
port of the fifty-fourth (-eighty-fourth) meeting of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science. London, 1885-1915. 31 vols. 8vo. 

Chemical Society of London. Annual reports of the progress of 

Chemistry for 1904 (-1910) issued by the Chemical Society. Vols. 
l-(-7). London, \^b-\\. 7 vols, in 3. 8vo. 

Journal. Vol. 67 (-Vol. 1 04). London, \^^bA^\'h, 39 vols. 8vo. 

Proceedings. Vol. XI, 1895 (-Vol. XXIX, 1913). London, 

1896-1914. 19 vols, in 6. 8vo. 

DryDEN (John) The works illustrated with notes, historical, critical, and 
explanatory, and a life of the author, by Sir Walter Scott, Bart. Re- 
vised and corrected by George Saintsbury. Edinburgh, 1882-93. 
18 vols. 8vo. 

Electrician. The Electrician : a weekly illustrated journal of electrical 
engineering, industry, and science. Vol. XLIl (second series), October 
28, 1898 (-Vol. LXVII, August 4, 1911). London, 1899-1911. 
26 vols. 4to. 

Wordsworth (William) The poetical works edited by William Knight. 
(The life of W. Wordsworth by W. Knight.) Edinburgh, 1882-89. 
1 1 vols. 8vo. 



256 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

R. EMMETT HAILWOOD, Esq., of Manchester. 

BURCKHARDT (John Lewis) Travels in Nubia. Second edition. Lon- 
don, 1822. 4to. 

Travels in Syria and the Holy Land. [Edited by W. M. Leake.J 

London^ 1822. 4to. 

THE MISSES A. and C. A. HANKINSON, of Woodlands Park. 
Altrincham. (In memory of their Brother, the late G. H. Han- 
kinson, Esq.) 

Cervantes SaavedRA (Miguel de) Don Quichotte de la Mancha, 
traduit de I'Espagnol par Florian ; ouvrage posthume. Paris, 1806. 
6 vols. 12mo. 

Holbein Society. The Holbein Society's facsimile Reprints. Man- 
chester, 1869-88. 16 vols. 4to and Fol. 

1. Les simulachres et historiees faces de la moit : commonly called "the Dance of 
Death". Translated and edited by H. Green. 1869. 

2. Holbein's Icones historiarum Veteris Testamenti. Edited by H. Green. 1869. 

3. The Mirrour of Majestie : or the badges of honour conceitedly emblazoned. Edited* 
by H. Green and J. Croston. 1870. 

4. Andreae Alciati emblematum fontes quatuor. Edited by H. Green. 1870. 

5. Andreae Alciati emblematum flumen abundans. Edited by H. Green. 1671. 

6. Grimaldi's funeral oration, January 19, 1550, for Andrea Alciati. Edited by H» 
Green. 1871. 

6. [Another copy.] 

7. The theatre of women. Designed by J. Ammon. Edited by A. Aspland. 1872. 

8. The Four Evangelists. Arabic and Latin. With woodcuts designed by A. Tempcsta.. 
Edited by A. Aspland. 1873. 

9. 10. 11. The triumphs of the Emperor Maximilian I. by Hans' Burgmair. Edited by 
A. Aspland. 1873-75. 3 vols. 

12. The fall of man. By Albrecht Altdorfer. Edited by A. Aspland : with an intro- 
duction by W. B. Scott. 1876. 

1 3. The Golden Legend. A reproduction from a copy in the Manchester Free Library.. 
With an introduction by A. Aspland. 1878. 

1 5. The adventures and a portion of the story of . . . Tewrdannckh. A reproductioa 
of the edition pnnled at Augiburg, in 1519. Edited by W. H. Rylands. 1884. 

16. A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. By Thomas Hariot.. 
A reproduction of the edition printed at Frankfort, in 1 590. Edited by W. H. Rylands. 
1888. 

MOLIERE (Jean Baptiste Poquelin de) (Euvres. Nouvelle edition. 
Londres, 1784. 7 vois. 12mo, 

H. L. HAYMAN, Esq. Per favour of Monsignor M. E. Carton de 
Wiart. 

MaLINES. Cavalcade religieuse a Toccasion du Jubile de 850 ans., cele- 
bre avec grande pompe en I'honneur de Notre Dame d' Hansw^yck a 
Malines. Pendant la derniere quinzaine du mois d'aout 1838. 
Malines [1838]. Obi. 8vo. 

J. D. HUGHES, Esq., of Manchester. 

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. De fide, spe, et charitate enchi- 
ridion ad Laurentium Urbis Romae Primicerium. Et ejusdem libellus 
de fide, et operibus, ex manuscriptis codicibus per Theologos Lovani- 
enses emendati. Lovanii, 1661. 12mo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 257 

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. De utilitate credendi, ad Hono- 
ratum liber unus. Ejusdem D. Augustini libellus de catechizandis 
rudibus. Lovanii, 1680. 12mo. 

EDWARD M. HUTTON, Esq., of Guildford, Surrey. 
Mill {]o\m Stuart) An examination of Sir William Hamilton's philosophy, 
and of the principal philosophical questions discussed in his writings. 
Third edition. London, 1 867. 8vo. 

A system of logic ratiocinative and inductive. Seventh edition. 

London, 1868. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Plato. The dialogues of Plato. Translated into English, with analyses 
and introductions by B. Jowett. Oxford, \%1\. 4 vols. 8vo. 

THE JOHN CRERAR LIBRARY, Chicago, USA. 

CHICAGO.— The John CrERAR Library. First (-twentieth) annual re- 
port for the year 1895 (-1914). Chicago, 1897-1915. 20 vols, in 2. 
8vo. 

Handbook. 1913. Chicago, 1913. 8vo. 

A list of books exhibited December 30, 1 90 7- January 4, 1908, in- 
cluding Incunabula and other early printed books in the Senn Collection. 
Chicago, 1907. 8vo. 

A list of books in the Reading Room, 1909. Chicago, 1909. 8vo. 

A list of books on industrial arts, October, 1903. Chicago, 1904. 

8vo. 

A list of books on the history of science, January, 191 1. Prepared 

by A. G. S. Josephson. Chicago, 1911. 8vo. 

A list of current medical periodicals and allied serials. Second 

edition, April, 1913. Chicago, 1913. 8vo. 

A list of current periodicals in the Reading Room, June, 1902. 

Chicago, 1902. 8vo. 

CHARLES JOHNSON, Esq., of Hampstead, London. 

itSCHYLUS. Quae supersunt edidit R. H. Klausen Volumen I. Orestea. 
[Greek.] [Bibliotheca Graeca . . . curantibus F. Jacobs et V. C. F. 
Rost. A. Poetarum, vol. vii.] Gothae et Erfordiae, 1833-35. 2 pts. 
in 1 vol. 8vo. 

Persae ad fidem manuscriptorum emendavit notas et glossarium adjecit 

C. J. Blomfield. Editio secunda. [Greek.] Cantabrigiae,\^\^. 8vo. 

Prometheus vinctus ad fidem manuscriptorum emendavit notas et 

glossarium adjecit C. J. Blomfield. Editio secunda. [Greek.] Canta- 
brigiae, 1812. 8vo. 

Septem contra Thebas ad fidem manuscriptorum emendavit notas et 

glossarium adjecit C. J. Blomfield. Editio sexta. [Greek.] Londini, 
1847. 8vo. 



258 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Cicero (Marcus Tullius) De oratore libri tres, ex editione J. A. Ernesti 
cum notis variorum. Accessit appendix ex notis Harlessii, Pearcii, 
Schiitzii, et aliorum excerpta a J. Greenwood. Londini, 1824. 8vo. 

Euripides. Opera omnia ; ex editionibus praestantissimis fldeliter recusa ; 
Latina interpretatione, scholiis antiquis, et eruditorum observationibus, 
illustrata: necnon indicibus omnigenis instructa. Glasguae, 1821. 
9 vols, in 13. 8vo. 

Potter (John Philips) Characteristics of the Greek philosophers. Socrates 
and Plato. London, \W!). 8vo. 

SCH WEIGH AEUSER G^an) Lexicon Herodoteum. Argentoraii et Pari- 
siis, 1 824. 2 vols, in 1 . 8vo. 

Sophocles. Tragoediae septem ; et deperditarum fragmenta, ex editioni- 
bus et cum annotatione integra Brunckii et Schaeferi. . . . Accedunt 
notae C. G. A. Erfurdtii. [Greek and Latin.] Oxonii, 1820. 3 vols. 
8vo. 

Oedipus Coloneus, e recensione P. Elmsley. Accedit Brunckii et 

aliorum annotatio selecta, cui et suam addidit editor. [Greek.] Oxonii^ 
1823. 8vo. 

Oedipus Rex. Ex recensione et cum notis Brunckii. Accedunt 

Scholia Graeca, textui nunc primum subjecta. Londini, 1818. 8vo. 

ThucYDIDES. De bello Peloponnesiaco libri VIII. Cum versione 
Latina, scholiis Graecis, et virorum doctorum animadversionibus. Elx 
editione J. C. Gottleberi, C. L. Baveri. [Greek.] Londini, 1819. 
3 vols. 8vo. 

DR. WALTER E. LANG, State Hospital, Allentown, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A. 

GRESSET Oean Baptiste Louis) Oeuvres. Edition stereotype, d'apres 
le procede de F. Didot. Paris, 1817. 2 vols. 12mo. 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, Liverpool. 

AnNETT (H. E.), DuTTON (J. Everett) and ELLIOTT G- H.) Report of 
the Malaria Expedition to Nigeria. [Liverpool School of Tropical 
Medicine.— Memoir 3.] Liverpool, 1901. 4to. 

BaLY (E. C. C.) The spectroscope in relation to chemistry. An inaugural 
lecture delivered at the University of Liverpool, 4th November, 1910. 
Liverpool, 1911. 8vo. 

Barnard (Francis Pierrepont) English antiquities and the Universities. 
An inaugural lecture delivered on invitation to the Chair of Mediaeval 
Archaeology in the University of Liverpool. Liverpool, 1909. 8vo. 

Bate (Frank) The Declaration of Indulgence, 1672. A study in the 
rise of organised dissent. With an introduction by C. H. Firth. 
Liverpool, 1908. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 259 

BeaTTIE (J. M.) Bacteriology : a review and an outlook. An inaugural 
lecture delivered before the University of Liverpool on Friday, December 
6. 1912. Liverpool, 1913. 8vo. 

BOYCE (Rubert) The anti-malaria measures at Ismaila (1902-1904.) 
[Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.— Memoir 12.] Liverpool, 
1904. 4to. 

Yellov^ fever prophylaxis in New Orleans, 1905. [Liverpool 

School of Tropical Medicine.— Memoir 19]. Liverpool, [1906]. 8vo. 

BOYCE (Rubert), EVANS (Arthur) ^«^ CLARKE (H. Herbert) Report on 
the sanitation and anti-malarial measures in practice in Bathurst Conakry 
and Freetown. February, 1905. [Liverpool School of Tropical 
Medicine. — Memoir 14.] Liverpool, 1905. 4to. 

BrEINL (Anton) Memoir XXI of the Liverpool School of Tropical 
Medicine by A. Breinl [and others]. Liverpool, [1906]. 8vo. 

CaMPAGNAC (Ernest Trafford) Training of teachers. An inaugural 
lecture delivered upon election to the Chair of Education in the Uni- 
versity of Liverpool. Liverpool^ 1 909. 8vo. 

Clarke (Henry H.) Studies in tuberculosis. Liverpool, [1909]. 8vo. 

DUTTON (J. Everett) Report of the Malaria Expedition to the Gambia, 

1902. By J. E. Dutton, and an appendix by F. V. Theobald. 
[Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. — Memoir 10.] Liverpool, 

1903. 4to. 

Dutton (J. Everett) and Todd (John L.) First report of the Trypano- 
somiasis Expedition to Senegambia (1902). With notes by H. E. 
Annett and an appendix by F. V. Theobald. [Liverpool School of 
Tropical Medicine. — Memoir 11.] Liverpool, \9h3. 4to. 

The na'^ure of human tick-fever in the eastern part of the Congo 

Free State ith notes on the distribution and bionomics of the tick. 
[Liverpool school of Tropical Medicine. — Memoir 17.] Liverpool, 
[1905]. 4co. 

Reports of the expedition to the Congo, 1 903- 1 905. With descrip- 



tions of two new Dermanyssid Acarids by Robert Newstead. [Liver- 
pool School of Tropical Medicine. — Memoir 18.] Liverpool, [1906]. 
8vo. 

Dutton Q- Everett), Todd Qohn L.) ^«^ Christy (Cuthbert) Reports 

of the Trypanosomiasis Expedition to the Congo, 1903-1904. With a 
comparison of the Trypanosomes of Uganda and the Congo Free State. 
[Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. — Memoir 13.] Liverpool, 

1904. 4to. 

Giles (G. M.) General sanitation and anti-malarial measures in Sekondi, 
the Goldfields and Kumassi, and a comparison between the conditions of 
European residence in the Gold Coast with those existing in India. 
[Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Memoir 15.] Liverpool, 

1905. 4to. 



260 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY ' 

Glynn (Ernest) The study of disease in the domesticated animals, its im- 
portance to the community, with a plea for an animal hospital. An in- 
augural lecture delivered before the University of Liverpool, on Friday, 
February 21,1913. Liverpool, 1 91 3. 8vo. 

Harrison (A.) Women's industries in Liverpool. An enquiry into the 
economic effects of legislation regulating the labour of women. Liver- 
pool, 1904. 8vo. 

HOOLE (Charles) A new discovery of the old art of teaching schoole, in 
four small treatises. Edited with bibliographical index by E. T. 
Compagnac. Liverpool, 1913. 8vo. 

Kelly (James Fitzmaurice) The relations between Spanish and English 
literature. Liverpool, 1910. 8vo. 

Lewis (W. C. McC.) Physical chemistry and scientific thought. An 
inaugural lecture delivered at the University of Liverpool on Friday, 
16 January, 1914. Liverpool, 1914. 8vo. 

Liverpool. A history of municipal government in Liverpool from the 
earliest times to the Municipal Reform Act of 1835. Part 1. A nar- 
rative introduction by Ramsay Muir. Part 2. A collection of charters 
and other documents, transcribed ... by Edith M. Piatt. Liverpool, 
1906. 4to. 

Liverpool Vestry Books, 1681-1834. Edited by Henry Peat. 

Vol. 1 . With an introduction by W. Lyon Blease. Vol. 2. With 
an introduction by the editor. Liverpool, 1912-15. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Liverpool University : Otia Merseiana. The publication of the Arts 
Faculty of University College, Liverpool. Vol. 1 (-4). Liverpool, 
1899-1904. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Primitiae. Essays in English literature by students of the University 

of Liverpool. Liverpool, \9\2. 8vo. 

The University of Liverpool Students' Song Book. Liverpool, 

1913. 8vo. 

The Thompson Yates (and Johnston) Laboratories Report, edited 

by Robert Boyce and C. S. Sherrington. Liverpool, 1900-1905. 7 pts. 
4to. 

Vol. 2. Vol. 3, pt. ii. Vol. 4, pt. i.-ii. Vol. 5. pt. i.-ii. Vol. 6, pt. ii. 

The Town Planning Review Quarterly. The Journal of the De- 
partment of Civic Design at the School of Architecture of the University 
of Liverpool. Edited by P. Abercrombie in collaboration wdth C. H. 
ReillyandS. D. Adshead. Vol. 1 (-5). Liverpool, 1910-14. 5 vols. 
8vo. 

The University of Liverpool Engineering Society Journal. A re- 
cord of the transactions of the Society together wath papers and articles 
on engineering matters. Vol. 1 (-3). Liverpool, 1912-15. 7 pts. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOU VAIN LIBRARY 261 

Liverpool University. The Bio-Chemical Journal, edited by B. 
Moore and E. Whitley. Vol. 1, No. 1, January 1906 (-Vol. 6, Part 
4, October, 1912). Liverpool, [1906-12]. 37 pts. in 6 vols. 8vo. 

Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology issued by the Institute of 

Archaeology. Edited by J. L. Myres in collaboration with F. P. 
Barnard [and others]. Vol. 1, September, 1908 (-Vol. 7, July. 1916). 
Liverpool, [1 908- 16]. 7 vols. 8vo. 

Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology issued by the Liverpool 

School of Tropical Medicine. Vol. 1 (-8). {Liverpool, 1907-15.] 
8 vols, in 36 pts. 8vo. 

Liverpool Town Planning and Housing Exhibition, 1914. 

Transactions of Conference held March 9-1 3, 1914, at Liberty Buildings, 
Liverpool. Edited by S. D. Adshead and Patrick Abercrombie. 
Liverpool, [1914]. 8vo. 

MacCuNN (John) Liverpool addresses on ethics of social work. Liver- 
pool, 1911. 8vo. 

MaCKAY (John Macdonald) A miscellany presented to John Macdonald 
Mackay, LL.D., July, 1914. (Addresses to J. M. Mackay, Rathbone 
Professor of History, 1884-1914, in University College, Liverpool, and in 
the University of Liverpool, upon the occasion of his retirement.) Liver- 
pool, 1914. 8vo. 

A new university. Liverpool, 1914. 8vo. 

Mair (Alexander) Philosophy and reality. An inaugural lecture delivered 
in the University of Liverpool. Liverpool, 191 1 . 8vo. 

Malay Peninsula. Fasciculi Malayenses. Anthropological and 
zoological results of an expedition to Perak and the Siamese Malay States, 
1901-1902, undertaken by Nelson Annandale and Herbert C. Robinson. 
Liverpool, 1903-07. 7 pts. 4to. 

Moore (J. E. S.) and Walker (C. E.) The Maiotic process in mam- 
malia. [Cancer Research Laboratories (Mrs. Sutton Timmis Memorial 
Fund) University of Liverpool.] Liverpool, 1906. 4to. 

MOUNTMORRES, Viscount. Maize, cocoa, and rubber. Hints on their 
production in West Africa. Lectures delivered at the Lagos Agri- 
cultural Show of 1906. Liverpool, 1907. 8vo. 

MuiR (James Ramsay Bryce) Introduction to the history of municipal 
government in Liverpool. Liverpool, 1906. 8vo. 

William Roscoe. An inaugural lecture on election to the Andrew 

Geddes and John Rankin Chair of Modern History in the University of 
Liverpool. Liverpool, 1906. 8vo. 

Myres (John L.) The value of ancient history. A lecture delivered at 
Oxford, May 13, 1910. Liverpool, [1910]. 8vo. 

PallinJ(W. a.) a treatise on epizootic lymphangitis. With illustrations. 
Second edition. Liverpool, [\90^, 8vo. 



262 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

PatERSON (Andrew Melville) The human sternum. Three lectures de- 
livered at the Royal College of Surgeons, England, November, 1903. 
Liverpool, 1904. 4to. 

PeTSCH (Robert) The development of the German drama in the nineteenth 
century. An inaugural lecture delivered before the University of Liver- 
pool, on Friday, October 25, 1912. Liverpool, 1912. 8vo. 

RiCHET (Charles) Anaphylaxis. Authorised translation by J. Murray 
Bligh. With a preface by T. R Bradshaw. Liverpool, 1913. 8vo. 

Ross (Ronald) First progress report of the campaign against mosquitoes in 
Sierra Leone. [Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. — Memoir 5,. 
part 1.] Liverpool, 1901. 8vo. 

Malarial fever : its cause, prevention, and treatment. Ninth edition 

revised and enlarged. [Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. — 
Memoir I.] Liverpool, 1902. 8vo. 

Ross (Ronald), AnNETT (H. E.), and AuSTEN (E. E.) Report of the 
Malaria Expedition of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and 
Medical Parasitology. [Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. — 
Memoir 2.] Liverpool, 1900. 4to. 

Stephens (J. W. W.) rt;«^ Christophers (S. R.) The practical study 

of malaria and other blood parasites. [Liverpool School of Tropical 
Medicine.] Liverpool, 1903. 8vo. 

Strong (Herbert Augustus) Quintilian the Roman schoolmaster and some 
of his probable view^s on modern education. An inaugural address de- 
livered in the Arts Theatre of the University of Liverpool, on Saturday, 
October 17th, 1908, to the Liverpool Guild of Education. Liverpool^ 
1908. 8vo. 

Thomas (H. Wolferstan) Report on Trypanosomes, Trypanosomiasis, and 
, sleeping sickness, being an experimental investigation into their pathology 

and treatment. And a description of the tissue changes by Anton Breinl. 

[Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. — Memoir 16.] Liverpool, 

1905. 4to. 

WeiGHTMAN (Jane) The language and dialect of the later old English 
poetry. Being the thesis offered for the examination of B. A. with honours 
in the School of English Language and Philology in the University of 
Liverpool. Liverpool, 1907. 8vo. 

WyLD (Henry Cecil) Law in language. An inaugural address delivered 
at University College, Liverpool, on the third of March, 1 900. Liverpool, 
1900. 8vo. 

The neglect of the study of the English language in the training of 

teachers. Criticisms and suggestions. Liverpool, 1 904. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 263 

THE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Luton. Per Thos. E. Maw, Esq., Librarian. 

Foster Qoseph) Some feudal coats of arms from heraldic rolls 1298- 
1418, illustrated with 830 zinco etchings from effigies, brasses, and coats 
of arms. London, 1902. 8vo. 

HaYDEN (Arthur) The furniture designs of Thomas Chippendale arranged 
by J. Munro Bell, with an introduction and critical estimate by A. 
Hayden. London, 1910. 4to. 

OLIVER MARSDEN, Esq., of Leeds. 

GeLLERT (Christian Fuerchtegott) Sammtliche Fabeln und Erzahlungen. 
[Inverse.] In drei Biichern. Berlin, \^{)6. '8vo. 

THE MITCHELL LIBRARY, Glasgow. Per S. A. Pitt, Esq., Lib- 
rarian. 

Beech ER (Edward) The papal conspiracy exposed ; or, the Romish cor- 
poration dangerous to the political liberty and social interests of man. 
With preface by Rev. James Begg. Edinburgh, 1856. 8vo. 

BeLLORI (Giovanni Pietro) Le antiche lucerne sepolcrali figurate raccolte 
dalle cave sotterranee, e grotte di Roma . . . disegnate ... da P. 
Santi Bartoli . . . con Tosservazioni di G. P. Bellori. Roma, 1 729. 
Fol. 

BOSWORTH Ooseph) A dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon language. Lon- 
don, 1838. 8vo. 

Bridges (Frederick) Phrenology made practical and popularly explained. 
Third edition. London, Liverpool [printed], [1876]. 8vo. 

BroDIE (Sir Benjamin Collins) Psychological inquiries : in a series of 
essays, intended to illustrate the mutual relations of the physical 
organization and the mental faculties. [By Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie.] 
London, 1854. 8vo. 

Buchanan (Joseph Rodes) Outlines of lectures on the neurological 
system of anthropology, as discovered, demonstrated, and taught in 1841 
and 1842. Cincinnati, 1854. 8vo. 

Clarke (Edward Daniel) Travels in various countries of Europe, Asia, 
and Africa. Fourth edition. London, 1816-18. 8 vols. 8vo. 

Cobb (Lyman) The evil tendencies of corporal punishment as a means of 
moral discipline in families and schools, examined and discussed. New 
York, 1847. 8vo. 

Combe (George) Elements of phrenology. Sixth edition, improved and 
enlarged. Edinburgh, 1845. 8vo. 

Essays on phrenology, or an inquiry into the principles and utility 

of the system of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, and into the objections made 
against it. Edinburgh, \^\9. 8vo. 

l8 



264 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Cunningham (William) Historical theology. A review of the principal 
doctrinal discussions in the Christian Church since the apostolic age. 
Edinburgh, 1863. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Dean (Amos) Lectures on phrenology : delivered before the Young 
Men's Association for mutual improvement of the City of Albany. 
Albany, 1834. 1 2 mo. 

Draper (John William) Human physiology, statical and dynamical ; or, 
the conditions and course of the life of man. Lo7idon, 1 856. 8vo. 

Gall (Franz Joseph) [The wrorks]. [The Phrenological Library, edited 
by Nahum Capen. Vols. 1-6.] Boston, U.S.A. ^ 1835. 6 vols. 
8vo. 

Griffiths (Samuel) Griffiths* guide to the iron trade of Great Britain, 
with plates and illustrations. London, 1873. 8vo. 

HaMPSON (R. T.) Origines Patriciae ; or a deduction of European titles 
of nobility and dignified offices, from their primitive sources. London^ 
1846. 8vo. 

HeyWOOD (James) Academic reform and University representation. 
London^ 1860. 8vo. 

Hill (Micaiah) and CORNWALLIS (Caroline Frances) Two prize essays 
on juvenile delinquency. London, 1853. 8vo. 

HOBBES (Thomas) Opera philosophica quae Latine scripsit : omnia in unum 
corpus nunc primum collecta, studio et labore G. Molesworth. Londini, 
1839-45. 5 vols. 8vo. 

Howe (Samuel Gridley) On the causes of idiocy, etc. Edinburgh, \ 858. 
8vo. 

International Penitentiary Congress, London. Prisons and 

reformatories at home and abroad, being the Transactions of the Interna- 
tional Penitentiary Congress held in London, July 3-13, 1872. Edited 
by Edwin Pears. London, 1872. 8vo. 

Jackson (John William) Ethnology and phrenology, as an aid to the 
historian. London, 1863. 8vo. 

Lancashire Public School Association. National education not 

necessarily governmental, sectarian, or irreligious, shown in a series of 
papers, read at the meetings of the Lancashire Public School Associa- 
tion. London, Manchester, 1750. 8vo. 

Leonard (William A.) Hindu thought : a short account of the religious 
books of India, wdth some remarks concerning their origin, character, and 
influence. And other essays. Glasgow, 1875. 8vo. 

MaUDSLEY (Henry) Body and mind : an inquiry into their connection and 
mutual influence, specially in reference to mental disorders. An enlarged 
and revised edition. To which are added psychological essays. Lon- 
don, 1873. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 265 

MaXSE (Frederick Augustus) The causes of social revolt. A lecture, etc. 
London, 1873. 8vo. 

NOTT (Josiah Clark) Types of mankind : or ethnological researches, . . . 

illustrated by selections from the inedited papers of S. G. Morton, . . . 

and by additional contributions from L. Agassiz, W. Usher, and H. S. 

Patterson. By J. C. Nott and G. R. Gliddon. London, Philadelphia, 

1854. 8vo. 

Pascal (Blaise) Oeuvres. La Haye, 1779. 5 vols. 8vo. 

Philosophy. The philosophy of phrenology simplified. By a member 
of the Phrenological and Philosophical Societies of Glasgow. Glasgow^ 
1836. 12mo. 

Potter (Alonzo) The school and the schoolmaster. A manual for the 
use of teachers, employers, trustees, inspectors, etc., of common schools. 
In two parts. Part I. by A. Potter. Part II. by G. B. Emerson. 

Boston [U.S. A.l\^3>, 8vo. 

Quarterly Review. The Quarterly Review. IVol. 1, 1809- Vol. 

73,1844.] London, \^\2^^A. 73 vols. 8vo. 
*/ Wanting, vol. 60. 

Richardson (Charles) A new dictionary of the English language. 
New edition. London, 1 858. 2 vols. 4to. 

ROUTH (Martin Joseph) Reliquiae sacrae ; sive, auctorum fere jam perdi- 
torum secundi tertiique saecuh post Christum natum quae supersunt. 
Editio altera. Oxonii, 1846-48. 5 vols. 8vo. 

Russell (Michael) Polynesia : or, an historical account of the principal 
islands in the South Sea, including New Zealand. Second edition. 
Edinburgh, 1843. 8vo. 

Schiller (Johann Christoph Friedrich von) Sammtliche Werke. StutU 
gart und Tubingen, 1847. 12 vols, in 6. 8vo. 

SiLJESTROM (Pehr Adam) The educational institutions of the United 
States, their character and organization. Translated by Frederica 
Rowan. London, 1853. 8vo. 

TheLWALL (Algernon Sydney) The iniquities of the opium trade with 
China; being a development of the main causes which exclude the 
merchants of Great Britain from the advantages of an unrestricted com- 
mercial intercourse with that vast empire. London, 1839. 8vo. 

Turner (Sharon) The history of the Anglo-Saxons from the earliest 
period to the Norman Conquest. Philadelphia, 1841. 2 vols. 8vo. 

TyndaLL (John) Contributions to molecular physics in the domain of 
radiant heat. London, 1872. 8vo. 

Weld (Charles Richard) A history of the Royal Society, with memoirs 
of the presidents. Compiled from authentic documents. London, \ 848. 
2 vols. 8vo. 



266 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

MURRAY MARKS, Esq., of Brompton, London, S.W. 

PiNELLI (Maffeo) BibliothecaPinelliana. A catalogue of the . . . library 
of Maffei Pinelli . . . sold by auction, on Monday, March 2, 1 789. 
. . . [Londo», 1789]. 8vo. '^ 

MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY OF THE LATE SIR CHARLES 
NICHOLSON, Bart. Per C. W. Sutton, Esq., M.A. 

ADIMARI (Lodovico) Marquis. Satire, con illustrazione etc. Londra^ 
1788. 12mo. 

Alder (Jacob Georg Christian) Nori Testamenti versiones Syriacae sim- 
plex Philoxeniana et Hierosolymitana. Denuo examinatae et ad fidem 
codicum manuscriptorum bibliothecarum Vaticanae, Angelicae, As- 
semanianae, Mediceae, Regiae aliarumque novis observationibus atque 
tabulis aere incisis illustratae. Hafniae, \ 789. 4to. 

AdRICHOMIUS (Christianus) Theatrum Terrae Sanctae et Biblicarum 
historiarum cum tabulis eeographicis aere expressis. Coloniae Agrip- 
pinae, 1590. Pol. 

AFFb (Ireneo) Vita di Pierluigi Farnese primo duca di Parma, Piacenza 
e Guastalla. [Edited by Count P. Litta.] Milano,\^l\. 8vo. 

AlfIERI (Vittorio) Coimt. Quindici Tragedie. DalF editore A. Mon- 
tucci. Edinborgo, 1806. 3 vols. 8vo. 

*Amr Ibn Al *Abd Ibn Sufyan Al Bakri called Tarafah. 

Tarafae Moallaca cum Zuzenii scholiis. Textum ad fidem codicum 
Parisiensium diligentur emendatum Latine vertit, vitam poetae accurate 
exposuit, selectas Reiskii annotationes suis subjunxit, indicem Arabicum 
addidit J. VuUers. [Arabic and Latin.] Bonnae ad Rhenum, 1829. 
2 pts. in 1 vol. 4to. 

AnVILLE (Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d') Compendium of ancient geo- 
graphy, translated from the French. Illustrated, with maps. London^ 
1810. 2 vols. 8vo. 

ApOLLODORUS AtHENIENSIS. Apollodori . . . Bibliothecae libri 
tres, ad codd. mss. lidem recensiti a C. G. Heyne. Goettingae, 1 782- 
83. 4 vols. 8vo. 

AppIAN. Romanarum historiarum quae supersunt. Graece et Latine, 
cum indicibus. Parisiis^ 1 840. 8vo. 

Aristophanes. Comoediae et perditarum fragmenta, ex nova recensione 
G. Dindorf. Accedunt Menandri et Philemonis fragmenta auctiora et 
emendatiora. Graece et Latine, cum indicibus. Parisiis, 1838. 
8vo. 

Aristotle. The rhetoric, poetic, and Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle, 
translated from the Greek. By Thomas Taylor. London, 1818. 
2 vols. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 267 

ArRIAN. Arriani Anabasis et Indica . . . emendavit . . . Fr. Diibner. 
Reliqua Arriani, et scriptorum de rebus Alexandri M. fragmenta collegit. 
Pseudo-Callisthenis historiam fabulosam . . . nunc primum edidit . . . 
C. Miiller. Parisiis, 1846. 3 pts. in 1 vol. 8vo. 

BeMBO (Pietro) Cardinal. Carmina quinque illustrium poetarum P. 
Bembi, A. Naugerii, B. Castillionii, J. Casae, et A. Politiani, additis J. 
Sadoleti carminibus ; J. B. Amalthei quinque selectissimis eclogis ; B. 
Lampridii et M. A. Flaminii ineditis quibusdam. Bergomi, 1753. 
8vo. 

BeNEDICTUS (Alexander) II fatto d*arme del Tarro fra i Principi Italiani, 
et Carlo Ottavo re di Francia, insieme con I'assedio di Novara, tradotto 
per L. Domenichi. Vinegia, 1549. 8vo. 

BenSCH (Ottomar) Rerum seculo quinto decimo in Mesopotamia gestarum 
librum e codice Bibliothecae Bodleianae Syriaco. Edidit et interpre- 
tatione Latina illustravit O. Behnsch. [Syriac and Latin.) Vratis- 
laviae, 1838. 4to. 

Bible.— Syriac and English. Some pages of the Four Gospels re- 
transcribed from the Sinaitic Palimpsest, with a translation of the whole 
text by Agnes Smith Lewis. London, 1 896. 4to. 

Bible.— English. The Holy Bible translated from the Latin Vulgate. 
The stereotype edition. Dublin, 1825. 8vo. 

BinNART (Martinus) Dictionarium Teutonico-Latinum novum, sive big- 
lotton amplificatum. . . . Nunc denuo emendatum atque multis vocibus, 
quae desiderabantur, locupletatum, studio et diligentia J. de Wilde. 
Amstelaedami, 1719. 8vo. 

BiOGRAPHIE. Biographie de tous les ministres, depuis la constitution de 
1791 jusqu'a nos jours. Deuxieme edition. [By L. Gallois.j Paris, 
1825. 8vo. 

BOPP (Franz) Uber den Einfluss der Pronomina auf die Wortbildung im 
Sanskrit und den mit ihm verwandten Sprachen. Berlin, 1832. 4to. 

Boulton (S. B.) The Russian Empire : its origin and development. 
London, 1882. 8vo. 

BouRGOING (Jean Francois de) Historical and philosophical memoirs of 
Pius the Sixth, and of his pontificate, down to the period of his retire- 
ment into Tuscany. Translated from the French. fAnon.l London, 
1799. 2 vols. 8vo. 

BraUNIUS (Joannes) Selecta sacra libri quinque. Amsteladami, 1700. 
4to. 

British Museum. Select Papyri in the Hieratic Character, from the 
collections of the British Museum, with prefatory remarks [by S. Birch. 
Edited by E. Hawkins]. London, 1841-60. 2 pts. in 4. Fol. 



268 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

BUFFON (Georges Louis Le Clerc) Comie de. Natural history of birds^ 
fish, insects, and reptiles. [By BufFon.] (Supplementary volume con- 
taining a description of . . . birds . . . selected and arranged by 
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BURHAN Al-DIn, AL-ZaRNUJI. Enchiridion studiosi. Ad fidem 
editionis Relandianae nee non trium codd. . . . Arabice edidit, Latine 
yertit . . . et scholia Ibn-Ismaelis selecta . . . adjecit . . . vocalibus 
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Fleischer. [Arabic and Latin.] Lipsiae, 1838. 4to. 

BURNOUF (Emile)Dictionnaireclassique sanscrit-fran^aisou sont coordonnes, 
revises completes les travaux de Wilson, Bopp, Westergaard, Johnson, 

etc par E Burnouf . . . avec la collaboration de L. Leupol. 

Paris, 1865. 8vo. 

BUSINI (Giovanni Battista) Lettere a B. Varchi sugli avvenimenti dell' 
assedio di Firenze estratte da un codice della Biblioteca Palatina. Pisa, 
1822. 8vo. 

Busk (Mrs, William) The history of Spain and Portugal. From B.C. 1000 
toA.D. 1814. London, ]S33. 8vo. 

BuXTORFIUS (Joannes) Lexicon Chaldaicum, Talmudicum et Rabbinicum 
... in lucem editum a J. Buxtorfio Filio. Basileae, 1 640. Fol. 

CaLLIMACHUS. Hymni, epigrammata, et fragmenta. Ex recensione T. 
J. G. F. Graevii, cum ejusdem animadversionibus. Accedunt N. Fris- 
chlini, H. Stephani . . . commentarius, et annotationes E. Spanhemii. 
Ultrajecti,\b91. 2 vols. 8vo. 

CaNINA (Luigi) Indicazione topografica di Roma antica. Quarta edizione. 
Roma, 1850. 8vo. 

Clarendon (Edward Hyde) Earl of. The life of Edward Earl of 
Clarendon. (The continuation of the life, being a continuation of his 
history of the Grand Rebellion ... to 1667.) Written by himself. 
Oxford, \T)9. 3 vols. 8vo. 

State papers commencing from the year MDCXXI, containing the 

materials from which his history of the Great Rebellion was composed. 

Oxford, MifJ. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Corpus InSCRIPTIONUM LaTINARUM. . . . Volumen primum. (In- 
scriptiones Latinae antiquissimae ad C. Caesaris mortem . . . edidit Th. 
Mommsen.) Berolini, 1863. Fol. 

Cowley (Abraham) The works : consisting of those which were formerly 
printed, and those which he designed for the press. The ninth edition. 
To which are added, some verses, never before printed. London, 1689- 
1700. 3pts. in 1 vol. Fol. 

CreBILLON (Prosper Jolyot de) Oeuvres. Paris, an. X (1802). 3 vols, 
in 1. 12mo. 



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DaMM (Christian Tobias) Novum lexicon Graecum etymologicum et reale ; 
. . . editio de novo instructa . . . cura J. M. Duncan. Glasguae^ 
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Lexicon Pindaricum. Excerpsit et justa serie disposuit H. Hunting- 
ford. Londini, 1814. 8vo. 

David, ben Joseph Kimchi. Hebraicarum institutionum libri IIII, Sancte 
Pagnino Lucensi authore, ex R. D. Kimhi priore parte ^*)73T2 , . . . 
fere transcripti. Lutetiae Parisiorum, 1 549. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 4to. 

Da VI LA (Enrico Caterino) Historia delle guerre civili di Francia. Londra^ 
1755. 2 vols. 4to. 

DEFENSE. Defense des Resumes historiques. [By Felix Bodin.] Paris^ 
' 1824. 12mo. 

Demosthenes. The orations, delivered on occasions of public delibera- 
tion. Together with the orations of Aeschines and Demosthenes on the 
Crow^n Translated into English by T. Leland. London^ 1770-71. 
3 vols, in 1. 4to. 

DenINA (Carlo Giovanni Maria) Delle rivoluzioni d'ltalia libri venticinque. 
Veneziti^\^\i^, 6 vols. 8vo. 

Dickinson (Edmund) Delphi Phoenicizantes, sive, tractatus, in quo 
Graecos, quicquid apud Delphos celebre erat . . . e Josuae historia, 
scriptisque sacris effinxisse . . . ostenditur. Oxoniae^ 1655. 2 pts. in 
1 vol. 12mo. 

Dictionary. A new^ and general biographical dictionary ; containing 
an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most 
eminent persons in every nation. A new edition, greatly enlarged and 
improved. [Edited by W. Tooke.] London^ \ 798. 1 5 vols. 8vo. 

Diogenes LaERTIUS. De vitis, dogmatibus et apophthegmatibus clarorum 
philosophorum libri X. Graece et Latine. . . . Seorsum excusas Aeg. 
Menagii in Diogenem observationes auctiores habet volumen II. . . . 
Ainstelaedami^ 1692. 2 vols. 4to. 

— ■ — De clarorum philosophorum vitis, dogmatibus et apophthegmatibus 
libri decem. Ex Italicis codicibus nunc primum excussis recensuit C. 
G. Cobet. [Greek and Latin.] Parisiis, 1850. 8vo. 

DiONYSIUS HaLICARNASSENSIS. De structura orationis liber. Ex re- 
censione Jacobi Uptoni. Editio tertia. [Greek and Latin.] Londini, 
1 747. 8vo. 

DiONYSIUS PerIEGETES. Periegesis sive Dionysii geographia emendata 
et locupletata, additione geographiae hodiernae Graeco carmine pariter 
donatae. . . . Ab E. Wells. Editio secunda. Oxonii, \ 709. 8vo. 

DiX-HUIT (Le) BruMAIRE, ou tableau des evenemens qui ont amene cette 
journee ; des faits qui I'ont accompagnee, et des resultats qu'elle doit 
avoir. [By V. Lombard de Langres.] Paris, [1800]. 8vo. 



270 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

DOELLINGER (Johann Joseph Ignaz von) Muhammed's Religion nach ihrer 
inneren Entwicklung und ihrem Einflusse auf das Leben der Volker. 
Eine historische Betrachtung. Regensburg^ 1838. 4to. 

DOMBAY (Franz Lorenz von) Grammatica linguae Persicae, accedunt 
dialogi, historiae, sententiae, et narrationes Persicae. Vindobonae^ 1 804. 
4to. 

Du CaNGE (Charles Dufresne) Seigneur. Glossarium manuale ad scrip- 
tores mediae et infimae Latinitatis, ex magnis glossariis C. Du Fresne, 
. . . et Carpentarii in compendium redactum. Halae, 1772-84. 
6 vols. 8vo. 

EbeRS (Joannes) Vollstandiges Worterbuch der Englischen Sprache fiir 
die Deutschen. Leipzig, 1 793-94. 2 vols. 8vo. 

The new and complete dictionary of the German and English 

languages, composed chiefly after the German dictionaries of Adelung 
and of Schw^an. Elaborated by J. Ebers. Leipzig, I 796-99. 3 vols. 
8vo. 

Euripides. Fragmenta, iterum edidit perditorum tragicorum omnium 
nunc primum collegit F. G. Wagner. Parisiis, 1846. 8vo. 

Eustace (John Chetwode) A classical tour through Italy An. MDCCCII. 
Third edition, revised and enlarged. ' Londo?t, 1815. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Fat'h Ibn Muhammad Ibn *Ubaid Allah Ibn Khakan (Abu 

Nasr) Specimen criticum, exhibens locos Ibn Khacanis de Ibn Zeidonno, 
ex MSS. codicibus . . . editos, Latine redditos et annotatione illustratos, 
quod . . . publicae quaestioni objectum defendit H. E. Weyers. 
lArabic and Latin.] Lugduni Batavorum, \Q)3\. 4to. 

FOOTE (Samuel) The dramatic works, to which is prefixed a life of the 
author. Lofidon, 1 797. 2 vols. 8vo. 

GaLLUZZI (Jacopo Riguccio) Storia del granducato di Toscana. Nuova 
edizione. Firenze, 1822. 11 vols, in 5. 8vo. 

GatAKER (Thomas) Opera critica. Dissertatio de N. Instrumenti stylo ; 
Cinnus, sive adversaria miscellanea; adversaria miscellanea posthuma. 
Marci Antonini de rebus suis libri XII, [Greek and Latin] commentario 
perpetuo explicati. Opuscula varia. Trajecti ad Rhenmn, 1697-98. 
2 vols, in 1. Fol. 

German ICUS Caesar. Germanici Caesaris . . . Reliquiae quae extant 
omnes, ex recensione et cum notis J. C. Orellii. . . . Quibus etiam 
scholia Vetera auctoris incerti, ex editione Buhliana, adjunxit J. A. Giles. 
Londini, 1838. 8vo. 

GeSENIUS (Friedrich Heinrich Wilhelm) Anecdota Orientalia edidit et 
illustravit G. Gesenius. Fasciculus primus, Carmina Samaritana continens. 
[No more published.] Lipsiae, 1 824. 4to. 

Thesaurus philologicus criticus linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae 

Veteris Testamenti. Editio altera. Lipsiae, 1829-58. 3 vols, in 2. 
4to. 



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GlANNONE (Pietro) Dell* istoria civile del regno di Napoli libri XL. 
Napoli.Mlh. 4 vols. 4to. 

GrOTIUS (Hugo) Epistolae ineditae, quae ad Oxenstiernas . . . aliosque 
. . . e Gallia missae . . . nunc prodeunt ex Musaeo Meermanniano. 
Harlemi, 1806. 8vo. 

GUICCIARDINI (Francesco) Delia istoria d'ltalia libri XX. Friburgo, 
1775-76. 4 vols. 4to. 

Istoria d'ltalia, alia miglior lezione ridotta dal G. Rosini. Pisa, 

1819-20. 10 vols, in 5. 8vo. 

GUIZOT (Francois Pierre Guillaume) Histoire du Protectorat de Richard 
Cromwell et du retablissement des Stuart (1658-1660). Paris, 1856. 
2 vols, in 1 . 8vo. 

HaUG (Martin) Essay on the Pahlavi language. From the Pahlavi-Pazand 
glossary, edited by Destur Hoshangji and M. Haug. Stuttgart, 1870. 
8vo. 

Hermann Qohann Gottfried Jacob) Opuscula. Lipsiae, 1827-34. 
5 vols. 8vo. 

Herodotus. Historiarum libri IX, recognovit. . . . G. Dindorfius. 
Ctesiae Cnidii et chronographorum, Castoris, Eratosthenis, etc. frag- 
menta dissertatione et notis illustrata a C. Miillero. Graece et Latine 
cum indicibus. Parisiis, 1844. 8vo. 

HesIOD. Quae exstant. Ex recensione T. Robinsoni, cum . . . notis 
J. G. Graevii lectionibus et D, Heinsii introductione. Curante C. F 
Loesnero. [Greek and Latin.] Lipsiae, \ 11^. 8vo. 

HOEFER (Carl Gustav Albert) De Prakrita dialecto libri duo. Berolini, 
1836. 8vo. 

HUPFELD (Hermann Christian Carl Friedrich) Exercitationes Aethiopicae 
sive observationum criticarum ad emendandam rationem grammaticae 
Semiticae specimen primum. [No more published.] Lipsiae, 1825. 
4to. 

Justin, Martyr, Saint. Opera quae feruntur omnia. Recensuit . . . 
J. C. T. Otto. Jenae, 1847-50. 3 vols, in 2. 8vo. 

Lassen (Christian) Gymnosophista sive Indicae philosophiae documenta. 
Collegit, edidit, enarravit C. Lassen. Voluminis I. fasciculus I. Isvara- 
crishnae Sankhya-Caricam tenens. [No more published.] Bonnae ad 
Rhenum, 1832. 4to. 

Le Baker (Galfridus) de Swinbroke. Chronicon. Edited with notes by 
E. M. Thompson. Oxford, 1889. 4to. 

Le Beau (Charles) Storia del Basso Impero. (Grande collezione storica 
di Rolhn, Crevier, Le Beau con aggiunte, note, osservazioni e schiari- 
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272 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

LeNGERKE (Caesar von) Commentatio critica de Ephraemo Syro S. S. 
interprete. Qua simul versionis Syriacae, quam Peschito vocant, lectiones 
variae ex Ephraemi commentariis collectae exhibentur. Halis Saxonum^ 
1828. 4to. 

Leopold (Emestus Fridericus) Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum in libros 
Veteris Testamenti. Lipsiae, 1832. 16mo. 

LONGUS. Pastoralium de Daphnide et Chleo, libri quatuor. Ex recen- 
sione et cum animadversionibus J. B. C. D'Ansse de Villoison. [Greek 
and Latin.] Parisiis, 1 778. 8vo. 

LUCANUS (Marcus Annaeus) La Pharsale de Lucain. Traduction de 
Marmontel avec le texte en regard. Nouvelle edition, revue . . . et 
du Supplement de T. May. Paris, 1816. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Lucan's Pharsalia. Translated into English verse by Nicholas 

Rowe. The third edition. Londofi, 1 753. 2 vols. 8vo. 

LUCIAN. Quomodo historia conscribenda sit. Edidit ac notis illustravit 
Franciscus Riollay. [Greek and Latin.] Oxonii, \11(:^. 8vo. 

LUKMAN, called Al-Hakhn. Locmani fabulae . . . annotationibus 
criticis et glossario explanatae ab Aemilio Roedigero. Editio altera 
aucta el emendata. Halis Saxonum, \ 839. 4to. 

MacDONALD (William Bell) Sketch of a Coptic grammar adapted for self- 
tuition. [Lithographed.] Edinburgh, 1856. 8vo. 

Marin I (Giovanni Battista) L*Adone, poema heroico, con gli argomenti del 
conte Sanvitale e Tallegorie di Don Lorenzo Scoto. Amsterdam^ et 
Parigi, 1678. 4 vols. 12mo. 

La Sampogna, divisa in idillii favolosi, e pastorali. Venetia, 1 674. 

2 pts. in 1 vol. 12mo. 

MaRIUS, de Calasio. Concordantiae Sacrorum Bibliorum Hebraicorum : 
(Edidit G. Romaine. Fr. Lucae Guaddini . . . de Hebraicae Linguae 
origine, praestantia, et utilitate, . . . opusculum.) Londini, 1747-49. 
4 vols. Fol. 

Martinez de MorETIN (Manuel) Estudios filologicos : 6 sea examea 
razonado de las dificultades principales en la lengua espaiiola. Londres, 
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Mason (William) Poems. A nev^ edition. York, Ml \. 8vo. 

Maurice (Thomas) The modern history of Hindostan : comprehending 
that of the Greek Empire of Bactria, . . . commencing at the period of 
the death of Alexander, and intended to be brought down to the close 
of the eighteenth century. London^ \ 802-09. 2 vols. 4to. 

MaXIMIANUS, Etruscus. Cornelii Maximiani Etrusci Galli elegiae sex, 
ex recensione et cum notis Wernsdorfii. Iterum excudi fecit J. A- 
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Mesh A, King of Moab, Die Inschrift des Konigs Mesa von Moab . . . 
erklart von T. Noldeke. Mit einer lithographierten Tafel. Kiel, 1 870. 
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Die Siegessaule Mesa's Konigs der Moabiter. Ein Beitrag zur 

Hebraischen Alterthumskunde von K. Schlottmann. Oster-Programm 
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MfoERAY (Francois Eudes de) Histoire de France depuis Faramond 
jusqu'au regne de Louis le Juste. Nouvelle edition. Paris ^ 1685. 
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Montesquieu (Charles de Secondat de) Baron. Reflections on the 
causes of the grandeur and declension of the Romans. By the Author 
of the Persian Letters. Translated from the French. [Anon.] Lon- 
don, 1734. l6mo. 

MONUMENTA. Monumenta sacra et profana ex codicibus praesertim 
Bibliothecae Ambrosianae opera Collegii Doctorum ejusdem. . . . 
Edidit A. M. Ceriani. Tomus I-III. Mediolani, 1861-64. 3 vols, in 1. 
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Mueller (Carl Otfried) Antiquitates Antiochenae, commentationes duae. 
Cum tab. ii. Gottingae, 1839. 4to. 

MUELLERUS (Carolus) and (Theodorus) Fragmenta historicorum Grae- 
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et prolegomenis illustrarunt, indice plenissimo instruxerunt C. et. T. 
Mulleri. Accedunt Marmora Parium et Rosettanum, hoc cum Letronnii» 
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NUGAE. Nugae venales, sive, thesaurus ridendi et jocandi. [«./], 
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OpPERT (Julius) Histoire des empires de Chaldee et d'Assyrie d'apres 
les monuments, depuis Fetablissement definitif des Semites en Mesopo- 
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Parian Chronicle. The Parian chronicle, or the chronicle of the 
Arundelian Marbles, with a dissertation concerning its authenticity. 
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Paris. Histoire de I'Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres 
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PaUSANIUS. Descriptio Graeciae. Recognovit et praefatus est L. Din- 
dorfius. Graece et Latine cum indice locupletissimo. Parisiis^ 1 845. 
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PeRTICARI (Giulio) Opere. Bologna, X^ll-Ih, 3 vols. 8vo. 



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PhiLO JuDAEUS. Omnia quae extant opera. Ex S. Gelenii et aliorum 
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PhiLOSTRATUS. Philostratorum et Callistrati opera. Recognovit A. 
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Himerii Sophistae declamationes, accurate excusso codice optimo et 
unico XXII declamationum emendavit Fr. Diibner. Parisits, 1849. 
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PiCTET (Adolphe) Les origines indo-europeennes ou les Aryas primitifs, 
essai de paleontologie linguistique. Paris, 1859-63. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Pindar. Carmina et fragmenta ; cum lectionis varietate et annotationibui, 
a C. G. Heyne. [Greek and Latin.] Oxonii, 1807-09. 3 vols, in 2. 
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Plato. Dialogi III. Quibus praefiguntur Olympiodori vita Platonis et 
Albini in dialogos Platonis introductio. Opera et studio G. Etwall. 
[Greek and Latin.] Oxonii,\ll\. 8vo. 

Euthydemus et Gorgias. Recensuit, vertit, notasque suas adjecit, 

M. J. Routh. [Greek and Latin.] Oxonii^ \ 784. 8vo. 

Plutarch. Scripta moralia. Graece et Latine. Parisiis, 1841. 2 
vols. 8vo. 

Vitae. Secundum codices Parisinos, recognovit Theod. Doehner. 

Graece et Latine. Parisiis, 1 846. 2 vols. 8vo. 

POLYBIUS. Historiarum reliquiae Graece et Latine cum indicibus. 
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PONTANUS (Johann Isaac) Rerum Danicarum historia, libris X. . . . 
Accedit chorographica regni Daniae tractusq. ejus universi borealis 
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PORTUS (Aemilius) Dictionarium lonicum Graeco-Latinum, quod indicem 
in omnes Herodoti libros continet. Editio nova. Oxom'z, ]S]0. 8vo. 

Potter Qohn) Archaeologia Graeca, or the antiquities of Greece : a new 
edition ; with a life of the author, by Robert Anderson ; and an 
appendix ... by George Dunbar. Edinburgh, 1827. 2 vols. 8vo. 

PSALMANAAZAAR (George) An historical and geographical description 
of Formosa, an island subject to the Emperor of Japan. London, 1 704. 
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PsELLUS (Michael Constantine) De operatione daemonum dialogus. Gilber- 
tus Gaulminus MoHnensis primus Graece edidit et notis illustravit. 
[Greek and Latin.] Kiloni, 1 688. 1 6mo. 

RaPHELENGIUS (Franciscus) the Elder. Lexicon Arabicum. (T. 
Erpenii observationes in lexicon Arabicum.) Leidae, 1613. 2 pts. in 
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RaYNAL (Guillaume Thomas Fran<;ois) A philosophical and political history 
of the settlements and trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies. 
Translated from the French, by J. Justamond. The third edition, revised 
and corrected. Dublin, 1 779. 4 vols. 8vo. 

RegNARD (Jean Francois) GeuYres. Paris, \^\1, 5 vols, in 2. 12mo. 

ReINECCIUS (Christianas) Janua Hebraeae linguae Veteris Testamenti in 
qua lotius codicis Hebraei vocabula una cum radicibus et . . . analysi 
comparent . . . accessit una cum grammatica lexicon Hebraeo- 
Chaldaicum. Lipsiae, 1756. 8vo. 

ROEDIGER (Emil) De origine et indole Arabicae librorum V. T. histori- 
corum interpretationis libri duo. Halis Saxonum, 1 829. 4to. 

Rosa (Salvatore) Satire con le note D. Anton Maria Salvini ed'altri. 
Londra, 1787. 12mo. 

ROSEMUELLER (Ernst Friedrich Carl) Institutiones ad fundamenta linguae 
Arabicae. Accedunt sententiae et narrationes Arabicae una cum glos- 
sario Arabico- Latino. Lipsiae, 1818. 4to. 

Rosin I (Giovanni) Saggio sulle azioni e sulle opere di Francesco Guicci- 
ardini. Pisa, 1820. 8vo. 

SaDANANDA YogInDRA. Die Philosophie der Hindu. Vaedanta- 
Sara von Sadananda, Sanskrit und Teutsch zum erstenmal iibersetzt, und 
mit Anmerkungen und Ausziigen aus den Scholien des Rama-Krishna- 
Tirtha begleitet von O. Frank. Munchen, 1835. 4to. 

SalusTE Du BarTAS (Guillaume de) Du Bartas his Devine Weekes and 
Workes translated ... by Josuah Sylvester. Now fourthly corr : & 
augm. London, 1613. 4to. 

SaNNAZARO (Jacopo) L' Arcadia, colle antiche annotazioni di T. Porcacchi, 
insieme colle Rime dell* autore, ed una Farsa del medesimo non istampata 
altre volte. Napoli, 1 758. 2 vols, in 1 . 1 6mo. 

SaRPI (Paolo) Opere [Vols. 1-5.] Helmstat, 1761-63. 5 vols. 4to. 

*»* Wants Vols. 6-8. 

SaVARY (Claude Etienne) Letters on Greece ; being a sequel to Letters 
on Egypt. Translated from the French. London, \ 788. 8vo. 

SCHAAF (Carl) Lexicon Syriacum Concordantiale omnes Novi Testamenti 
Syriaci voces . . . complectens, etc. Editio secunda, priori emendatior 
et auctior. Lugduni Batavorum, MM , 4to. 

SCHULTENS (Albert) Sylloge dissertationum philologico-exegeticarum, a 
diversis auctoribus editarum, sub praesidio A. Schultens, J. J. Schultens 
et N. G. Schroeder defensarum. Leidae et Leovardiae, M12-lb. 
2 vols. 4to. 

Scriptores. Scriptores Latini in usum Delphini cum notis variorum 
variis lectionibus conspectu codicum et editionum et indicibus locupletis- 
simis accurate recensiti, cura et impensis A. J. Valpy. Londini, 1819- 
30. 157 vols, in 146. 8vo. 



276 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

SebASTIANI (Leopoldo) Storia universale dell* Indostan dall* anno 1 500 
avanti G. C. . . . infino all' anno 1819 dell* era nostra. Roma, 1821. 
8vo. 

SeCTANUS {(^\\i\.yxi) pseud, [i.e., Lodovico Sergardi]. Satire con aggiunte 
e annotazione. Londra, \ 786. 1 2mo. 

SelDEN Oohn) De jure naturali et gentium, juxta disciplinam Ebraeorum 
libri septem. London, 1640. Fol. 

SOLDANI G^copo) Satire di J. Soldani, P. J. Martelli, L. Patemo, F. 
Berni ed altri. Londra, 1 787. 1 2mo. 

Sophocles. Sophoclis, ut volunt, Clytaemnestrae fragmentum. Post 
editionem Mosquensem principem edi curavit notis adjectis C. L. Struve. 
Rigae, 1807. 8vo. 

Tragoediae. Recensuit et brevibus notis instruxit C. G. A. 

Erfurdt. [Greek.] Lipsiae, \%ll-lb. 7 toIs. in 4. 8vo. 

The Tragedies, translated from the Greek, ... by T. Francklin. 

A new edition, carefully revised and corrected. London, 1788. 8vo. 

StORR (Gottlob Christian) Opuscula Academica ad interpretationem 
librorum sacrorum pertinentia. Tubingae^M'^A^^'b. 3 vols. 8vo. 

StRABO. Rerum geographicarum libri XVII. Accedunt huic editioni, 
ad Casaubonianam III expressae, notae integrae G. Xylandri, Is. Casau- 
boni . . . Subjiciuntur chrestomathiae. Graec. et Lat. Amstelaedami, 
1707. 2 vols, in 3. Fol. 

Theocritus. Reliquiae. Graece et Latine. Eldidit T. Kiessling. 
Lipsiae, 1819. 8vo. 

Scholia in Theocritum. Auctiora reddidit et annotatione critica 

instruxit Fr. Diibner. Scholia et paraphrases in Nicandrum et Oppianum, 
partim nunc primum edidit . . . U. C. Bussemaker. Parisiis, 1849. 
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TheoGNIS. Reliquiae. Novo ordine disposuit, commentationem criticam 
et notas adjecit F. T. Welcker. [Greek.] Francofurti ad Moenum, 
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ThiESSE (Leon) Resume de Thistoire de Pologne. Bruxelles, 1824. 
12mo. 

Resume de I'histoire de Pologne. Seconde edition. Paris, 1 824. 

12mo. 

Thomas, a Monk of Ely, Liber Eliensis, ad fidem codicum variorum. 
Vol. 1. [Edited by D.J. Stewart.] London, 1848. 8vo. [No more 
published.] 

ThUCYDIDES. Historia belli Peloponnesiaci cum nova translatione Latina 
F. Haasii. [Greek and Latin.] Accedunt Marcellini vita, Scholia 
Graeca emendatius expressa, et indices nominum et rerum. Parisiis, 
1842. 8vo. 



RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY 277 

TiRABOSCHI (Girolamo) Storia della letteratura Italiana. Seconda 
edizione modenese. Modena, \l^l-9^. 9 vols, in 10. 4to. 

TiSCHENDORF (Lobegott Friedrich Constantin) De Israelitarum per mare 
rubrum transitu. Lipsiae, \^^1 , 8vo. 

TURPIE (David MacCalman) A manual of the Chaldee language: con- 
taining a grammar of the Biblical Chaldee and of the Targums, and a 
Chrestomathy, consisting of selections from the Targums, with a vocabu- 
lary, adapted to the Chrestomathy. London and Edinburgh, 1879. 
8vo. 

VaRCHI (Benedetto) Opere. Milano, 1803-04. 7 vols, in 4. 8vo. 

VerTOT D'AubEUF (Rene Aubert de) Histoire des revolutions de 
Portugal. Paris, [1796]. 8vo. 

Histoire des revolutions de la republique romaine. Paris, [1 796] . 

3 vols. 8vo. 

Histoire des revolutions de Suede. (Histoire de la derniere revolu- 
tion de Suede, arrivee le 19 Aout 1772. Pour servir de suite a celle 
deVertot.) Paris,\\l%\. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Vs^VOLOJSKY (N. S.) Dictionnaire geographique-historique de TEmpire 
de Russie. Moscou, 1813. 2 vols, in 1. 8vo. 

WaGENER (Samuel Christoph) Die Gespenster. Kurze Erzahlungen aus 
dem Reiche der Wahrheit. (Neue Gespenster. Erster Theil.) Berlin, 
1799-1801. 5 vols. 8vo. 

YetSIRAH, Book of. Das Buch Jezira, die alteste kabalistische Urkunde 
der Hebraer. Hebraisch und Teutsch. Herausgegeben von J. F. von 
Meyer. Leipzig, 1830. 4to. 

BREVET LIEUT.-COLONEL JOHN P. NICHOLSON, Litt.D., Re- 
corder-in- Chief, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

Nicholson (John Page) Catalogue of library of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 
J. P. Nicholson, relating to the War of the Rebellion. 1861-1866. 
Philadelphia, 1914. 8vo. 



Note. — Such has been the pressure upon our space in the present 
issue that we have been reluctantly compelled to hold over the second 
half of this list of contributions for inclusion in the next issue. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS TO 
THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 

The classification of the items in this list is in accordance with 
the main divisions of the " Dewey Decimal System," and in the 
interest of those readers, who may not be familiar with the system, it 
may be advisable briefly to point out the advantages claimed for this 
method of arrangement. 

The principal advantage of a classified catalogue, as distinguished 
from an alphabetical one, is that it preserves the unity of the subject, 
and by so doing enables a student to follow its various ramifications 
with ease and certainty. Related matter is thus brought together, and 
the reader turns to one sub- division and round it he finds grouped 
others which are intimately connected with it. In this way new lines 
of research are often suggested. 

One of the great merits of the system employed is that it is easily 
capable of comprehension by persons previously unacquainted with it. 
Its distinctive feature is the employment of the ten digits, in their 
ordinary significance, to the exclusion of all other symbols — hence the 
name, decimal system. 

The sum of human knowledge and activity has been divided by 
Dr. Dewey into ten main classes — 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. These 
ten classes are each separated in a similar manner, thus making 1 00 
divisions. An extension of the process provides 1 000 sections, which 
can be still further sub-divided in accordance with the nature and 
requirements of the subject. Places for new subjects may be provided 
at any point of the scheme by the introduction of new decimal points. 
For the purpose of this list we have not thought it necessary to carry 
the classification beyond the hundred main divisions, the arrangement 
of which will be found in the " Order of Classification " which 

follows : — 

278 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 279 
ORDER OF CLASSIFICATION. 



ooo 


General Works. 


500 


Natural Science. 


OIO 


Bibliography. 


510 


Mathematics. 


020 


Library Economy. 


520 


Astronomy. 


030 


General Cyclopedias. 


530 


Physics. 


040 


General Collections. 


540 


Chemistry. 


050 


General Periodicals. 


550 


Geology. 


060 


General Societies. 


560 


Paleontology. 


070 


Newspapers. 


570 


Biology. 


080 


Special Libraries. Polygraphy. 


580 


Botany. 


090 


Book Rarities. 


590 


Zoology. 


100 


Philosophy. 


600 


Useful Arts. 


no 


Metaphysics. 


610 


Medicine. 


120 


Special Metaphysical Topics. 


620 


Engineering. 


130 


Mind and Body. 


630 


Agriculture. 


140 


Philosophical Systems. 


640 


Domestic Economy. 


150 


Mental Faculties. Psychology. 


650 


Communication and Commerce. 


160 


Logic. 


660 


Chemical Technology. 


170 


Ethics. 


670 


Manufactures. 


180 


Ancient Philosophers. 


680 


Mechanic Trades. 


190 


Modern Philosophers. 


690 


Building. 


200 


Religion. 


700 


Fine Arts. 


210 


Natural Theology. 


710 


Landscape Gardening. 


220 


Bible. 


720 


Architecture. 


230 


Doctrinal Theol. Dogmatics. 


730 


Sculpture. 


240 


Devotional and Practical. 


740 


Drawing, Design, Decoration. 


250 


Homiletic. Pastoral. Parochial. 


750 


Painting. 


260 


Church. Institutions. Work. 


760 


Engraving. 


270 


Religious History. 


770 


Photography. 


280 


Christian Churches and Sects. 


780 


Music. 


290 


Non-Christian Religions. 


790 


Amusements. 


300 


Sociolog:y. 


800 


Literature. 


310 


Statistics. 


810 


American. 


320 


Political Science. 


820 


English. 


330 


Political Economy. 


830 


German. 


340 


Law. 


840 


French. 


350 


Administration. 


850 


Italian. 


360 


Associations and Institutions. 


860 


Spanish. 


370 


Education. 


870 


Latin. 


380 


Commerce and Communication. 


880 


Greek. 


390 


Customs. Costumes. Folk-lore. 


890 


Minor Languages. 


400 


Philology. 


900 


History. 


410 


Comparative. 


910 


Geography and Description. 


420 


English. 


920 


Biography. 


430 


German. 


930 


Ancient History. 


440 


French. 


940 


.Europe. 


450 


Italian. 


950 




Asia. 


460 


Spanish. 


960 


£ 


Africa. 


470 


Latin. 


970 


- 



North America. 


480 


Greek. 


980 


w 
^ 


South America. 


490 


Minor Languages. 


990 




^OcEANicA and Polar Regions. 



19 



280 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

800 LITERATURE . general. 

AnECDOTA OXONIENSIA. Texts, documents, and extracts chiefly from 
manuscripts in the Bodleian and other Oxford Hbraries. Oxford^ 1914. 
4to. In progress. R 8206 

iv. Mediaeval and modern series: 14. Map (W) W. Map: De nugis curialium. 
Edited by M. R. James. . . . 

BiBLIOTHEQUE LiTTERAiRE DE LA RENAISSANCE. (Publiee sous la 

• • direction de . . . Pierre de Nolhac et Leon Dorez.) Pans, \ 9017. 

. \ 8vo. In progress. R 1 4357 

Nouvelle se'rie. 

3. Courteault (P.) G. de Malvyn, magistral et humaniste bordelais, 1545 P-1617 : e'tude 
biographique et litt^raire. Suivie de harangues, poesies et lettres inedites. 

DeLEPIERRE (Joseph Octave) Supercheries litteraires, pastiches, sup- 
positions d*auteur, dans les lettres et dans les arts. Londres, 1872. 
4to, pp. 328. R 3791 1 

Tableau de la litterature du centon, chez les anciens et chez les 

modernes. Londres, 1874-75. 2 vols. 4to. R 37910 

DUBROCA (Louis) L'art de lire a haute voix, suivi de I'application de ses 
principes a la lecture des ouvrages d'eloquence et de poesie. Nouvelle 
edition entierement refondue . . . augmentee d'une derniere partie con- 
sacree a la poesie dramatique et a l'art theatral. Paris, 1 824. 8vo. 
pp. xvij, 535. R 31297 

HerforD (Charles Harold) The permanent power of English poetry. . . . 
Manchester, 1902. 4to, pp. 30. R 36405 

MaCDONNEL (D. E.) a manual of quotations, from the ancient, modern, 
and oriental languages, including law phrases, maximsf proverbs, and 
family mottoes. By E. H. Michel sen. . . . Forming a new and . . . 
enlarged edition of Macdonnel's Dictionary of quotations. London, 
1856. 8vo. pp. vii. 308. R 30307 

MUENCHENER BeITRAEGE zur Romanischen und EngHschen Philologie. 
1-3. Herausgegeben von . . . H. Breymann. 4-11. Herausgegeben 
von . . . H. Breymann und E. Koeppel. 12-54. Herausgegeben von 
H. Breymann und J. Schick. Erlangen & Leipzig, 1890-1912. 54 
vols. 8vo. R 34648 

1. Ungemach (H.) Die Quellen der fiinf ersten Chester plays. — 1890. 

2. Ackermann (G. C. R.) Quellen, Vorbilder, Stoffe zu Shelley's poetischen Werken. 
1. Alastor, 2. Epipsychidi.on. 3. Adonais. 4. Hellas, — 1890. 

3. Rauschmaier (A.) Uber den figiirlichen Gebrauch der Zahlen im Allfranzosischen. 
— 1892. 

4. Hartmann (G.) Merope im italienischen und franzosiscKen Drama. — 1892. 

5. Albert (A. C.) Die Sprache Philippes de Beaumanoir in seinen poetischen Werken, 
eine Lautuntersuchung. — 1 893. 

6. Peters (R.) P. Scarron's "Jodelet duelliste" und seine spanischen Quellen. Mit 
einer Einleitung : die Resultate der bisherigen Forschung iiber den spanischen Einfluss auf das 
franzosische Drama des xvii Jahrhunderts. — 1893. 

7. Child (C. G.) J. Lyly and euphuism.— 1894. 

8. 1 4. Kuebler (A.) Die suffixhaltigen romanischen Flumamen Graubundens, soweit sie 
jetzt noch dem Volke bekannt sind. 2 vols. — 1894-98. 




CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 281 

800 LITERATURE: GENERAL. 

9. Swallow (J. A.) Methodism in the light of the English literature of the last century. 
—1895. 

10. Rosenbauer (A.) Die poetischen Theorien der Plejade nach Ronsard und Dubcllay. 
Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Renaissance poetik in Frankreich. — 1895. 

11. Koeppel (E.) Quellen-studien zu den Dramen B. Jonson's, J. Marston's und 
Beaumont's und Fletcher's. — 1895. 

12. Klein (F.) Der Chor in den wichtigsten Tragodien der franzosischen Renaissance. — 
1897. 

13. Fcst (O.) Der Miles gloriosus in der franzosischen Komodie von Beginn der Re- 
naissance bis zu Moliere.— 1897. 

14. See 8. 

16. Reinsch (H.) B. Jonson's Poetik und seine Beziehungen zu Horaz. — 1899. 

17. Molenaar (H.) R. Bums* Beziehungen zur Litteratur. — 1899. 

18. Mulert (A.) P. Comeille auf der englischen Biihne und in der englischen Uber- 
setzungs-literatur des siebzehnten Jahrhunderts. — 1900. 

19. Lydgate (J.) Lydgate's horse, goose, and sheep. Mit Einleitung und Anmcr- 
kungen. Herausgegeben von . . . M. Degenhart. — 1900. 

20. Koehler (F.) Die Allitteration bei Ronsard.— 1901. 

21. Dekker (T.) The pleasant comedie of Old Fortunatus. Herausgegeben nach dem 
Drucke von 1600 von . . . H. Scherer. — 1901. 

22. Buchetmann (E.) J. de Rotrou's Antigone und ihre Quellen. Ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte des antiken Einflusses auf die franzosische Tragodie des xvii. Jahrhunderts. — 1901. 

23. R. A., Gent. The Valiant Welshman. By R. A. Gent. [i.e. R. Armin]. Nach 
dem Drucke von 1615 herausgegeben von ... V. Kreb. — 1902. 

24. Boehm (C.) Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Einflusses Seneca's auf die in der Zeit von 
1 552 bis 1 562 erschienenen franzosischen Tragodien. — 1 902. 

25. Maurus (P.) Die Wielandsage in der Literatur.— 1902. 

26. Holl (F.) Das politische und religiose Tendenzdrama des 16 Jahrhunderts in 
Frankreich.— 1903. 

27. Kroder (A.) Shelley's Verskunst. Dargestellt von . . . A. Kroder.— 1903. 

28. Triwunatz (M.) G. Bude's De I'institution du prince. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte 
der Renaissancebewegung in Frankreich. — 1903. 

29. Jung (H.) Das Verhaltnis T. Middleton'.s zu Shakspere.— 1 904. 

30. Leykauif (A.) F. Habert und seine Ubersetzung der Metamorphosen Ovids. — 
1904. 

31. Solomon, King of Israel. Die altenglischen Dialoge von Salomon und Saturn. 
Mit historischer Einleitung, Kommentar und Glossar. Herausgegeben von A. R. v. Vincenti. 
, . . .— 1904. 

32. Lindner (E.). Die poetische PersoniBkation in den jugendschauspielen Calderon's. 
Ein Beitrag zu Studien iiber Stil und Sprache des Dichters. — 1904. 

33. Lohr (A.) R. Flecknoe. Eine literarhistorische Untersuchung. — 1905. 

34. Roth (T.) Der Einfluss von Ariost's Orlando furioso auf das franzosische Theater. 
—1905. 

35. Aukenbrand (H.) Die Figur des Geistes im Drama der englischen Renaissance. — 
1906. 

36. Mensch (J.) Das Tier in der Dichtung Marots. — 1906. 

37. Jakob (F.) Die Fabel von Atreus und Thyestes in den wichtigsten Tragodien der 
englischen, franzosischen und italienischen Literatur. — 1907. 

38. Riedner (W.) Spenser's Belesenheit.— 1 908. 

39. Stumfall (B.) Das Marchen von Amor und Psyche in seinem Fortleben in der 
franzosischen, italienischen und spanischen Literatur bis zum 18 Jahrhundert. — 1907. 

40. La Taille (J. de) J. de la Taille und sein Saiil le furieux. [With the text.] Von. 
. . . A. Werner. [With portrait.] — 1908. 

41. Friedrich (E.) Die Magie im franzosischen Theater des xvi. und xvii. Jahrhunderts. 
[With illustrations.]— 1908. 

42. Albert (F.) Uber T. Haywood's The life and death of Hector, eine Neubearbei- 
lung von Lydgates Troy book. — 1909. 

43. Grashey (L.) G. A. Cicogninis Leben und Werke, unter besonderer Beriicksich- 
tigung seines Dramas la Marienne ovvero il maggior mostro del mondo. — 1909. 

44. Schwerd (C.) Vergleich, Metapher und Allegorie in den " Tragiques " des A. 
d'Aubigne.— 1909. 

45. Simhart (M.) Lord Byrons Einfluss auf die italienische Literatur. — 1909. 

46. Dierlamm (G.) Die Flugschriftenliteratur der Chartistenbewegung und ihr Wider- 
hall in der offentlichen Meinung. — 1 909. 



282 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

800 LITERATURE : GENERAL. 

47. Garretl (R. M.) Precious stones in Old Elnglish literature. — 1909. 

48. Reismueller (G.) Romanische Lehnworter, Erstbclege, bei Lydgate. Ein Beitrag 
zur Lexicographic des Elnglischen im xv. Jahrhundert. — 191 1. 

49. Lochner (L.) Pope's literarische Beziehungen zu seinen Zeitgenossen. Ein Beitrag 
zur Geschichte der englischen Lileratur des 18 Jahrhunderts. — 1 910. 

50. Chapelain (J.) Die Parodie, Chapelain decoiffe. Von ... A. Bcrnhard.— 1 9 1 0. 

51. Richter (L.) Swinburne's Verhaltnis zu Frankreich und Italien. — 191 1. 

52. Kohler (E.) Enlwicklung des biblischen Dramas des xvi. Jahrhunderts in Frank- 
reich unter dem Einfluss der literarischen Renaissancebewegung. — 191 I. 

53. Walter (G.) Der Wortschatz des Altfriesischen. Fine wortgeographische Unter- 
suchung. — 191 1. 

54. Goldstein (M.) Darius, Xerxes und Artaxerxes im Drama der neueren Literaturen. 
Beitrag zur vcigleichenden Literaturgeschichte. — 1912. 

Paul (Herbert Woodfield) Famous speeches. Selected and edited, with 
introductory notes, by H. Paul. . . . London, ]9\]'\2. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 38255 

Revue anal)rtique des ouvrages ecrits en centons, depuis les temps anciens 
jusqu'au XlX'^'ne siecle. Par un bibliophile beige [i.e. J. O. Dele- 
pierre]. Londres, 1868. 4to, pp. 505. R. 37917 

*»* 1 1 2 copies printed. 

Rice Qohn) An introduction to the art of reading with energy and 
propriety. London, 1765. 8vo, pp. viii, 322. R 31340 

WORSFOLD (William Basil) The principles of criticism : an introduction to 
the study of literature. . . . New edition. London, 1902. 8vo, pp. 
viii. 256. R 37665 

810 LITERATURE: AMERICAN. 

BeNET (William Rose) The falconer of God and other poems. New 
Haven, 1 9 1 4. 8vo, pp. xi, 1 2 1 . R 38870 

DOTEN (Elizabeth) Poems from the inner life. . . . Fourth edition. 
Boston, \ 865. 8vo, pp. xxviii, 171. R 34232 

James (Henry) Novelist. Notes of a son and brother [William James] . 
[With plates.] London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 479. R 36218 

Notes on novelists, with some other notes. \London\, 1914. 8vo, 

pp. vii, 360. R 37492 

Marvin (Frederic Rowland) Love and letters. . . . Boston, ]9\\. 8vo, 
pp.252. R 37816 

A free lance ; being short paragraphs and detached pages from an 

author's notebook. . . . Boston, 1912. 8vo, pp. 196. R 37787 

820 LITERATURE: ENGLISH: GENERAL. 

Columbia University. Studies in English and comparative literature. 
New York, 1914. 8vo. In progress. 

Forsythe (R. S.) The relation of Shirley's plays to the Elizabethan drama. 

R 38530 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 283 

820 LITERATURE: ENGLISH: GENERAL. 

Early English Text Society. [Publications.] London, 1907-13. 

8vo. In progi'ess. R 4668 

Original Series. 

184, 135, 138, 146. Coventry. The Coventy leet book : or mayor's register, containing 
the records of the city court leet or view of frankpledge, A. D. 1420-1555, with divers other 
matters. Transcribed and edited by M. D. Harris. 4 pts. in 1 vol. — 1907-13. 

Extra Series. 

113. Salusbury {Sir J.) Poems by Sir J. Salusbury and R. Chester. With an introduc- 
tion by C. Brown. 

Scottish Text Society. [Publications.] [With facsimiles.] Edin- 
burgh and London, \9\^. 8vo. In progress. R 7448 

64. Henryson (R.) The poems of R. Henryson. Edited by C. G. Smith. Vol. I. 
New Series. 

6. Fowler (W.) Poet. The works of W. Fowler, secretary to Queen Anne, wife of 
James VI. Edited with introduction, appendix, notes and glossary by H. W. Meikle. . . . 

Beowulf. Beowulf, with the Finnsburg fragment. Edited by A. J. 
Wyatt. New edition, revised, with introduction and notes by R. W. 
Chambers. [With facsimiles.] Cambridge, 1914. 8vo, pp. xxxviii, 
254. R 38719 

Channels of English Literature. The channels of English 

literature. Edited by Oliphant Smeaton. . . . London and Toronto, 
1915. 8vo. In progress. 

Walker (H.) The English essay and essayists. p^ 3821 9 

Elliott (H. B.) Lest we forget. A war anthology. Edited by H. B. 
Elliott. Foreword by Baroness Orczy. [New impression]. [With 
plates.] London, [1915]. 8vo, pp. 143. R 39095 

Johnson (Reginald Brimley) Famous reviews. Selected and edited, with 
introductory notes, by R. B. Johnson. . . . London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 
xii, 498. R 38189 

Tinker (Chauncey Brewster) The Salon and English letters : chapters on 
the interrelations of literature cind society in the age of Johnson. [With 
plates.] New York, 1915. 8vo, pp. ix, 290. R 39079 

821 LITERATURE: ENGLISH POETRY. 

Brink (Bemhard ten) The language and metre of Chaucer. Set forth by 
B. ten Brink. Second edition, revised by Friedrich Kluge. Translated 
by M. Bentinck Smith. London, 1901. 8vo, pp. xxxvi, 280. R 28473 

Brooke (Rupert Chawner) 1914 and other poems. [With prefatory note 
subscribed E. M.] [With portrait.] London, 1915. 8vo, pp. 63. 

R 39069 

Burns (Robert) Bums nights in St. Louis. Burns and English poetry. 
Burns and the prophet Isaiah. Burns and the auld clay biggin. View 
points of ... J. L. Lowes, . . . M. N. Sale and . . . F. W. 
Lehmann. The club, the room, the Bumsiana, the nights by Walter B. 
Stevens. [With plates.] [Burns Club of St. Louis.] St. Louis, 
[1911?] 8vo. pp. 59. R 37833 



284 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

821 LITERATURE: ENGLISH POETRY. 

Burns (Robert) Facsimile of the Kilmarnock edition of Burns* poems, 
1 786. {Edinburgh, 1913] 8vo. pp. 240. R 35 1 29 

*»* The title is taken from the wrapper. 

BUTTERWORTH (Adeline M.) William Blake, mystic : a study. To- 
gether with Young's Night thoughts : nights I & II. With illustrations 
by W. Blake. . . . Liverpool, 1911. 8to. R 38235 

De SeLINCOURT (Ernest) English poets and the national ideal : four 
lectures. Oxford, 1915. 8vo, pp. 119. R 39066 

Gray (Thomas). The correspondence of T. Gray and William Mason, 
with letters to . . . James Brown. Edited by . . . John Mitford. 
Second edition. . . . London, 1855. 8vo, pp. xxxviii, 546. 

R 26249 

Hardy (Thomas) Satires of circumstance, lyrics and reveries, with mis- 
cellaneous pieces. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. ix, 230. R 37566 

HeRRICK (Robert) The poetical works of R. Herrick. Edited by F. W. 
Moorman. [With frontispiece.] Oxford, 1915. 8vo, pp. xxiii, 492. 

R 38833 

Hunter (Joseph) Milton. A sheaf of gleanings after his biographers and 
annotators : I. Genealogical investigation. II. Notes on some of his 
poems. London, 1850. 8vo, pp. 72. R 35569 

Keats Go^"^) The Keats letters, papers zmd other relics forming the Dilke 
bequest in the Hampstead Public Library, reproduced in . . . facsimiles, 
edited with full transcriptions and notes and an account of the portraits 
of Keats, with . . . reproductions by George C. Williamson, . . . 
together with forewords by Theodore Watts-Dunton, and an introduction 
by H. Buxton Forman. . . . London, 1914. Fol., pp. 111. R 36286 

*,* 320 copies printed. This copy is No. 8. 

The poems of J. Keats. Arrsinged in chronological order with a 

preface by Sidney Colvin. London, \^\b. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38511 

King (Henry) Bishop of Chichester. The English poems of H. King, . . . 
1592-1669, sometime Bishop of Chichester. . . . Collected from various 
sources and edited by Lawrence Mason. . . . [With portrait.] New 
Haven, 1914. 8vo, pp. xv, 226. R 38810 

Leonard (R. Maynard) Patriotic poems. Selected by R. M. Leonard. 
. . . [Oxford Garlands.] Oxford, 1914. 8vo, pp. 128. R 39060 

MasEFIELD (John) The faithful : a tragedy in three acts. London, [1 91 5]. 
8vo. pp. vii, 131. R 39068 

Miscellany Poems. Containing a new translation of Virgill's Eclogues, 
Ovid*s Love elegies. Odes of Horace, and other authors ; with several 
original poems. By the most eminent hands [i.e. J. Dryden and others]. 
(Sylvae : or, the second part of Poetical miscellanies . . . .) London^ 
1684-85. 2 vols, in 1. 8vo. R 37791 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 285 

821 LITERATURE: ENGLISH POETRY. 

NOYES (Alfred) Collected poems. . . . Fifth impression. Edinburgh 
and London, 1914. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38085 

PaTMORE (Coventry Kersey Dighton) Poems. . . . Ninth collective 
edition. . . . London, 1906. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38107 

1 . The angel in the house. The victories of love. 

2. The unknown eros. AmeHa, etc. 

Principle in art, etc. London, 1912. 8vo, pp. viii, 265. 

R 38108 

Religio poetae, etc. Uniform edition. London, 1 907. 8vo, pp. 

viii, 175. R 38109 

The rod, the root, and the flower. . . . Second edition, revised. 

London, 1914. 8vo, pp. viii, 234. R 381 10 

Reeves (Boleyne) Cassiope and other poems. London, 1890. 8vo, 
pp. viii, 211. R 38554 

Scotland. Songs from David Herd's manuscripts. Edited with in- 
troduction and notes by Hans Hecht. . . . [With facsimile.] Edin- 
burgh, 1904. 8vo, pp. XV. 348. R 35267 

*♦* One of 100 copies printed on hand-made paper. This copy is No. 1 1. 

Stephens (James) Songs from the clay. London, 1915. 8vo, pp. vi, 
106. R 38480 

SyMONS (Arthur) The romantic movement in English poetry. London, 
1909. 8vo, pp. xi, 344. R 38723 

UnDERHILL, afterwards MoORE (Evelyn) Immanence : a book of verses. 
. . . [New impression.] London and Toronto, 1914. 8vo, pp. x, 83 

R 38185 

VaUGHAN (Henry) the Silurist. The works of H. Vaughan. Edited 
by Leonard Cyril Martin. . . . Oxford, 1914. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 38835 

WeLBY (Thomas Earle) Swinburne : a critical study. . . . London, \^\^. 
8vo. pp. 191. R 38395 

822 LITERATURE : ENGLISH DRAMA. 

GaYLEY (Charles Mills) Francis Beaumont : dramatist. A portrait, with 
some account of his circle, Elizabethan and Jacobean, and of his associ- 
ation with John Fletcher. [With plates.] London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 
445. R 38371 

HaNKIN (St. John Emile Clavering) The dramatic works of St. J. Hankin. 
With an introduction by John Drinkwater. [With portraits.] London, 
1912. 3 vols. 8vo. R 381 11 



286 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

822 LITERATURE: ENGLISH DRAMA. 

MaLONE Society. The Malone Society reprints. [General editor: 
W. W. Greg.] [With facsimiles.] [Oxford printed\, 1914. hi Pro- 
cess. R 13851 

Wilson (R.) Dramatist. The cobler's prophecy. 1 594. [Edited by A. C. Wood 
with the assistance of W. W. Greg.] 

Pedlar. The pedlar's prophecy. 1595. [Attributed to R. Wilson.] [Edited by W. 
W. Greg.] 

NOYES (Alfred) Rada : a Belgian Christmas Eve. . . . With . . . illus- 
trations after Goya. London [1915]. 8vo, pp. vii, 82. R 38481 

OtwAY (Thomas) The works of ... T Otway. . . . Consisting of 
his plays, poems, and letters. [With portrait.] London^ 1 768. 3 vols. 
12mo. R 3781 7 

Representative English Comedies. With introductory essays 

and notes, and a comparative view of the fellows and followers of 
Shakespeare. Under the general editorship of Charles Mills Gayley. . . . 
New York, \9\3. 1vol. 8vo. R 23976 

2. The later contemporaries of Shakespeare : Ben Jonson and others. — 1913. 

Settle (Elkanah) The conquest of China, by the Tartars. A tragedy. . . . 
London, 1676. 4to, pp. 67. R 37578 

The heir of Morocco, with the death of Gayland. . . . London, 

1682. 4to, pp. 51. R 37579 

Shaw (George Bernard) Cashel Byron's profession . . . , being No. 4 
of the novels of his nonage. Also The admirable Bashville, and an 
essay on Modern prize-fighting. [New edition.] London, ]9]2. 8vo, 
pp. xxiii, 349. R 38750 

The doctor's dilemma. Getting married, and The showing up of 

Blanco Posnet. [Third impression.] London, 1913. 8vo, pp. xciv, 
407. R 38755 

Dramatic opinions and essays, with an apology. . . . Containing 

as well A word on the dramatic opinions and essays of B. Shaw by 
James Huneker. London, \9\ 5. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38807 

The irrational knot. . . . Being the second novel of his nonage. 

London, 1909. 8vo, pp. xxvi, 422. R 38751 

John Bull's other island and Major Barbara : also, How he lied to 



her husband. [Fourth impression.] London, \9\\. 8vo, pp. Ixi, 293. 

R 38752 

Man and superman. A comedy and a philosophy. (The revolu- 



tionist's handbook and pocket companion. . . . Maxims for revolu- 
tionists.) [New impression.] London, 1912. 8vo, pp. xxxviii, 244. 

R 38754 

Misalliance, The dark lady of the sonnets, and Fanny's first play. 

With a treatise on Parents and children. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 
cxxi. 234. R 38756 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 287 

822 LITERATURE : ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Shaw (George Bernard) The perfect Wagnerite : a commentary on the 
Niblune's ring. [Third edition.] London, 1913. 8vo, pp. xvi, 150. 

R 38758 

Three plays for puritans : The devil's disciple, Caesar and Cleo- 



patra, and Captain Brassbound's conversion. [With plates.] [Seventh 
impression.] London^ 1912. 8vo, pp. xxxvii, 308. R 38753 

Spanish Wives. The Spanish wives. A farce. ... [By Mary Fix.] 
London, 1696. 4to, pp. 48. R 37586 

Tate (Nahum) Cuckolds-haven : or, an alderman no conjurer. A farce. 
, . . London, 1685. 4to, pp. 45. R 37580 

Injur'd love : or, The cruel husband. A tragedy. . . . London^ 

1707. 4to, pp. 70. R 37581 

The loyal general, a tragedy. . . . London, 1680. 4to, pp. 59. 

R 37582 

Robertson (Thomas William) the Elder. The principal dramatic works 
of T. W. Robertson. With memoir by his son [T. W. Robertson]. 
[With portraits.] London, \m^. 2 vols. 8vo. R 19040 

823 LITERATURE : ENGLISH FICTION. 

BehN (Aphara) The works of A. Behn. Edited by Montague Summers. 
[With plates.] London, 1915. 6 vols. 8vo. R 391 10 

Gregory (Allene) The French revolution and the English novel. New 
York and London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xi, 337. R 39102 

Falls (Cyril) Rudyard Kipling : a critical study. [With portrait.] 
London, 1915. 8vo, pp. 207. R 38379 

Peacock (Thomas Love) The works of T L. Peacock, including his 
novels, poems, fugitive pieces, criticisms, etc., with a preface by . . . 
Lord Houghton, a biographical notice by . . . Edith Nicolls, and 
portrait. Edited by Henry Cole. . . . London, 1875. 3 vols. 8vo. 

R 38408 

824.8 LITERATURE: ENGLISH ESSAYS, MISCELLANY, ETC. 

Addison {Right Hon. Joseph) Essays of J. Addison. Chosen and 
edited, with a preface and . . . notes, by Sir James George Frazer. 
. . . [Eversley Series.] London, \^\b. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38202 

BraTHWAIT (Richard) A strappado for the Diuell. . . . With an intro- 
duction by ... J. W.iEbsworth. . . . Boston, Lincolnshire, 1878. 
8vo, pp. XXX, 347. R 38507 



288 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

824-8 LITERATURE: ENGLISH ESSAYS. MISCELLANY, ETC. 

Butler (Samuel) Erewhon : or over the range. . . . New and revised 
edition. ... London, 1913. 8vo. pp. xviii. 323. R 37829 

Erewhon revisited twenty years later, both by the original dis- 
coverer of the country and by his son, London, 1913. 8vo, pp. x, 
337. R 37830 

The way of all flesh. . . . Seventh impression of second edition. 

London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 420. R 37831 

CaNNAN (Gilbert Eric) Samuel Butler : a critical study. [With portrait.] 
Londofi, 1915. 8vo, pp. 194. R 38499 

Gould (George Milbry). Concerning Lafcadio Hearn. . . . With a 
bibliography by Laura Stedman. With . . . illustrations. London, 
1908. 8vo. pp. XV, 303. R 39204 

W. S. Outlines by W. S. Oxford, Daniel, 1899. 8vo, pp. 61. 

R 37187 

*J^ 1 50 copies printed. This copy is No. 96. 

830 LITERATURE: GERMAN. 

QUELLEN UND FORSCHUNGEN zur Sprach-und Culturgeschichte der 
germanischen Voelker. Herausgegeben von Alois Brandl, Erich 
Schmidt, Franz Schultz. Strassburg, 1913. 8vo. In progress. 

119. Thietz (R.) Die Ballade vom Grafen und der Magd : ein Rekonstruklionsversuch 
und Beitrag zur Charakterisierung der Volkspoesie. 

AlsaCE. Chansons populaires de I'Alsace. Par J. B. Weckerlin. 
[German and French. With music] [Les Litteratures Populaires de 
Toutes les Nations. 17,18.1 Paris, X^'h. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 36963 

BORINSKI (Carl) Die Poetik der Renaissance und die Anfange der litter- 
arischen Kritik in Deutschland. Berlin, \ 886. 8vo, pp. xv, 396. 

R 39073 

Buerger (Gottfried August) Leonora. A tale, translated freely [by 
J. T. Stanley] from the German of G. A. Biirger. . . . (Lenore . . . 
Ein Gedicht. . . .) [With frontispiece.] London, 1796. 2 pts. in 
1 vol. 8vo. R 36966 

LessING (Gotthold Ephraim). The dramatic works. . . . Translated 
from the German. Edited by Ernest Bell. . . . With a short memoir 
by Helen Zimmern. . . . [With portrait.] [Bohn's Libraries.} 
London, X'^X^. 2 vols. 8vo. R 3871^ 

1. Tragedies. 

2. Comedies. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 289 

839 LITERATURE: MINOR TEUTONIC. 

American-Scandinavian Foundation. Scandinavian classics. 

New York, 1914. 8vo. In progress, 

1. Holberg (L.) Baron. Comedies by Holberg : Jeppe of the hill, The political tinker^ 
Eradmus Montanus. Translated from the Danish by O. J. Campbell . . . and F. Schenck. 
. . . With an introduction by O. J. Campbell. . . .— 1914. R 37777 

2. Tegner (E.) Poems by Tegner : The children of the Lord's supper, translated from 
the Swedish by H. W. Longfellow, and Frithiof's Saga, translated by . . . W. L. Blackley. 
With an introduction by P. R. Lieder. . . .— 1914. R 37778 

BerGH (Laurent Philippe Charles van den) De Nederlandsche volks- 
romans. Eene bijdrage tot de geschiedenis onzer letterkunde. Amster- 
dam, 1837. 8vo. pp. xvi, 198. R 38230 

Cornell University Library. Islandica : an annual relating to Ice- 
land and the Fiske Icelandic collection in Cornell University library, 
Edited by G. W. Harris. . . . Ithaca, N.Y., 1908, etc. 8vo. In 
progress, R 20305 

7. The story of Griselda in Iceland. Edited, with an introduction, by H. Hermannsson. 
— 1914. 

SnorRI, Sturlason. The sagas of Olaf Tryggvason and of Harald the 
Tyrant, Harald Haardraade. [Translated from Gustav Storm's version 
of the Heimskringla by Ethel H. Hearn.] [With illustrations.) Lon- 
don,\9\\, 8vo. pp. 219. R 37317 

840 LITERATURE: FRENCH: GENERAL. 

Social ^ DES AnCIENS TeXTES pRANgAIS. [Publications.] Paris, 
1913. 8vo. In progress. R 32030 

Renart (J.) Poet. Le lai de I'ombre. . . . Publi^ par J. Bedier. 

SOCIETE DES TeXTES FraN^AIS MoDERNES. Paris, 1905-15. 8vo. 
In progress. R 17648 

Arouet de Voltaire (F. M.) Candide ou I'optimisme. Edition critique avec une intro- 
duction et un commentaire par A. Morize. — 1913. 

Lettres philosophiques. Edition critique avec une introduction et un commentaire 

par G. Lanson. 2 vols. — 1909. 

Bayle (P.) Pense'es diverses sur la comete. Edition critique avec une introduction et des 
notes publiee par A. Prat. 2 vols. — 191 1-12. 

Bernardin de Saint- Pierre (J. H.) La vie et les ouvrages de J. J. Rousseau. Edition 
critique publiee avec de nombreux fragments in^dits par M. Souriau. — 1907. 

BrcTieuf (G. de) Entretiens solitaires. Edition critique avec une introduction et un index 
par R. Harmand.— 1912. 

Des^Masures (L.) Tragedies Saintes : David combattant — David triomphant — David 
fugitif. Edition critique publie'e par C. Comte. — 1907. 

Du Bellay (J.) (Euvres po^tiques. . . . Edition critique publiee par H. Chamard. 3 vols. 
—1908-12. 

Du Vair (G.) Bishop of Lisieux. Actions et traictez oratoires. Edition critique publiee 
par R. Radouant.— 1911. 

Heroet (A.) Bishop of Digne. CEuvres poetiques. j^dition critique public par F. 
Gohin.-1909. 



290 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

840 LITERATURE: FRENCH: GENERAL. 

Juan, Don. Le festin dc Pierre avant Moliere. Dorimon — De Villiers — Se^nario des 
Italiens — Cicognini. Textes publics avec introduction, lexique et notes par G. Gendarme de 
Be'votle.— 1907. 

Le Bovier de Fontenelle (B.) Histoire des oracles. Edition critique publiee par L. 
Maigron.— 1908. 

Mairet (J.) J. Marsan. La Sylvie du . . . Mairet. Tragi-comedie-pastorale. [With 
frontispiece.] — 1 905. 

Muse Fran<jaise. La muse frangaise, 1823-24. Edition critique publiee par J. Marsan. 

2 vols.— 1907-09. 

Pathelin (P.) Maistre Pierre Pathelin. Reproduction en facsimile de I'^dition imprimee 
rers 1485 par G. Le Roy a Lyon. [Edited by E. Picot.]— 1907. 

Pivert de Senancour (E.) Obermann. Edition critique publiee par G. Michaut. 2 vols. 
-1912-13. 

Pivert de Senancour (E.) Reveries sur la nature primitive de I'homme. Edition critique 
par J. Merlant. 1 vol.— 1910. 

Plutarch. J. Amyot. Les vies des hommes illustres, grecs et romains. . . . Edition 
critique publiee par L. Clement. 1 vol. — 1906. 

Rousseau (J. B.) Correspondance de J. B. Rousseau et de Brossette. Publife d'apres les 
originaux, avec une introduction, des notes et un index par P. Bonnefon. ... 2 vols. — 
1910-11. 

Schelandre (J. de) Tyr et Sidon, ou les funestes amours de Belcar el Meliane : trag^die. 
Edition critique publiee par J. Haraszti. — 1908. 

Sebillet (T.) Art po^lique fran^oys. Edition critique avec une introduction et des notes 
publie'e par F. Gaiffe.— 191 [0]. 

Secondat (C. de) Baron de Montesquieu. Lettres persanes. Edition revue et annotee 
d'apres les manuscrits du Chateau de la Brede avec un avant-propos et un index par H. Barck- 
hausen. 2 vols. — 1913. 

Tristan I'Hermite (F.) Les plaintes d'Acante, et autres oeuvres. Edition critique publiee 
par J. Madeleine.— 1909. 

CONSTANS (Leopold) Chrestomathie de Tancien frangais, IX^-XV^ siecles. 
Precedee d'un tableau sommaire de la litterature fran9aise au moyen age, 
et suivie d'un glossaire etymologique detaille. Nouvelle edition . . . 
revue et . . . augmentee, avec le supplement refondu . . . ouvrage 
couronne par 1* Academic fran^aise. Paris, 1890. 8vo, pp. jv, xlviii, 
497. R 25821 

DaRMESTETER (Arsene) and HaTZFELD (Adolphe) Le seizieme siecle 
en France : tableau de la litterature et de la langue suivi de morceaux 
en prose et en vers choisis dans les principaux ecrivains de cette epoque. 
. . . Cinquieme edition, revue et corrigee. Paris, 1893. 2 pts. in 
1 vol. 8vo. R 26421 

LefrANC (Abel Jules Maurice) Grands ecrivains fran^ais de la renaissance. 
Le roman d'amour de Clement Marot. Le platonisme et la litterature en 
France. Marguerite de Navarre. Le tiers livre du " Pcuitagruel " et la 
querelle des femmes. Jean Calvin. La Pleiade au College de France. 
[Les Lettres et les Idees depuis la Renaissance 2.] Paris, 1914. 8vo, 
pp. ii, 414. R 36212 

LiEBRECHT (Henri) Histoire de la litterature beige d'expression fran^aise. 
Deuxieme edition, revue et corrigee, appro uve par le Conseil de per- 
fectionnement de I'enseignement moyen. Preface d'Edmond Picard. 
[With illustrations.] Bruxelles, 1913. 8vo, pp. ix, 472. R 38884 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 291 

840 LITERATURE: FRENCH; GENERAL. 

PelLISSIER (Georges) Le realisme du romantisme. Paris, 1912. 8vo, 
pp.313. R 37775 

RetiNGER G- FI-) Histoire de la litterature fran^aise du romantisme a nos 
jours. Paris, 191 1. 8vo, pp. 320. R 30865 

SyMONS (Arthur) The symbolist movement in literature. INew impres- 
sion.] London, 1911. 8vo, pp. ix, 193. R 38831 

ViNET (Alexandre Rodolphe) Etudes sur la litterature fran^aise au dix- 
neuvieme siecle. Paris, 1849-31. 3 vols. 8vo. R 38328 

1 . Madame de Stael et Chateaubriand. 

2. Poetes lyriques et dramatiques. 

3. Poetes et prosateurs. 

842-47 LITERATURE: FRENCH POETRY, DRAMA, ETC. 

AROUET de Voltaire (Francois Marie) (Euvres inedites. Publiees 
par Fernand Caussy. (Supplement aux oeuvres de Voltaire.) Paris^ 
1914. 8vo. In progress. 

1. Melanges historiques. |^ 'hbyh'^ 

BecAFORT. Le voyage force de Becafort, hypocondriaque. Qui s'imagine 
etre indispensablement oblige de dire ou d'ecrire . . . tout ce qu'il pense 
des autres & de luy-meme. . . . [By Laurent Bordelon.j Paris, 1 709. 
12mo. pp. XXXV, 342. R 36517 

BelLESSORT (Andre) Sur les grands chemins de la poesie classique : 
Ronsard — Corneille — La Fontaine — Racine — Boileau. Paris, 1914. 
8vo, pp. 368. R 37467 

BerOALDE de VerviLLE (Francois). Le moyen de parvenir. Paris, 
[18- ]. 3vols.ini. 8vo. R 31293 

BoILEAU-DesPR^AUX (Nicolas). (Euvres de N. Boileau- Despreaux. 
Avec des eclaircissemens historiques, donnez par lui-meme. Nouvelle 
edition revue, corrigee & augmentee de diverses remarques. [With 
plates.] Amsterdam, 1718. 2 vols, in 1. 4to. R 35675 

BruN (C). Le roman social en France au XIX^ siecle. [Etudes Econo- 
miques et Sociales, 10.] Paris, 1910. 8vo, pp. iii, 361. R 37587 

BrunETIERE (Marie Ferdinand). L'evolution de la poesie lyrique en 
France au dix-neuvieme siecle. Lemons professees a la Sorbonne. . . . 
P«r/>. 1910-13. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38203 

CaRON de BeaUMARCHAIS (Pierre Augustin). Theatre de Beaumar- 
chais, suivi de ses poesies diverses et precede d'observations litteraires 
par . . . Sainte-Beuve. . . . [With portrait.] Paris, [1866]. 
8vo, pp. xvi, 414. R 28553 

Chateaubriand (Frangois Rene Auguste de) Vicomte. CEuvres de 
Chateaubriand. [With portraits and plates.] Paris, 1857-58. 20 vols. 
8vo. R 35805 



292 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

842.47 LITERATURE: FRENCH POETRY, DRAMA, ETC. 

CheNIER (Marie Andre de). CEuvres inedites de A. Chenier. Publiees 
d'apres les manuscrits originaux par Abel Lefranc. . . . [Les Lettres et 
les idees depuis la Renaissance, 3.] Paris, 1914. 8vo, pp. xl, 292. 

R 36073 

FiTZGeRALD (Edward). Dictionary of Madame de Sevigne. . . . 
Edited and annotated by . . . Mary Eleanor FitzGerald Kerrich. 
[With plates.] [Eversley Series.] London, 1914. 2 toIs. 8to. 

R 37363 

HouSSAYE (Arsene). Les comediennes de Moliere. [With portraits.] 
Paris, 1879. 8vo, pp. 179 R 34773 

* ^* 476 copies printed. This copy is No. 318. 

MiCHAUT (Gustave Marie Abel). La Fontaine. Paris, 1913-14. 
2 vols. 8vo. In progress. R 38468 

MONT (Karel Marie Polydoor de). Modernites : anthologie des meilleurs 
poetes contemporains beiges d'expression franqaise. Eckhoud — Van 
Arenbergh. — Verhaeren. — Gilkin. — Rodenbach. — Giraud. — Waller. — 
Elskamp. — Maeterlinck. — Van Lerberghe. — Le Roy. — Gille. — Fon- 
taines. — Mockel. — Gerardy. — Sererin. — Marlow. Bruxelles, [1911 ?]. 
8vo. pp. 324. R 38883 

NyROP (Kristoffer). Storia delFepopea francese nel medio evo. Prima 
traduzione dall'originale danese di Egidio Gorra. Con aggiunte e corre- 
zioni fornite dalPautore, con note del traduttore e una copiosa bibliografia. 
Opera premiata con medaglia d'oro dall' Universita di Copenhagen. 
Torino, 1888. 8vo, pp. xvii, 495. R 34824 

PhILIPOT (Emmanuel). La vie et I'ceuvre litteraire de Noel Du Fail, 
gentilhomme breton. Paris, 1914. 8vo, pp. xix, 552. R 38828 

Rostand (Edmond Eugene Alexis). Cyrano de Bergerac : comedie 
heroique en cinq actes en vers. . . . Quatre-cent-sixieme mille. Paris, 
1914. 8vo, pp. 215. R 38466 

SecONDAT (Charles Louis de) Baron de Montesquieu. Correspond- 
ance de Montesquieu. Publiee par Francois Gebelin avec la collabora- 
tion de . . . Andre Morize. (Collection Bordelaise.) Paris, 1914. 
2 vols. 4to. R 36211 

Van BeVER (Ad.) ajtd L^AUTAUD (Paul). Poetes d'aujourd'hui : 
morceaux choisis, accompagnes de notices bibliographiques et d'un essai 
de bibliographie. . . . Vingt-troisieme edition. Paris, 1913. 2 vols. 
8vo. ' R 38584 

Verhaeren (fimile). Les bles mouvants : poemes. Paris, \^\'h. 8vo, 
pp.182. R 38583 

Poems of E. Verhaeren. Selected and rendered into English by 

Alma Strettell. With a portrait of the author by John S. Sargent. 
[New edition.] London, \^\b. 8vo, pp. 91. R 38503 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 293 

842-47 LITERATURE: FRENCH POETRY, DRAMA, ETC. 

WaLCH (Gerard). Anthologie des poetes fran^ais contemporains. Le 
Parnasse et les ecoles posterieures au Parnasse, 1866-1914. Morceaux 
choisis, accompagnes de notices bio- et bibliographiques et de . . . 
autographes. . . . Preface de Sully Prudhomme. . . . [Collection 
Pallas.] Paris, Leyde, [1915]. 3 vols. 8vo. R 38825 

949 LITERATURE: PROVENCAL. 

DlEZ (Friedrich Christian). La poesie des troubadours. . . . Etudes 
traduites de Tallemand & annotees par le baron Ferdinand de Roisin. . . . 
Paris, Lille, 1845. 8vo. pp. xxiv. 422. R 27516 

EMERIC-DavID (Toussaint Bernard). Notices pour servir a I'histoire 

. litteraire des troubadours. [Extrait du tome XIX. de I'histoire litteraire 

de la France.] Paris, 1837. 4to, pp. 180. R 38242 

*»* 25 copies printed. 

GOUDELIN (Pierre). (Euvres de P. Goudelin. Collationnees sur les 
editions originates, accompagnees d'une etude biographique [by Germain 
de la Faille] et bibliographique, de notes et d'un glossaire par. ... J. 
B. Noulet. Edition publiee sous les auspices du Conseil general de la 
Haute-Garonne. [With plates.] Toulouse, 1887. 8vo, pp. Iviii, 
XX*, 507. R 38529 

HiSTOIRE LITT|£raIRE DES TROUBADOURS, contenant leurs vies, les 
extraits de leurs pieces, & plusieurs particularites sur les moeurs, les 
usages, & I'histoire du douzieme & du treizieme siecles. [Arranged and 
published anonymously by C. F. X. Millot from materials collected by J. 
B. de La Curne de Sainte-Palaye.] Paris, \11^. 3 vols. 12mo. 

R 38231* 

Lives of the Troubadours. Translated from the mediaeval Pro- 
vencal, with introductory matter and notes, and with specimens of their 
poetry rendered into English by Ida Farnell. . . . London, \ 896. 8vo, 
pp. ix, 288. R 38244 

Mistral (Frederic). (Euvres de F. Mistral. . . . Texte et traduction. 
[With portrait.] Paris, \W^M, 6 vols. 8vo. R 38826 

MONTAUDON, Monk of. Die Dichtungen des M6nchs von Montaudon. 
Neu herausgegeben von Otto Klein. [Ausgaben und Abhandlungen aus 
dem Gebiete der Romanischen Philologie, 7.] Marburg, \ 885 8vo 
pp.146. R 38241 -2 

ROGIER (Pierre). Das Leben und die Lieder des Trobadors Peire Rogier 
Bearbeitet von Carl Appel. Berlin, 1882. 8vo, pp. iv 107 

R 3*8241 1* 



294 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

850 LITERATURE: ITALIAN. 

StoRIA LeTTERARIA D'ItaLIA. Scritta da una societa di professori. 
Milano, [1897], etc. 8vo. In progress. R 

C. Giussani . . . Letteratura romana. 

. . . G. Bertoni. II duecento. 

N. Zingarelli . . . Dante. 

G. Volpi. ... II trecento. Seconda edizione corretta e accresciuta. 

V. Rossi. ... II quattrocento. 

F. Flamini, ... II cinquecento. 
A. Belioni. ... II seicento. 

T. Concari. ... II seltecento. 

G. Mazzoni. . . . L'ottocento. 2 voU. 

VOSSLER (Carl). Poetische Theorien in der italienischen Friihrenaissance, 
[Litterarhistorische Forschungen, 12.] Berlin^ 1900. 8vo, pp. 87. 

R 39074 

ACCADEMICI OCCULTI. Rime De Gli Academici Occviti Con Le Loro 
Imprese Et Discorsi. [With engravings.] In Brescia, MDLXVIII. 
([Colophon :] In Brescia, Appresso Vincenzo Di Sabbio, MDLXVIII ) 
4to. ff. [6], 126 [error for 128]. [8]. 

*»* The title-page is engraved. f^ 38729 

AnnuNZIO (Gabriele d*) Laudi del cielo del mare della terra e degli 
eroi. . . . Milano, (1903-04). 2 vols. 4to. R 34620 

BaINBRIGGE (Marion S.) A walk in other worlds with Dante. . . . With 
. . . plates. Lo7idon, 1914. 8vo, pp. xv, 253. R 38693 

BaLDINI (Massimo) La costruzione morale dell' " Inferno " di Dante. 
Cittd, di Castello, 1914. 8vo, pp. vii, 331. R 37641 

BeNEDETTI (Giacopone de') da Todi. Le satire di Jacopone da Todi. 
Ricostituite nella loro piu probabile lezione originaria con le varianti dei 
MSS. piu importanti e precedute da un saggio sulle stampe e sui codici 
jacoponici. Per cura di Biordo Brugnoli. [With frontispiece.] 
Firenze, 1914. 8vo, pp. clx, 428. R 38226 

Bern I (Francesco) Rime, poesie latine e lettere edite e inedite. Ordinate 
e annotate per cura di Antonio Virgili. Aggiuntovi la Catrina, il 
Dialogo contra i poeti, e il commento [of N. Sermollini] al Capitolo 
della primiera. Firenze, 1885. 8vo, pp. xlviii, 415. R 38852 

Boccaccio (Giovanni) II Philocolo Di M. Giovanni Boccaccio Nvova- 
mente Revisto. MD [Woodcut] XXX. [With preface by M. Guazzo.] 
([Colophon :] Stampato in Vinegia per Nicolo di Aristotile detto 
Zoppino, MDXXX.) 8vo, ff. 360. 

*,* Title within woodcut border. R 37528 

BRITONIO (Girolamo) Gelosia del sole Opera Volgare Di Girolamo 
Britonio Di Sicignano Intitolata Gelosia Del Sole. ([Colophon :] 
Stampata in Venetia per Marchio Sessa, Ne li anni del Signore. 
M.D.XXXI. Adi primo Settembrio.) 8vo. ff. 203 [error for 207]. 

*»* Title within woodcut border. R 38727 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 295 

850 LITERATURE: ITALIAN. 
Dante AliGHIERI. La divine comedie; le purgatoire. Traduction 
nouvelle accompagnee du texte italien avec un commentaire et des notes 
par Ernest de Laminne. Paris, 1914. 8vo, pp. 467. R 36236 

The Paradise of Dante Alighieri : an experiment in literal verse 

translation by Charles Lancelot Shadwell. . . . With an introduction 
by John William Mackail. . . . London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xxxix, 509. 

R 39123 

The De monarchia. . . . Translated into English and annotated 

[by P. H. W. i.e. Philip Henry Wicksteed]. Hull, 18%-98. 3 vols, 
inl. 8vo. R 17106 

The De monarchia of Dante Alighieri. Edited with translation and 

notes by Aurelia Henry. . . . Boston and New York, 1904. 8vo, 
pp. li, 216. R 17175 

Dante's letter to the princes and peoples of Italy, Epist. V. : critical 

text by Paget Toynbee. From the Modern Language Review, Vol. X, 
No. 2, April, 1915. Cambridge, [1915]. 8vo, pp. (150>156. 

*,* The title is taken from the wrapper. R 38898 

GaUTHIEZ (Pierre) LTtalie du XVI^ siecle. Paris, 1895. 8vo. In 
progress. R 28181 

L'Are'tin, 1492-1556. 

GUARINl (Giovanni Battista) the Younger, Pastor fido : or, the faithful 
shepherd. A pastoral. . . . [Altered from Sir R. Fanshawe's transla- 
tion by E. Settle.] London, 1694. 4to, pp. 54. R 37585 

LeoPARDI (Giacomo) Conte, Opera di G. Leopardi. Edizione accres- 
ciuta, ordinata e corretta secondo I'ultimo intendimento dell' autore da 
Antonio Ranieri . . . Terza impressione. Firenze, 1907. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 36450 

Nuovi documenti intomo agH scritti e alia vita di G. Leopardi. 

Raccolti e pubblicati da Giuseppe Piergili. Terza edizione . . . ac- 
cresciuta. Firenze, \^92. 8vo, pp. Ixvii, 336. R 36452 

Epistolario di G. Leopardi. Raccolto e ordinato da Prospero 

Viani. Sesta ristampa con nuove aggiunte. Firenze, 1907. 3 vols. 
8vo. R 36451 

Scritti vari inediti di G. Leopardi dalle carte napoletane. Seconda 

impressione. [With facsimiles and portrait.] Firefize, 1910. 8vo, 
pp. ix, 545. R 36453 

Manzoni (Alessandro) Conte. Opere di A. Manzoni. . . . [With 
plates.] Milano, 1 905- 1 2. 4 vols. 8vo. In progress. R 35 1 88 

*♦* The title is taken from the wrappers. 

MORLEY (Lacy Collison) Giuseppe Baretti ; with an account of his literary 
friendships and feuds in Italy and in England in the days of Dr. Johnson. 
. . . With an introduction by ... F. Marion Crawford. With a 
portrait. London, 1909. 8vo, pp. xiv, 376. R 39121 

20 



296 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

850 LITERATURE: ITALIAN. 

Nicholson (Joseph Shield) Life and genius of Ariosto. London^ 1914. 
8vo, pp. xix. 124. R 37442 

Rota (Lodovico) Cavaliere Bergamasco. Rime Del Caualier Lodouico 
Rota Amorose Lugubri Varie e*l Tirsi. . . . ([Colophon :] In Venetia^ 
Presso Euangelista Deuchino. . . .) M.D.C.XIl. 8vo, pp. 14, [10], 
162. [4]. 

*»* The title-page is engraved. J^ 38730 

SaNDONNINI (Tommaso) Lodovico Castelvetro e la sua famiglia : note 
biografiche. [With folding table.] Bologna, 1882. 8vo, pp. 355. 

R 39022 

SaSSO (Pamfilo) Opera del preclarissimo poeta Miser Pamphilo Sasso 
Modenese. Sonetti. ccccvij. Capituli. xxxviij. Egloghe. v. [Wood- 
cut beneath title.] ([Colophon :] Venetiis per Gulielmmn de Fontaneto 
de Monferrato^ M.ccccc.xix. Adi primo Febraro.) 4to, ff. [79]. 

R 38728 

* ^ Title within border of woodcut blocks. 

SpERONE DEGLI AlvaROTTI (Sperone) Canace Tragedia Di Messer 
Sperone Speroni Nobile Padovano. ^ Stampata L'Anno M.D.XLVI. 
([Colophon :] In Fiorenza per Francesco dont l*Anno M.D.XLVI.) 
8vo, ff. 40. R 37543 

860-9 LITERATURE : SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE. 

CEJADOR Y FrauCA (Julio) Historia de la lengua y literatura castellana, 
desde los origenes hasta Carlos v. [With plates.] Madrid, 1915. 
8vo. pp. XX, 505. R 38588 

COLECCION de ESCRITORES CASTELLANOS. Madrid, 1890-1902. 
2 vols. 8yo. In progress. R 27511 

80, 121. Sales espanolas, <$ agudezas del ingenio nacional, recogidas por A. Paz y Melia. 
... 2 vols. 

LoISEAU (Arthur) Histoire de la litterature portugaise depuis ses origines 
jusqu*a nos jours. Paris, 1 886. 8vo, pp. viii, 404. R 37205 

MeneNDEZ Y PELAYO (Marcelino) Obras completas del . . . M. 
Menendez y Pelayo. [With portrait.] Madrid, \^\\, etc. 8vo. In 
progress. R 35847 

1. Historia de los heterodoxos espanoles. . . . Segunda edicion refundida. — 1911. 

2, 3. Historia de la poesia hispano-americana. ... 2 vols. — 1911-13. 
4. Historia de la poesia castellana en la edad media. . . . — 1911-13. 

MONACI (Ernesto) Communicazioni dalle biblioteche di Roma e da altre 
biblioteche per lo studio delle lingue e delle letterature romaiize. A 
curadi E. Monaci. [With facsimiles.] Halle ajS, 1875-80. 2 vols. 
4to. R 37014 

1 . II canzoniere portoghese della Biblioteca Vaticana. Messo a stampa da E. Monaci. 
Con una prefazione. . . . — 1875. 

2. II canzoniere portoghese Colocci-Brancuti. Pubblicato nelle parti che completano il 
Codice Valicano 4803. Da E. Molteni. . . .— 1880. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 297 

860-9 UTERATURE: SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE. 

Mora (Jose Joaquin de) Leyendas espafiolas. Londres, 1840. 8vo, pp. 
xiv, 470. R 27496 

PerEIRA de Castro (Gabriel) Vlyssea, Ov Lysboa Edificada : Poema 
Heroico. . . . [Edited by L. Pereira de Castro. With a " Discurso 
Poetico " by M. Galhegos.] [Arms of Portugal beneath title.] Lisboa^ 
1636. 4to. ff. [8], 207. R 37051 

Portugal. Cancioneiro portuguez da Vaticana. Edigao critica re- 
stituida sobre o texto diplomatico de Halle, acompanhada de um glossario 
e de uma introduc<;ao sobre os trovadores e cancioneiros portuguezes por 
Theophilo Braga. . . . Lisboa, 1878. 8vo, pp. cxii. 236. R 37002 

Romero (Sylvio) Historia da litteratura brasileira ... 2= edi^ao melhor- 
ada. . . . Rio de Janeiro, 1902-03. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37210 

La literatura portuguesa en el siglo xix : estudio literario. Madrid^ 

1869. 8vo, pp. 434. R 37207 

870 LITERATURE: LATIN. 

BezARD (J.) Comment apprendre le latin a nos fils. [With illustrations.] 
Paris, [1914]. 8vo, pp. 424. R 38399 

ApulEIUS (Lucius) Madaurensis, (Euvres completes d*Apulee. 
Traduites en frangais par Victor Betolaud. . . . Nouvelle edition, en- 
tierement refondue. /'^m, [1861]. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38181 

The metamorphoses or golden ass of Apuleius of Madaura. 

Translated by H. E. Buder. . . . Oxford, 1910. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 38199 

FaeRNO (Gabriello) Centvm Fabvlae Ex Antiqvis Avctoribvs Delectae, 
Et A. G. Faerno. . . . Carminibvs Explicatae. [Printer's device 
beneath title.] Antverpiae, Ex officina Christoph, Plantini, CIOID 
XLVII. 1 6mo, pp. 1 73. R 37542 

* * Title within woodcut border. Woodcuts. 

Lucretius Carus (Titus) T. Lucretii Cari de rerum natura libri sex. 
Chelsea, in aedibus St. J, Hornby, 1913. Fol., pp. 256. R 36977 

*»* Printed on vellum. 

OVIDIUS NasO (Publius) Die Metamorphosen des P. Ovidius Naso. 
. . . [Sammlung Griechischer und Lateinischer Schriftsteller.l Berlin, 
1898-1903. 2 vols. 8vo. R 35332 

. »*';. ^"^^ ^,'^^^' Erklart von M. Haupt. Nach den Bearbeitungen von O. Kom und H. 
J. Muller in achter Auflage herausgegeben von R. Ehwald.— 1903. 

c-L ^.'.^"^LY^^^"'^^- • • • E^'J^'art von O. Kom. in dritter Auflage neu bearbeitet von R. 
bhwald. — Io9o. 

Tacitus (Publius Cornelius) The histories of Tacitus : an Elnglish trans- 
lation. With introduction, frontispiece, notes, maps. ... By George 
Gilbert Ramsay. . . . London, 1915. 8vo, pp. Ixxv, 463. R 38248 



298 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

870 LITERATURE: LATIN. 

TiBULLUS (Albius) Albii Tibulli carmina ex recensione Car. Lachmanni 
passim mutata explicuit Ludolphus Dissenius. . . . Gottingae^ 1835. 
2to1s. 8vo. R 34756 

VerGILIUS MaRO (Publius) The Georgics of Virgil, in heroic couplets. 
... By ... E. Cobbold. . . . [Latin and English.] London, \ 852. 
8to, pp. vii, 200. R 28209 

880 LITERATURE: GREEK. 

Browne (Henry Martyn) Handbook of Homeric study. . . . Second 
edition. [With maps and plates.] London, 1908. 8vo, pp. xvi, 333. 

R 38711 

Dunbar (Henry) A complete concordance to the comedies and fragments 
of Aristophanes. [With a preface by W. D. G., i.e. W. D. Geddes.] 
Oxford, 1883. 4to. pp. iv. 342. R 38194 

A complete concordance to ihe Odyssey end H)mwis of Homer. 

To which is added a concordamce to the parallel t assages in the Iliad, 
Odyssey, and Hymns. Oxford, 1680. 4to, pp. iv, 419. R 38195 

GlOTTA. Glotta: Zeitschrift fiir griechische und lateinische Sprache. 
. . . Gottingen, 1909-14. 5 vols. 8vo. R 36122 

1-4. Herausgegeben von P. Kretschmer und F. Skutsch. — 1909-13. 
5. Herausgegeben von P. Kretschmer und W. Kroll. — 1914. 

Lamb (Walter Rangeley Maitland) Clio enthroned : a study of prose-form 
in Thucydides. Cambridge, 1914. 8vo, pp. xv, 319. R 36401 

Sandys i^Sir John Edwin) A short history of classical scholarship from 
the sixth century B.C. to the present day. . . . With . . . illustrations. 
Cambridge, 1915. 8vo. pp. xv, 455. R 38389 

Smyth (Austin Edward Arthur Watt) The composition of the Iliad : an 
essay on a numerical law in its structure. . . . [With folding table.] 
London, 1914. 8vo, pp. vii, 225. R 38691 

WiLAMOWITZ-MOELLENDORFF (Ulrich von) Freiherr, Aischylos: 
interpretationem. Berlin, 1914. 8vo, pp. v, 260. R 38815 

Aeschylus. Aeschyli tragoediae. Edidit Udalricus de Wilamowitz- 
Moellendorff. Accedunt tabulae. . . . Berolini, 1914. 8vo, pp. 
XXXV, 381. R 38814 

Aristophanes. The Knights of Aristophanes. Edited by Robert 
Alexander Neil. . . . [With prefatory note subscribed W. S. H., i.e. 
W. S. Hadley, and L. W., i.e. L. Whibley.] [New impression.] 
Cambridge, 1909. 8vo, pp. xiv, 229. R 38524 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 299 

880 LITERATURE: GREEK. 

Euripides. The Alcestis of Euripides. Translated into English rhym- 
ing verse with explanatory notes by Gilbert Murray. . . . London, 
[1915]. 8vo. pp. xvi, 81. R 38696 

Homer. Die Homerische Odyssee. Von A. Kirchhoff. Zweite um- 
gearbeitete Auflage von " Die Homerische Odyssee und ihre Entste- 
hung " und *' Die Composition der Odyssee ". Berlin, 1879. 8vo, pp. 
xii, 597. R 31094 

Men AN DER, the Comic Poet. Four plays of Menander : The hero, 
Epitrepontes, Periceiromene and Samia. Edited, w^ith introductions, ex- 
planatory notes, critical appendix, and bibliography, by Edward Capps. 
. . . [With frontispiece.] [College Series of Greek Authors.] Boston, 
(1910]. 8vo, pp. xi, 329. R 391 18 

NiCOLAUS, Sophista. Nicolai progymnasmata. Edidit losephus Felten. 
[Bibliotheca . . . Teubneriana. Rhetores Graeci, 11.] Lipsiae, 1913. 
8vo, pp. xxxiii, 81. R 33367 

SCRIPTORES. Scriptorum classicorum bibliotheca Oxoniensis. Oxonii, 
1915. 8vo. In progress. R 9551 

Ovidius Naso (P.) P. Ovidi Nasonis Trislium libri quinque, Ex ponto libri quattuor, 
Halieutica fragmenta. Recognovit brevique adnotatione critica instruxit S. G. Owen. 

ThuCYDIDES. Oeuvres completes de Thucydide et de Xenophon, avec 
notices biographiques. Par J. A. C. Buchon. [Pantheon litteraire. 
Utterature Grecque.] Paris, 1836. 8vo, pp. xvi, 818. R 31294 

890 LITERATURE : MINOR LANGUAGES. 

Pali Text Society : [Publications]. Z^«^^;^, 1913-14. 8vo. In pro- 
gress. R 10046 

Khuddaka-Nikaya.— Sutta-Nipata. The Sutta-Nipata. New edition, by D. Andersen 
andH. Smith.— 1913. 

Khuddaka-Nikaya. — Dhammapada. The Dhammapada. New edition, by Siiriyagoda 
Sumangala . . .* — 1914. 

Yamaka. The Yamaka : being the sixth book of the Abhidhammapitaka. Edited by C. 
Rhys Davids . . . assisted by C. Dibben, M. C. Foley, . . . M. Hunt, and M. Smith. 
Vol. II.— 1913. 

KabIr. One hundred poems of Kabir. Translated by Rabindranath 
Tagore, assisted by Evelyn Underbill. [India Society.] London, 1914. 
8vo, pp. xxvii, 67. R 38082 

Rhys (Ernest) Rabindranath Tagore: a biographical study. [With 
plates.] London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xvii, 164. R 38677 

Tagore (Rabindra Nath) The post office: a play . . . translated by 
Devabrata Mukerjea. [With preface by W. B. Yeats.] Churchtown, 
Dundrum : Cuala Press, 1914. 8vo, pp. 37. R 36868 



300 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

890 LITERATURE: MINOR LANGUAGES. 

*UmAR KhaIYAM. The Ruba*iyat of Omar Khayyam : being a facsimile 
of the manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, with a transcript 
into modern Persian characters, translated, with an introduction and 
notes, and a bibliography, and some sidelights upon Edward Fitz Gerald's 
poem, by Edward Heron-Allen. . . . Second edition . . . revised 
and enlarged. [With frontispiece.] London, 1 898. 8vo, pp. xlii, 320. 

R 38808 

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a variorum edition of Edward Fitz 

Gerald's renderings into English verse. Edited by Frederick H. 
Evans. London: {Temple Sheen Press), 1914. 4to, pp. vii. 111. 

R 38273 

*»* 300 copies printed. 

Stephens (Thomas) of Merthyr Tydfil. The literature of the Kymry; 
being a critical essay on the history of the language and literature of 
Wales, during the twelfth and two succeeding centuries ; containing 
. . . specimens of ancient Welsh poetry in the original and accompanied 
with EngHsh translations. . . . Llandovery, 1849. 8vo, pp. xii, 512. 

R 36475 

Patrick, Saint, Apostle of Ireland, Louis Eunius, ou le purgatoire de 
saint Patrice : mystere breton en deux journees. Public avec introduc- 
tion, traduction et notes par Georges Dottin. . . . [With frontispiece.] 
[La Bretagne et les Pays Celtiques.] Paris, 191 1. 8vo, pp. 407. 

R 34655 



900 HISTORY: GENERAL. 

BREDOW (Gabriel Gottfried) Compendious view of universal history and 
literature, in a series of tables ; from the fifth edition of the German of 
G. G. Bredow. . . . To which is appended a table of painters . . . 
from the French notes of Sir Matthew van Bree. . . . The whole 
translated with considerable additions . . . by . . . James Bell. . . . 
Second edition. . . . London, 1824. Fol. R 34031 

FOURNIER (Edouard) L'esprit dans I'histoire : recherches et curiosites sur 
les mots historiques. . . . Troisieme edition revue et . . . augmentee. 
Paris, 1867. 8vo, pp. 468. R 37912 

GuiLLAND (Antoine) Modern Germany and her historians. . . . [With 
portrait.] London, 1915. 8vo, pp. 360. R 39081 

Hammond (Basil Edward] Bodies politic and their governments. . . . 
Cambridge, 1915. 8vo, pp. x, 559. R 38715 

LyaLL (Sir Alfred Comyn) Studies in literature and history. [With 
a preface by Sir J. O. Miller.] London, 1915. 8vo, pp. ix, 462. 

R 38249 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 301 

900 HISTORY: GENERAL. 

Oxford Historical and Literary Studies. Issued under the 

direction of C. H. Firth and Walter Raleigh. Oxford, 1915. 8vo. 
In progress. R 34690 

4. Courtney (W. P.) A bibliography of Samuel Johnson. . . . Revised ... by D. J. 
N. Smith.-I9l5. 

5. Tubbe (H.) Henry Tubbe. By G. C. Moore Smith.— 1915. 

SiMCOX (Edith J.) Primitive civilizations, or outlines of the history of 
ownership in archaic communities. London^ 1894. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 39200 

9IO HISTORY: GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL. 

MaNDEVILLE {Sir John) De Reis van Jan van Mandeville, naar de Mid- 
delnederlandsche handschriften en incunabelen. Vanwege de Maats- 
chappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde te Leiden. Uitgegeven door 
N. A. Cramer. Leiden, 1908. 8vo, pp. Ixvi, 321, 4. R 37916 

HaKLUYT Society. Works issued by the Hakluyt Society. Second 
series. London, 1913-14. 8vo. In progress. R 1828 

32. The quest and occupation of Tahiti by emissaries of Spain during the years 1 772-76. 
Told in dispatches and other contemporary documents : translated into English and compiled, 
with notes and an introduction, by B. G. Corney. . . . Vol. I. — 1913. 

35. Mundy (P.) The travels of P. Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-67. Edited by 
... Sir R. C. Temple. . . . Vol. II. Travels in Asia, 1628-34.— 1914. 

929 HISTORY : GENEALOGY AND FAMILY HISTORY. 

Buckley (James) Genealogies of the Carmarthenshire sheriffs, from 1 760 
to 1913. With complete list of sheriffs. . . . Carmarthen, 1913. 
1 vol. 8vo. R 22463 

Griffith (John Edwards) Pedigrees of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire 
families, with their collateral branches in Denbighshire, Merionethshire, 
and other parts. Compiled ... by J. E. Griffith. . . . Horncastle 
printed, 1914. Fol., pp. 410. R 37906 

Campbell, Clan. The Clan Campbell. . . . From the Campbell collec- 
tions formed by Sir Duncan Campbell of Barcaldine and Glenure, 
Baronet. . . . Prepared and edited by . . . Henry Paton. Edin- 
burgh, \^\b. 8vo. In progress. R 33882 

Abstracts of entries relating to Campbells in the Sheriff Court Books of Argyll at Inveraray. 
Second Series. — 1915. 

FiGAROLA-CaNEDA (Domingo) Escudos primitivos de Cuba. Con- 
tribucion historica. [With illustrations.] Habana, 1913. 8vo, pp. 
xii, 118. R 38891 

GrimALDI (Stacey) The descent of the family of the Grimaldi's of Genoa 
and ELngland . . . carried on to the present year by . . . William 
Beaufort Grimaldi. . . . Bristol, 1895. Fol. R 37300 

Johnston (James B.) The place-names of England and Wales. London,, 
1915 8vo, pp. vii, 532. R 38369 



302 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

929 HISTORY: GENEALOGY AND FAMILY HISTORY. 

Levis, Family of. Catalogue of engraved portraits, views, etc., connected 
with the name of Levis. [By H. C. Levis.] [With illustrations.] 
London, 1914. 4to, pp. xx, II 3. R 382 1 6 

MarSDEN (Benjamin Anderton) Genealogical memoirs of the family of 
Marsden ; their ancestors and descent traced from public records, vyrills, 
and other documents, and from private sources of information hitherto 
unrecorded by ... B. A. Marsden . . . James Aspinall Marsden 
. . . and Robert Sydney Marsden. . . . Birkenhead, 1914. 1 vol. 
4to. R 36767 

PaDIGLIONE (Carlo) Trenta centurie di armi gentilizie. Raccolte e des- 
critte da C. Padiglione. . . . Napoli, 1914. 8vo, pp. xxi, 375. 

R 37676 

RiETSTAP (lohannes Baptist) Planches de I'Armorial general de J.-B. 
Rietstap. Par V. Rolland. III. Paris, 1909[-12]. 4to. In 
progress, R 9667 

Wedgwood, afterwards Darwin (Emma) Emma Darwin, a century of 
family letters, 1792-18%. Edited by her daughter Henrietta Litchfield. 
. . . Illustrated. [With postscript by Bernard Darwin.] London, 
1915. 2 vols. 8vo. R 39016 

Bucks Parish Register Society. [Publications.] Aylesbury, 1914. 

8vo. In progress. R 8701 

18. Wing. The register of the parish of Wing . . . 1546-1812. . . . Transcribed by A. 
Vere Woodman. . . .— 1914. 

Durham and Northumberland Parish Register Society. 

Publications. Sunderland and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1914. 8vo. 
In progress. R 6393 

29. Castle Eden, Durham. The registers of Castle Eden. . . . Baptisms, 1661-1812. 
Marriages, 1698-1794. Burials, 1696-1812. Transcribed and edited by . . . F. G. T. 
Robinson. . . . indexed by A. E. & G. M. F. Wood.— 1914. 

30. Sherbum House, Durham. The registers of Sherbum Hospital. . . . Baptisms, 
1692-1812. Marriages. 1695-1763. Burials, 1678-1812. Transcribed by H. M.Wood. 
. . . indexed by A. E. Wood. . . .— 1914. 

HarLEIAN Society. Publications. . . . Registers. London, ]9]4'\ 5. 
8vo. In progress. R 1870 

44, 45. The registers of St. Mary le Bowe, Cheapside. All Hallows, Honey Lane, and 
of St. Pancras, Soper Lane, London. Edited by W. B. Bannerman. ... 2 vols. — 1914-15. 

Lancashire Parish Register Society. [Publications.] [With 

plates.] Wigan, Rochdale, and Cambridge, \9\?>. 8vo. In progress, 

R6705 

48. The registers of the parish church of Preston . . . 1611-35. Transcribed and edited 
by A. E. Hodder. . . . (The registers of the parish church of Broughlon, near Preston. 
Baptisms, 1653-1804. Burials, 1653-1803. Weddings, 1653-1759. Transcribed and edited 
by A. E. Hodder. Indexes by R. Wilkinson. . . .)— 1913. 

49. Middleton, Lancashire. The registers of the parish church of Middleton. . . . 
Christenings, burials, and weddings, 1 729-52. Transcribed by H . Brierley. . . . (The registers 
of the parish church of Prestwich. . . . Baptisms and burials, 1 689- 1711, weddings to 1712. 
Transcribed by H. Brierley. . . .) p^ith plates.l— 1913. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 303 

929 HISTORY: GENEALOGY AND FAMILY HISTORY. 

Phillimore's Parish Register Series. London, 1914. 8vo. In 

progress. R 5093 

136 Berkshire. — Registers. Berkshire parish registers. Marriages. Vol. II. Edited 
by ... W. P. W. Phiihmore ... and T. M. Blagg.— 1914. 

Putney, Surrey. The parish register of Putney, in the county of 
Surrey. Transcribed by Amy C. Hare. Edited by W. Bruce Banner- 
man . . . Vol.11. [With frontispieces.] Croydon : privately printed, 
1915. 8vo. In progress. R 35428 

Yorkshire Parish Register Society. PubHcations. \Leeds, 

printeii], \9\4. 8vo. In progress. R 6703 

50. The parish registers of Harewood. . . . Baptisms, 1614-1812. Marriages, 1621- 
1812. Transcribed and edited by W. Brigg.— 1914. 

932 HISTORY: ANCIENT: EGYPT. 

Berlin : KoENIGLICHE MusEEN : Hieratiche Papyrus aus den Konig- 
lichen Museen zu Berlin. Herausgegeben von der Generalverwaltung. 
. . . [With plates.] Leipzig, 1908-11. Fol. In progress, R 33697 

3. Schriftstiicke der VI. Dynastie aus Elephantine. Zauberspriiche far Mutter und 
Kind. Ostraka. [Edited by G. Moeller and A. H. Gardiner.]— 191 1. 

4, 5. Literarische Texte des mittleren Reiches. Herausgegeben von A. Erman. . . . 

i. Die Klagen des Bauern. Bearbeitet von F. Vogelsang und A. H. Gardiner. 
. . .— 1908. 

ii. Die Erzahlung des Sinuhe und die Hirtengeschichte. Bearbeitet von A. H. 
Gardiner. . . .— 1909. 

British School of Arch/eology in Egypt. British School of 

Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account . . . 1913. 
[With plates and illustrations.] London, 1913-15. 4to. In progress. 

R 15283 

23. Petrie (W. M. F.) Tarkhan I and Memphis V. By W. M. F. Petrie . . . G. A. 
Wainwright ... and A. H. Gardiner. . . .— 1913. 

25. Petrie (W. M. F.) Tarkhan II.— 1914. 

26. Engelbach (R.) Riqqeh and Memphis VI. . . . With chapters by M. A. Murray, 
H. F. Petrie. W. M. F. Petrie.— 1915. 

Egypt. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde Aegyptens. 
Herausgegeben von Kurt Sethe. Leipzig, X^X'h, 4to. In progress. 

R 23226 

6. Kommentar zu den Klagen des Bauern. Von F. Vogelsang. [With text and transla- 
tion.) 

Egypt Exploration Fund. The journal of Egyptian archaeology. 

[With plates and illustrations.] London, \9\^. 4to. In progress. 

R 35441 

Gardiner (Alan Henderson) and WeigALL (Arthur Edward Pearse) 
A topographical catalogue of the private tombs of Thebes. [With 
plates.] London, 1913. Fol, pp. 45. R 38546 

LONDON: University College : Museum. Amulets: illustrated by 
the Egyptian collection in University College, London. By W. M. 
FHnders Petrie. . . . [With plates.] London, 1914. 4to, pp. x, 58. 

R 38832 



304 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

932 HISTORY: ANCIENT: EGYPT. 

MarieTTE (Francois Auguste Ferdinand) (Euvres diverses. Publiees 
par G. Maspero . . . Tome premier. [With plates.] [Bibliotheque 
Egyptologique, 18.] Paris, 1904. 8vo. R 15229 

Martin (Louis Auguste) Les civilisations primitives en orient : Chinois — 
Indiens — Perses — Babyloniens — Syriens — Egyptiens. Paris, 1 861 . 
8vo, pp. iv, 552. R 22714 

Withers (Percy). Egypt of yesterday and to-day. . . . With . . . 
reproductions from photographs. London, \ 909. 8vo, pp. 293. 

R 38083 

935 HISTORY: MEDIO-PERSIA. 

BrITITH Academy. The Schweich Lectures. London, 1914. 8vo. 

R 38196 

1912. Johns (C. H. W.) The relations between the laws of Babylonia and the laws of the 
Hebrew peoples. . . . — 1914. 

Deutsche OriENT-GeselLSCHAFT. Sendschriften der Deutschen 
Orient-Gesellschaft. Leipzig and Stuttgart, 1899, etc. 8vo. In 
progress, R 35291 

1. Delitzsch (F.) Babylon. Mit einem Plan. . . .— 1899. 

2. Meissner (B.) Von Babylon nach den Ruinen von Hira und Huarnaq. — 1901. 

3. Delitzsch (F.) Im Lande des einstigen Paradieses. Ein Vortrag. Mit . . . Bildem. — 
1903. 

LaNGDON (Stephen) Tammuz and Ishtar : a monograph upon Babylonian 
religion and theology, containing extensive extracts from the Tammuz 
liturgies and all of the Arbela oracles. [With plates] Oxford, 1914. 
8vo, pp. vii, 1%. R 36403 

937 HISTORY: ANCIENT: ITALY. 

BeulE (Charles Ernest) Titus et sa dynastie. Paris, 1870. 8vo, pp. 
vii, 325. R 2391 9 

Le drame du Vesuve. Paris, 1872. 8vo, pp. 366. R 31728 

HerCULANEUM. Dissertationis isagogicae ad Herculanensium voluminum 
explanationem pars prima. [With plates and illustrations.] [Reale 
Accademia Ercolanese di Archeologia.] Neapoli, \ 191 . 1 vol. Fol. 

R 33563 

LaNCIANI (Rodolfo Amedeo) Storia degli scavi di Roma e notizie intorno 
le collezioni romane di antichita. Volume quarto. . . . Roma, 1912. 
4to. In progress. R 8955 

4. Dalla elezione di Pio V alia morte di Clementa VI II. 7 gennaio 1566 — 3 marzo 
1605. 

Pais (Ettore) Ricerche sulla storia e sul diritto pubblico di Roma. . . . 
Ro7na, 1915. 8vo. In progress. R 3782& 

Storia critica di Roma durante i primi cinque secoli. . . . Volume II. 

. . . Roma, 1915. 8vo. In progress. R 33474 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 305 

937 HISTORY: ANCIENT: ITALY. 

StRADA (Jacobus de) a Rosberg. Epitome Thesavri Antiqvitatvm, hoc 
est, Impp. Rom. Orientalium & Occidentalium Iconum, ex antiquis 
Numismatibus quam fidelissime deliniatarum.'J'Ex Musaeo lacobi de 
Strada. . . . [Printer's device beneath title.] [With woodcuts.} 

Lvgdvni {[Colophon:] . . . Excudebat Joannes Torncesius) Apvd 
lacobvm De Strada^ Et Thomam Gverinvm, M.D.LIII. . . • 4to, 
pp. [88]. 339. [3]. R 37547 

938-9 HISTORY: ANCIENT: GREECE AND ASIA MINOR. 

Berlin: KoENIGLICHE MusEEN. Konigliche Museen zu BerHn. 
Milet : Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem 
Jahre 1899. Herausgegeben von Theodor Wiegand. [With plates 
and illustrations.] ^Vr/z??, 1906-14. Pol. In progress. R 12669 

Hft. 1. Karte der milesischen Halbinsel (1 : 50000). Mit erlauterndem Text von P. 
Wilski.— 1906. 

Hft. 2. Das Rathaus von Milet. Von H. Knackfuss. Mit Beitragen von C. Fredrich, 
T. Wiegand, H. Winnefeld.— 1 908. 

Hft. 3. Das Deiphinion in Milet. Von G. Kawerau und A. Rehm, unter Mitwirkung 
von F. Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen, M. Lidzbarski, T. Wiegand, E. Ziebarth. — 1914. 

Bd. 3, hft. 1. Der Latmos. Von T. Wiegand, unter Mitwirkung von K. Boese, H. 
Delehaye. . . . H. Knackfuss, F. Krischen. K. Lyncker, W. von Marees, O. Wulff.— 1913. 

InSCRIPTIONES. Inscriptiones Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes. 
Auctoritate et impensis Academiae Inscriptionum et Litterarum Hum- 
aniorum collectae et editae. . . . Paris ^ 1901-11. 4to. In progress. 

R 35419 

I. Edendum curavit R. Cagnat, auxiliantibus J. Toutain et P. Jouguet. — 1901-1 1. 
3. Edendum curavit R. Cagnat, auxiliante G. Lafaye. — 1902-06. 

LerMINIER (Jean Louis Eugene) Histoire des l^gislateurs et des constitu- 
tions de la Grece antique. . . . Paris ^ 1852. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 28934 

Pen NELL (Joseph) Joseph Pennell's pictures in the land of temples : repro- 
ductions of a series of lithographs made by him in the land of temples, 
March-June, 1913, together with impressions and notes by the artist. 
London, []9\ 5]. 8vo. R 38760 

Walker (Edward Mewburn) The Hellenica Oxyrhynchia : its author- 
ship and authority. Oxford, 1913. 8vo, pp. 149. R 34848 

WeckLEIN (Nicolaus) Ueber Themistokles und die Seeschlacht bei 
Salamis. [Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-philologischen und histor- 
ischen Classe der k. b. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Miinchen. 
1892. Heft 1.] [Miincken, 1892.] 8vo, pp. 35. R 35750 

*»* The title is taken from the caption. 

940 HISTORY: MODERN: EUROPE. 

BaRRAL (Dominique de) Conite. Etude sur I'histoire diplomatique de 
I'Europe. Paris, \m:>. 2 vols. 8vo. R 28378 



306 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

940 HISTORY: MODERN: EUROPE. 

DeBIDOUR (Elie Louis Marie Marc Antoine) Histoire diplomatique de 
l*Europe depuis rouverture du congres de Vienne jusqu'a la fermeture 
du congres de Berlin, 1814-78. [Bibliotheque d'Histoire Contem- 
poraine.] Pan's, \S9\. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37554 

1. La Sainte-Alliance. 2. La Revolution. 

DUPUIS (Charles) Le principe d'equilibre et le concert europeen de la 
paix de Westphalie a I'acte d'Algesiras. . . . Paris, 1909. 8vo, pp. 
525. R 38470 

GUEDALLA (Philip) The partition of Europe: a textbook of European 
history, 1715-1815. [With maps.] Ox/brd, 1914. 8vo, pp. vii, 311. 

R 38724 

HeNNE-AM-RhYN (Otto) Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzziige. [With il- 
lustrations.] [lUustrierte Bibliothek der Kunst-und Kulturgeschichte.] 
Leip^t^, [1894]. 8vo, pp. 302. R 37997 

KlaCZKO (Julian) Deux chanceliers : le prince Gortchakof et le prince de 
Bismarck. Part's, 1876. 8vo, pp. 449. R 31330 

LaVELEYE (Emile Louis Victor de) 1 st Baron. Des Causes actuelles de 
guerre en Europe et de I'arbitrage. Bruxelles, Paris, 1873. 8vo, pp. 
275. R 24236 

Maurice {Sir John Frederick) The balsuice of military power in 
Europe : an examination of the war resources of Great Britain and the 
continental states. [With map.] Edinburgh and London, \^Q^. 8vo, 
pp. XXXV, 245. R 29256 

Phillips (Walter Alison) The confederation of Europe : a study of the 
European alliance, 1813-23, as an experiment in the international 
organization of peace. Six lectures delivered in the University Schools, 
Oxford, at the invitation of the delegates of the Common University 
Fund. Trinity term, 1913. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xv, 315. 

R 37495 

RaYNAL (Guillaume Thomas Francois) Histoire philosophique et politique 
des etablissemens et du commerce des Europeens dans les deux Indes. 
. . . Nouvelle edition, corrigee et augmentee d'apres les manuscrits auto- 
graphes de Tauteur ; precedee d'une notice biographique et de considera- 
tions sur les ecrits de Raynal, par. ... A. Jay ; et terminee par un 
volume supplementaire contenant la situation actuelle des colonies, par 
. . , Peuchet. (Atlas de toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre. 
. . . ) [With frontispieces.] Paris, 1820-21. 13 vols, in 12, 8vo 
and 4to. R 38312 

ShEPPARD (John George) The fall of Rome, and the rise of the new 
nationalities. A series of lectures on the connection between ancient 
and modern history. . . . London, 1861. 8vo, pp. x, 797. R 31331 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 307 

940 HISTORY: MODERN: EUROPE. 

StUBBS (William) successively Bishop of Chester and of Oxford. Lec- 
tures on European history (1 5 1 9-1 648). Edited by Arthur Hassall. . . . 
Londoyi, 1904. 8vo, pp. viii. 424. R 38223 

Weir (Archibald) The historical basis of modern Europe, 1760-1815. 
An introductory study to the general history of Europe in the nineteenth 
century. . . . London, 1886. 8vo, pp. xx, 616. R 31494 

Beck (James Montgomery) TTie evidence in the case : an analysis of 
the diplomatic records submitted by England, Germany, Russia, and 
Belgium in the supreme court of civilization, and the conclusions deduc- 
ible as to the moral responsibility for the war. . . . New York and Lon- 
don, [1914]. 8vo, pp. xxiv, 200. R 38378 

Brock (Arthur Glutton) Thoughts on the war. . . . From the Times 
Literary Supplement. Fifth edition. London, [] 9] 5?]. 8vo, pp. vii, 
86. R 38087 

More thoughts on the war. . . . From the Times Literary Sup- 
plement. London, [1915]. 8vo, pp. vi, 84. R 38557 

Dickinson (Goldsworthy Lowes) After the war. London, 1915. 8vo, 
pp. 44. R 38501 

HedIN (Sven Anders) With the German armies in the west. . . . Author- 
ised translation from the Swedish by H. G. de Walterstorff. With . . . 
illustrations and . . . maps. London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xvi, 402. 

R 38762 

Manchester Guardian. The •* Manchester Guardian " history of the 
war, 1914-. [With plates and illustrations.] Manchester, [1914-], etc. 
In progress. R 38863 

OliveRJ, (Frederick Scott) Ordeal by battle. . . . [New impression.] 
London, 1915. 8vo, pp. li, 437. R 39014 

Oxford Pamphlets, 191 4(-l 91 5). [Withmaps.] Oxford l\9\ 4, etc.]. 

8vo. In progress. R 37919 

1. The deeper causes of the war. By . . . Sanday. . . .—To the Christian scholars of 
Europe aiid America : a reply from Oxfoid to the German address to evangelical Christians. 
. . . (Address of the German theologians to the evangelical Christians abroad.)— The responsi- 
bility for the war. By W. G. S. Adams. . . .—Great Britain and Germany. By S. Wilkin- 
•on. ..." Just for a scrap of paper.'* By A. Hassall. ... i ... . 

2. The Germans : 1. Their empire : how they made it. By C. R. L. Fletcher. . " — 
The Germans : II, What they covet. By C. R. L. Fletcher. . . .—Might is right. By W 
?**f^8*l; • ; -—Austrian policy since 1867. By M. Beaven. . . .—Italian policy since 1870. 
By K. reiiing. ... . , . • 

3. French policy since 1871. By F. Morgan and H. W. C. Davis. . . .—Russia the 
psycholo^ of a nation By P. Vinogradoff. . , .—Germany and " The fear of Russia ". By 
Sir y. Chirol. . .—Serbia and the Serbs. By Sir V. Chirol. . . .—The Eastern Question. 
By F. F. Urquhart. ... ^ 

4. How can war ever be right ? By G. Murray. . . .—War against war. By A. D. 
Lindsay. . . .— Niietzsche and Treitschke : the worship of power in modern Germany. By 

E. Barker . . .—The value of small states. By H. A. L. Fisher -The national prin- 

aple and the war. By R. Muir. ... 



308 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

940 HISTORY: MODERN: EUROPE. 

5. The war and ihe British dominions. By H. E. Egerton. . . . — India and the war. By 
Sir E. J. Trevelyan. . . . — Is the British empire the result of wholesale robbery ? By H. E. 
Egerton, . . , — The law of nations and the war. By A. P. Higgins. . , , — England's 
mission. By W. Benett, . . . 

6. August, 1914: the coming of the war. By S. Wilkinson, , . , 

7. The retreat from Mons, By H. W, C. Davis. . . . — The battles of the Mamc and 
Aisne. By H, W, C, Davis. . . . — The navy and the war. By J. R. Thursfield. . . . — 
Bacilli and bullets. By Sir W. Osier, , , . 

8. The Double Alliance versus the Triple Entente. By J. M. Beck. . . .—The Ger- 
mahb in Africa. By E. Lewin, . . . — All for Germany, or, the world's respect well lost : 
being a dialogue, in the satyrick manner, between . . . Pangloss and . . . Candide. . . . — 
Germany : the economic problem. By C, G. Robertson. . , , — German sea-power. By C. 
S. Terry. ... 

9. What Europe owes to Belgium, By H, W, C, Davis. . . . — Poland, Prussia, and 
culture. By L. Ehrlich. . . . — Turkey in Europe and Asia . . . Reprinted , . . from the 
Political Quarterly of December, 1914. — Greek policy since 1882, By A. J. Toynbee. . . . 
—North Sleswick under Prussian rule, 1864-1914. By W. R. Prior. . . . 

10. Thoughts on the war. By G. Murray. . . . — :The leadership of the world. By F. 
S. Marvin. — The leading ideas of British policy. By G, Collier. . . . — The war and its 
economic aspects. By W. J. Ashley. — Food supplies in war-time. By R. H. Rew. . . . 

1 1. The battle of Ypres-Armentieres. By H. W. C. Davis. — Troyon : an engagement 
in the battle of the Aisne. By A. N. Hilditch — The action off Heligoland, August, 1914. 
by L. C. Jane. . . . — Non-combatants and the war. By A. P. Higgins. . . . 

12. The church and the war. By the Bishop of Lincoln [i.e. E. L. Hicks]. — Christmas 
and the war : a sermon by T. B, Strong, , , . — The Christian attitude to war. By A. 
L. Smith. — The war and theology. By W. B. Selbic. . . . — Concerning true war. By W. 
Wundt. Translated by G. E. Hadow. — How we ought lo feel about the war. By A. 
V. Dicey. ... 

1 3. Scandinavia and the war. By E. Bjorkman. — The war through Danish eyes. By a 
Dane. — The southern Slavs. By N. Forbes. . . . — Asia and the war. By A. E. Duchesne. 
— The war through Canadian eyes. By W. Peterson. . . . 

1 4. Through German eyes. By E. A. Sonnenschein. — German philosophy and the war. 
By J. H. Muirhead. — Outline of Prussian history to 1871. By E. F. Row. . . . — The man 
of peace. By R. Norton. — Fighting a philosophy. By W. Archer. 

15. Britain's war by land. By J. Buchan. — Sea power and the war. By J. R. Thurs- 
field. . . . — The stand lof Liege. By A. N. Hilditch. — Contraband and the war. By H. R. 
Pyke. . . . — Does international law still exist ? By Sir H. E. Richards . . . K.C.S,I. , . . 

16. The farmer in war-time. By C. S. Orwin. — British and German steel metallurgy. 
By J. O. Arnold. . . . — The war and the cotton trade. By S. J. Chapman. — The war and 
employment. By A. L. Bowley. . . . — Prices and earnings in time of war. By A. L. 
Bowley. . . . 

Price (Morgan Philips) The diplomatic history of the war, including a 
diary of negotiations and events in the different capitals, the texts of the 
official documents of the various governments, the public speeches in 
the European parliaments, an account of the military preparations 
of the countries concerned and original matter. Edited by M. P. 
Price. . . . London, [1914]. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 8vo. R 37565 

ROLLAND (Romain) The idols. . . . Together with a letter by . . . 
Rolland to . . . van Eeden on the rights of small nationalities. Trans- 
lated by C. K. Ogden. . . . Cambridge, 1915. 8vo, pp. 12. 

R 38504 

San DAY (William) The meaning of the war for Germany and Great 
Britain; an attempt at synthesis. Oxford, 1915. 8vo, pp. 124. 

R 38544 

Times. The Times history of the war. [With Maps and illustrations.] 
\London\, [1 91 4-] 1 91 6. 4to. In progress, R 38864 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 309 

940 HISTORY: MODERN: EUROPE. 

TOYNBEE (Arnold Joseph) Nationality and the war. With . . . maps. 
London and Toronto, 1915. 8vo, pp. xii, 522. R 39082 

941 HISTORY : MODERN : SCOTLAND AND IRELAND. 

Scotland. The covenants of Scotland. By John Lumsden. . . . With 
an appreciation by . . . Whyte. . . . [With frontispiece.] Paisley, 
1914. 8vo, pp.369. R 37447 

Scottish History Society. Publications. Second series. [With 

plates.] Edinburgh, \^\^'\b. 8vo. In progress, R 2465 

5. Scotland. Highland Papers. Volume I. Edited by J. R. N. Macphail.— 1914. 

6. 8. Melrose, Regality of. Selections from the records of the Regality of Melrose. 
1605-61 (-1676). Edited from the original volumes in the Register House, Edinburgh, and 
in the hands of . . James Curie, by Charles S. Romanes. ... 2 vols. — 1914-15. 

7. Orkney, Earldom of. Records of the Earldom of Orkney, 1299-1614. Edited with 
introduction and notes by J. Storer Clouston. — 1914. 

9. Steuart (J.) The letter-book of Bailie J. Steuart of Inverness, 1715-52. Edited by 
W. Mackay.— 1915. 

10. Dunkeld, BisJiopric of. Rentale Dunkeldense : being accounts of the bishopric, 
A.D. 1505-17. With Myln's "Lives of the bishops," A.D. 1483-1517. Translated and 
edited by R. K. Hannay. And a note on the Cathedral Church by F. C. Eeles.— 1915. 

New Spalding Club. [Publications.] [With plates.] Aberdeen, 
1914. 4to. In progress. R 2376 

Bulloch (J. M.) Territorial soldiering in the north-east of Scotland during 1759-1814. — 
1914. 

Fleming 0- S.) The town-wall fortifications of Ireland. . . . Illustrated 
by the author. Paisley, 1914. 4to. pp. 90. R 37444 

Gilbert {Sir John Thomas) A history of the city of Dublin. . . . [With 
maps.] Dublin, \^b^-^\, 3 vols. 8vo. R 38201 

MaCALISTER (Robert Alexander Stewart) Muiredach, Abbot of Monaster- 
boice, 890-923 A.D. : his life and surroundings. [With illustrations.] 
[Alexandra College, Dublin. Margaret Stokes Lectures, 1913.] 
Dublin, 1914. 4to, pp. xii, 85. R 36392 

Murphy G^^^" Nicholas) Ireland; industrial, political, and social. 
London, 1870. 8vo, pp. xxvi. 487. R 29422 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: PERIODS. 

GENERAL. — BLAND (Alfred Edward) Elnglish economic history: select 
documents. Compiled and edited by A. E. Bland. ... P. A. Brown 
. . . and R. H. Tawney. . . . London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xx, 730. 

R 37668 

Burke {Sir John Bernard) The historic lands of England. . . . [With 
plates.] London, 1849. 8vo, pp xxxv, 172. R 29815 

British Academy. Records of the social and economic history of 
England and Wales. [With map and tables.] London, 1914. 8vo. 
In progress. R 36461 

I. Denbigh, Honour of. Survey of the honour of Denbigh. 1334. Edited by P. 
Vinogradoff . . . and F. Morgan. . . . 



310 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: PERIODS. 

Catholic Record Society. Publications. [With plates.] London, 

1915. 8vo. In progress. R 10892 

17. Catholic Record Society. Miscellanea X. 

England. Calendar of the fine rolls preserved in the Public Record 
Office. Prepared under the superintendence of the deputy keeper of 
the records [i.e. Sir H. C. M. Lyte]. London, 1915. 8vo. In progress. 

R 2661 1 

5. Edward III. A.D. 1337-47. [Edited by A. E. Bland.]-1915. 

Calendar of inquisitions post mortem and other analogous documents 

preserved in the Public Record Office. Prepared under the superinten- 
dence of the deputy keeper of the records [i.e. Sir H. C. M. Lyte]. . . . 
London, \^\b. 8vo. In progress. R 6302 

[Second series.] 

Henry Vil. Vol. II. [Edited by A. St. J. S. Maskelyne.]-1915. 

A descriptive catalogue of ancient deeds in the Public Record 

Office. Prepared under the superintendence of the deputy keeper of the 
records [i.e. Sir H. C. M. Lyte]. . . . London, 1915. 8vo. In 
progress. R 3542 

English history in contemporary poetry. [Historical Association.] 

London, 1914, etc. 8vo. In progress. R 35438 

5. The eighteenth century. By . . . C. L. Thomson. . . . — 1914. 

The Merchant Adventurers of Elngland : their lavv^s and ordinances, 

with other documents. W. E. Lingelbach. . . . [University of Penn- 
sylvcmia : Department of History. Translations and Reprints from the 
Original Sources of European History : second series, 2.] {Philadelphia), 
1902. 8vo, pp. xxxix, 260. R 38836 

Proceedings of the Commissioners for the Arrangement and Pre- 
servation of the Public Records of the Kingdom, 1806-08. So far 
as relates to Scodand. Ordered, by the House of Conmions, to be 
printed, 30th March, 1808. [n.p., 1808]. Fol., pp. 67. R 38214 

Royal Conmiission on Historical Monuments, Ejigland. [With 

plates and illustrations.] London, V^Xl). 4to. In progress. R 23097 

An inventory of the historical monuments in Buckinghamshire. Volume two. 

Year books of Richard II. 12 Richard II, A.D. 1388-89. 



Edited ... by George F. Deiser. . . . [With facsimiles.] [The Ames 
Foundation.] Cambridge, \Mass\. 1914. 4to, pp. xxx, 239. 

R 36129 

InNES (Arthur Donald) A history of Englemd and the British empire. . . . 
Volume IV, 1802-1914. [With maps.] London,\^\b. 8vo. 

R 35356 

LiPSON (Ephraim) An introduction to the economic history of Ejigland. 
. . . London, 1915. 8vo. In progress. R 39104 

I . The middle ages. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 311 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: PERIODS. 

MacKAY (Thomas) The Ejiglish poor: a sketch of their social and 
economic history. . . . London, 1889. 8vo, pp. xi, 299. R 29209 

Maurice DE SelLON (P. £mile) Baron. De la defense nationale en 
Angleterre. . . . Avec une carte. Paris ^ 1 85 1 . 8vo, pp. 1 39. 

R 30071 

Rica R DO 0^^^^ Lewis) The anatomy of the navigation laws. . . . London^ 
1847. 8vo, pp. vi. 336. R 29618 

Robinson (H. J.) Colonial chronology. A chronology of the principal 
events connected with the English colonies and India from the close of the 
fifteenth century to the present time. With maps. Compiled and ar- 
ranged by H. J. Robinson. . . . London^ 1892. 4to, pp. xiv, 304. 

R 38095 

Rome. Calendar of entries in the papal registers [Regesta Romanorum 
pontificum], relating to Great Britain and Ireland. . . . London^ 1915. 
8vo. In progress. R 2830 

10. Papal letters . . . A.D. 1447-55. Prepared by j. A. Twemlow. . . .— 1915. 

SCHAIBLE (Carl Heinrich) Geschichte der Deutschen in England von den 
ersten germanischen Ansiedlungen in Britannien bis zum Ende des 18 
Jahrhunderts. . . . Strassburg, 1885. 8vo, pp. xviii. 483. R 38233 

Victoria History of the counties of England. Edited by H. A. 

Doubleday (and W. Page). [With maps and illustrations.] West- 
minster, \9\^. 4to. In progress. R9150 

Hertford. Edited by W. Page. . . . Volume IV.— 1914. 

York, North Riding. Edited by W. Page. . . . Volume I.— 1914. 

BiDDULPH 001^1^) The nineteenth and their times : being an account of 
the four cavalry regiments in the British army that have borne the number 
nineteen, and of the campaigns in which they served. . . . [With maps 
and plates.] London, 1899. 8vo, pp. xxi, 330. R 38357 

ANGLO-SAXON.— England. Hubert Pierquin. Recueil general des 
chartes anglo-saxonnes. Les saxons en Angleterre, 604-1061. Paris, 
1912. 8vo, pp. 871. R 35557 

Harmer (Florence Elizabeth) Select English historical documents of the 
ninth and tenth centuries. Edited by F. E. Harmer. . . . [With a 
preface by H. M. Chadwick.] Cambridge, 1914. 8vo, pp. x, 142. 

R 38091 

HaverfielD (Francis John) The Romanization of Roman Britain. . . . 
Third edition, further enlarged, with . . . illustrations. Oxford, 1915. 
8vo, pp. 91. R 38722 

PLANTAQENET.— Ballard (Adolphus) The English borough in the 
twelfth century : being two lectures delivered in the examination schools, 
Oxford, on 22 and 29 October, 1913. Cambridge, 1 91 4. 8vo, pp. 87. 

R 37348 

21 



312 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: PERIODS. 

TUDOR. — Cecil (Algernon) A life of Robert Cecil, first Earl of Salisbury. 
. . . With illustrations. London, 1915. 8vo, pp. xii, 406. R 38478 

ChEYNEY (Edward Potts) A history of England from the defeat of the 
Armada to the death of Elizabeth ; with an account of English institutions 
during the later sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. . . . London, 
1914. 8vo. In progress. R 37457 

STUART.— GUIZOT (Frangois Pierre Guillaume) Monk. Chute de la 
republique et retablissement de la monarchie en Angleterre, en 1660. 
ttude historique. . . . BruxelUs, 1851. 8vo. pp. 328. R 28368 

MacAULAY (Thomas Babington) Baron Macaulay. The history of 
England from the accession of James the Second. . . . Edited by 
Charles Harding Firth . . . Volume VI. [With plates and illustrations.] 
London, \^\b. 8vo. In progress, R 34984 

StRAETER (B. T. M.) Oliver Cromwell. Ein Essay (iber die englische 
Revolution des 17 Jahrhunderts. Leipzig, 1871. 8vo, pp. 521. 

R 25894 

ViLLEMAIN (Abel Frangois) Histoire de Cromwell. D*apres les memoires 
du temps et les recueils parlementaires. Bruxelles, 1 85 1 . 8vo, pp. 437. 

R 2431 7 

HANOVER.— AbELL (Francis) Prisoners of war in Britain, 1756-1815: 
a record of their lives, their romance, and their sufferings. [With plates 
and illustrations.] Oxford, 1914. 8vo. pp. viii, 464. R 38393 

CORNWALLIS (Charles) \st Marquis Comwallis. Correspondence of 
Charles, first Marquis Cornwallis. Edited, with notes, by Charles Ross. 
. . . Second edition. [With maps and portrait.] London, 1859. 
3 vols. 8vo. R 38676 

Harris (William) The ihistory of the Radical party in Parliament. 
London, 1885. 8vo, pp. viii, 510. R 29540 

VeiTCH (George Stead) The genesis of parliamentary reform. . . . With 
an introduction by Ramsay Muir. . . . London, 1913. 8vo, pp. xxxi, 
397. R 3871 7 

Walker (Thomas James) The depot for prisoners of war at Norman 
Cross, Huntingdonshire, 1796-1816. . . . [With plates.] London, 
1913. 8vo, pp. xiv, 351. R 38324 

WlNSTANLEY (Denys Arthur) Lord Chatham and the Whig opposition. 
. . . [With portrait.] Cambridge, 1912. 8vo, pp. ix, 460. R 38721 

VICTORIA AND AFTER.— AginCOURT. Agincourt MCCCCXV, 
Waterloo MDCCCXV. . . . [Compiled by Sydney Humphries.] Lo7i- 
don, 1915. Fol., pp. xxxiii, 65. R 38897 

* ^ 20 copies printed. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 313 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: PERIODS. 

Barrett (Charles Raymond Booth) The history of the Society of 
Apothecaries of London. . . . Illustrated by the author. London, ]905. 
4to. pp. xxxix. 310. R 38376 

BOWLEY (Arthur Lyon) The effect of the war on the external trade of the 
United Kingdom: an analysis of the monthly statistics, 1906-14. 
[With folding diagrams.] Cambridge, 1915. 8vo, pp. 55. R 38526 

England. Imperialism and patriotism, and the European crisis. [Edited 
by S. Humphries.] [With frontispiece.] [Sydney edition.] London, 
1914. Fol.. pp. xxvi, 51. R 37560 

*»* 500 copies printed. 

Foreign Office: Miscellaneous, No. 7, 1915. Correspondence 

between His Majesty's government and the United States ambassador, 
respecting the treatment of prisoners of war and interned civilians in the 
United Kingdom and Germany respectively. In continuation of " Mis- 
cellaneous, No. 5, 1915*': Cd. 7815. Presented to both Houses of 
Parliament by command of His Majesty, April, 1915. London, 1915. 
Fol., pp. xi, 67. R 38861 

LauGEL (Antoine Auguste) L'Angleterre politique et sociale. Paris, 
1873. 8vo, pp. 371. R 31419 

Murdoch (James) A history of constitutional reform in Great Britain and 
Ireland ; with a full account of the three great measures of 1832, 1867, 
and 1884. Glasgow, 1885. 8vo, pp. 408. R 29300 

Noble (John) National finance : a review of the policy of the last two 
parliaments, and of theresults of modem fiscal legislation. London, 1 875. 
8vo, pp. 368. R 29615 

Stephenson {Sir Frederick Charles Arthur) At home and on the battle- 
field : letters from the Crimea, China, and Egypt, 1 854-88. By Sir 
F. C. A. Stephenson, G.C.B. . . . Together with a . . . memoir of 
himself, of . . . Sir William Henry Stephenson, K.C.B. and of . . . 
Sir Benjamin Charles Stephenson, G.C.H. Collected and arranged by 
Mrs. Frank Pownall. With an introduction to the Egyptian letters by 
. . . Lord Grenfell. . . . With portraits and illustrations. London, 
1915. 8vo, pp. xvi, 383. R 38477 

VaSILI (Paul) Comte, pseud. La societe de Londres. Augmente de 
lettres inedites. Paris, 1885. 8vo, pp. 464. R 33061 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: COUNTIES. 

BEDFORDSHIRE.— Bedfordshire Historical Record Society. 

Publications. Volume I \etc\, [With plates.] Aspley Guise, 1913. 
8vo. In progress. R 34078 

CHANNEL ISLANDS.— Duncan (Jonathan) The history of Guernsey ; 
with occasional notices of Jersey. Alderney, and Sark, and biographical 
sketches. London, Guernsey, 1841. 8vo, pp. xvi. 655. R 29809 



314 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: COUNTIES. 

CORNWALL.— Smith (C. L. Hart) The borough of Dunhevet, 
Cornwall (Dunheved, otherwise Launceston . . .) its campanile or 
bell tower. A short history. . . . With . . . photographs. Plymouth^ 
1914. 8vo, pp. 47. R 37782 

CUMBERLAND.— Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquar- 
ian and Arch/eological Society. Transactions. . . . Editors: 
1866-67. . . . Simpson . . . 1868-73 [-1900]. Richard S. Ferguson. 
. . . [With plates and illustrations.] \Kendal\, 1874-1900. 16 vols, 
8vo. R 34699 

Index to . . . Vols. I to VII, inclusive. Compiled by W. B, 

Amison . . . Kendal, 1885. 8vo. R 34699 

Catalogue-index to . . . Vol. I, 1866, to Vol. XVI, 1900. Com- 
piled by Archibald Sparke. . . . Kendal, 1901. 8vo. R 34699 

New series [1901, etc\. Editor: W. G. Collingwood. . . . 

[With plates and illustrations.] \Kendal\, 1901-14. 13 vols. 8vo. 

R 34699 

An index-catalogue to . . . second series, Vols. I to XII, 1901-12. 



Compiled by Daniel Scott. Kendal, 1915. 1 vol. 8vo. R 34699 

Tract Series. London and Kendal, \^b2A9\2. 8vo. In progress. 

R 31767 

1. Fleming {Sir D.) Description of the county of Westmorland. . . . A.D, 1671. 
Edited . . . from the original MS. in the Bodleian Library, by Sir G. F. Duckett, Bart. — 
1882. 

2. Denton (J.) of Car dew. An account of the most considerable estates and families in 
the county of Cumberland from the conquest unto the beginning of the reign of K. James the 
First. . . . Edited . . . by R. S. Ferguson. . . .— 1887. 

3. Reming {Sir D.) Description of the county of Cumberland. . . . A.D. 1671. Edited 
. . . by R. S. Ferguson.— 1889. 

4. Sandford (E.) A cursory relation of all the antiquities & familyes in Cumberland. . . . 
Circa 1675. Edited . . . by . . . Ferguson.— 1 890. 

5. Todd (H.) Account of the city and diocese of Carlisle. Edited . . . by . . . Fer- 
guson. — 1890. 

6. Todd (H.) Notitia ecclesiae cathedralis Carliolensis : et notitia prioratus de Wedder- 
hal. Edited . . . by . . . Ferguson. — 1891. 

7. Hutton (W.) The Beetham repository, 1770. . . . Edited ... by J. R. Ford. 
[With "Sketch of the life of . . . W. Hutton, 1737-1811," by J. O. Crosse.] -1906. 

8. Haug (D.) Elizabethan Keswick: extracts from the original account books, 1564-77 
of the German miners [employed by D. Haug and H. Langnauer], in the archives of Augsburg. 
Transcribed and translated by W. G. Collingwood. . . . — 1912. 

9. Sparke (A.) A bibliography of the dialect literature of Cumberland and Westmorland, 
and Lancashire North-of-the-Sands. — 1907. 

DEVONSHIRE.— Devon and Cornwall Record Society. Pub- 
lications. [With plates.] Exeter, \\901A\9\ A. 8vo. In progress. 

R 11662 

Branscombe, Devon. The register of baptisms, marriages, and burials of the parish of 
Branscombe, Devon, 1539-1812. Transcribed and edited by H. Tapley-Soper . . . and 
E. Chick.— [1908-11913. 

Cornwall. Cornwall feet of fines. Volume I. Richard I-Edward III. 1195-1377. 
Edited by J. H. Rowe — [1907-]1914. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 315 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: COUNTIES. 

Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature, 
and Art. [Publications.] Plyrnouth, \9\^. 8vo. In progress. 

R 26169 

Calendar of wills and administrations relating to the counties of Devon and Cornwall 
proved in the Consistory Court of the Bishop of Exeter, 1532-1800, now preserved in the Pro- 
bate Registry at Exeter. Edited by E. A. Fry.— 1914. 

Worth (Richard Nicholls) The history of Plymouth from the earliest 
period to the present time. . . . Second edition. Revised and aug- 
mented. . . . [With illustrations.] Plymouth, 1873. 8vo. pp. vi, 
368. R 29813 

HAMPSHIRE.— Mate (Charles H.) and RiDDLE (Charles) Bourne- 
mouth : 1810-1910. The history of a modern health and pleasure resort. 
. . . With preface by . . . the Duke of Argyll. With illustrations 
. . . maps and . . . plans. Bournemouth, 1910. 8vo, pp. iii, 292. 

R 39021 

HEREFORD.— DUNCUMB (]o\iTi) Collections towards the history and 
antiquities of the county of Hereford. In continuation of Duncumb's 
history. ... By John Hobson Matthews. . . . Hereford, 1912-15. 
3 pts. 4to. In progress. 13338 

KENT.— GlyNNE {Sir Stephen Richard) Bart. Notes on the churches 
of Kent. . . . With illustrations. London, 1877. 8vo, pp. xiv, 351. 

R 29823 

Griffin (Ralph) Kentish items. By ... R. Griffin. . . . Reprinted 
from the ** Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society," Vol. VI. . . . 
[With plates and illustrations.] London, [1914?]. 4 pts. in 1 vol. 

R 38351 

*»* The title is taken from the wrapper. 

HaSLEWOOD (Francis) Memorials of Smarden. Kent. [With portrait and 
illustrations.] Ipswich : privately printed^ 1 886. 4to, pp. xv, 329. 

R 29826 

Kent ARCHv^OLOGICAL Society. Records Branch. Founded for 
the publication of records and documents relating to the county. Lon- 
don, \^\^. 8vo. In progress. R 30564 

2. Churchill (I. J.) Kent records. A handbook to Kent records. Containing a summary 
account of the principal classes of historical documents relating to the county, and a guide to 
their chief places of deposit. Compiled ... by I, J. Churchill. . . . — 1914. 

Kent. Drawings of brasses in some Kentish churches. . . . [Made by 
T. Fisher. Edited by R. Griffin.] London, [1913 ?]. 8vo. R 38350 

*^ The title is taken from the wrapper. 

Kent. Some indents of lost brasses in Kent. . . . [Eldited by R. Griffin.] 
London, [\9] 4]. 8vo. R 38352 

*♦* The title is taken from the wrapper. 

Philip (Alex. J.) History of Gravesend and its surroundings from pre- 
historic times to the opening of the twentieth century. . . . Illustrated. 
London, \9\ 4. 8vo. In progress. R 39149 



316 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: COUNTIES. 

Vincent (William Thomas) The records of the Woolwich district, 
[With plates.] IVoo/wic/i, [\Sm-90]. 2 vols. 8vo. R 37279 

LANCASHIRE.— Aston Goseph). A picture of Manchester. [With 
plan and illustrations.] Manchester, [1816]. 8vo, pp. iv, 230. 

R 37485 

CaROE (William Douglas) and GORDON (E. J. A.) Sefton : a descriptive 
and historical account comprising the collected notes and researches of 
. . . Engelbert Horley . . . rector, 1871-83, together with the re- 
cords of the mock corporation. [With plates and illustrations.] 
London, 1893, 8vo, pp. xxiii, 520. R 36969 

CheTHAM (Humphrey) The last will of H. Chetham, of Clayton, in the 
county of Lancaster . . . dated December 16, 1651 ; whereby he 
founded and endowed an hospital and library in Manchester. Also the 
charter of King Charles II, dated November 10, 1665, for making the 
trustees under . . . Chetham's will a body- corporate. Manchester, 
[n.d.]. 4to, pp. 56. R 35815 

Liverpool. Liverpool vestry books. 1681-1834. Edited by Henry 
Peet. . . . Volume II. . . . [With facsimiles and plates.] [University 
of Liverpool. School of Local History and Records.] Liverpool, 1915. 
8vo. In progress, R 30785 

LINCOLN.— Gainsborough. Gainsburgh during the great civil war. 
[By Edward Peacock.] [n.p., 1866.] 8vo, pp. 27. R 37310 

MesSITER (A. F.) Notes on Epworth parish life in the eighteenth century. 
[With plates.] London, 1912. 8vo, pp. vii, 81. R 38067 

MIDDLESEX. — LONDON. Records of the worshipful Company of 
Carpenters. . . . Transcribed and edited by Bower Marsh. . . . 
6>;r^r^, 1913-14. 2 vols. 8vo. R 35878 

1. Apprentices* entry books, 1654-94. — 1913. 

2. Warden's account book, 1438-1516.— 1914. 
%* 250 copies printed. This copy is No. 1 57. 

London. Calendar of Coroners Rolls of the City of London, A.D. 1300- 
78. Edited by Reginald R. Sharpe. . . . Printed by order of the 
corporation under the direction of the library committee. [With facsi- 
mile.] London, 1913. 8vo, pp. xxviii, 324. R 35881 

NORFOLK.— Norfolk. An address from the gentry of Norfolk and 
Norwich to General Monck in 1 660. Facsimile of a manuscript in the 
Norwich Public Library. With an introduction by Hamon Le Strange 
. . . , and biographical notes by Walter Rye. . . . [With portraits.] 
Norwich, 1913. 4to, pp. 69. R 35290 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE.— ThoROTON SOCIETY. Thoroton Society. 
Record Series. {Newark printed\,\[9\^\, 8vo. R 22461 

England. Abstracts of the Inquisitiones post mortem relating to Nottinghamshire. Vol. 
II. Henry III, Edward I, and Edward II, 1242-1321. Edited by John Standish. . . .— 
1914. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 317 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: COUNTIES. 

OXFORD.— Oxford Historical Society. [Publications.] [With 

facsimiles.] Oxford, \9\ 4. 8vo. In progress. R 1048 

66. Oxford.— Hospital of Saint John the Baptist. A cartulary of the Hospital of St. John 
the Baptist. Edited by . . . H. E. Salter. . . . 

SUSSEX.— Butler (Anna M.) Steyning, Sussex. The history of 
Steyning and its church from 700-1913. . . . With illustrations and 
portraits. Croydon [1913]. 8vo. pp. 136. R 36187 

WORCESTER.— England. [Domesday Survey.] A literal extension 
of the Latin text ; and an English translation of Domesday book in re- 
lation to the county of Worcester. To accompany the facsimile copy 
photo-zincographed ... at the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton. 
Worcester, 1864. Fol.. pp. ii, 50. ix. R 34996 

YORKSHIRE.— HeYWOOD (Oliver) The Rev. Oliver Heywood, 1630- 
1 702 ; his autobiography, diaries, anecdote, and event books ; illustrating 
the general and family history of Yorkshire and Lancashire. . . . With 
illustrations. Edited by J. Horsfall Turner. Brighouse and Bingley, 
1881-85. 4 vols. 8vo. R 38541 

GRAINGE (William) The history and topography of Harrogate, and the 
forest of Knaresborough. [With map and plates.] London, 1871. 
8vo. pp. xii, 511. R 29848 

MeDHURST (Charles Edw^ard) Life and w^ork of Lady Elizabeth Hastings, 
the great Yorkshire benefactress of the xviiith century, together v^ith 
some account of Ledsham and Ledstone, Thorp Arch and Collingham, 
to vv^hich is added a complete roll of the Hastings* exhibitioners of 
Queen's College, Oxford, with annotations by . . . Magrath, Provost 
of Queen's College. . . . With illustrations. Leeds ^ 1914. 8vo, pp. 
292. R 37908 

Smith (William) The history and antiquities of Morley, in the West 
Riding of the county of York. With . . . illustrations. . . . London, 
1876. 8vo, pp. xii, 272. R 29889 

ThORESBY Society. Publications. Leeds, 1913. 8vo. In progress, 

R5095 

19. York.— Cowr^ of Probate. Testamenta Leodiensia. Wills of Leeds, Pontefract, 
Wakefield, Odey, and district, 1539-53. Extracted (from the Probate Registry at York) 
and edited by G. D. Lumb.— 1913. 

Yorkshire. Early Yorkshire charters ; being a collection of documents 
anterior to the thirteenth century made from the public records, monastic 
chartularies, Roger Dodsworth's manuscripts and other available sources. 
Edited by William Farrer. . . . Edinburgh, \9\^. 8vo. In progress. 

R 37643 

WALES.— BridgeMAN {Hon. George Thomas Orlando) History of the 
princes of South Wales. Wzgan, 1876. 8vo, pp. vi, 309. R 38553 



318 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

942 HISTORY: MODERN: ENGLAND: COUNTIES. 

England. The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monu- 
ments and Constructions in Wales and Monmouthshire. An inventory 
of the ancient monuments in Wales and Monmouthshire. [With maps 
and plates.] London, ]9\2'\ 4. Fol. In progress. R 29236 

2. Countyof Flint.— 1912. 

3. County of Radnor.— 1913. 

4. County of Denbigh.— 1914. 

Evans (Howell Thomas) Wales and the Wars of the Roses. [With 
maps.] Cambridge, 1915. 8vo. pp. vi, 244. R 39085 

943 HISTORY: MODERN: GERMANY. 

BaRTH^LEMY (Hippolyte) L*ennemi : I'ennemi chez lui. Paris, 1887. 
8vo, pp. viii. 484. R 28858 

Blum (Hans) Die deutsche Revolution, 1848-49. Eine Jubilaumsgabe 
fiir das deutsche Volk . . . Mit . . . Faksimilebeilagen und Illustra- 
tionen. Florenz und Leipzig, 1897. 8vo, pp. xiv. 480. R 31408 

Brown (Haydn) The secret of human power. [With illustrations.] 
London, [1915]. 8vo, pp. 328. R 39154 

Carpenter (Edward) The healing of nations and the hidden sources of 
their strife. . . . London, [1915]. 8vo, pp. 266. R 38543 

England. Report of the Committee on alleged German outrages. . . . 
[With maps.] London, 1915. 4to. pp. 38. R 38860 

Germany. Deutsche Reichstagsakten. . . . 6^^//!^, [19 12-] 1914. 4to. 
In progress. R 6734 

15. Unter Kaiser Friedrich III. Erste Ableilung, 1440-41. Herausgegeben von H. 
Herre. . . .—[1912-] 1914. 

German culture : the contribution of the Germans to knowledge, 

literature, art, and life. Edited by . . . W. P. Paterson. . . . London, 
1915. 8vo, pp. X, 384. R 38556 

HaNSE Towns. Hansisches Urkundenbuch. Herausgegeben vom 

Verein fiir Hansische Geschichte. Halle and Leipzig, 1876-1907. 9 

vols. 4to. In progress. R 33008 

1-3. Bearbeitet von K. Hohlbaum.— 1876-86. 
4-6. Bearbeitet von K. Kunze. . . .— 1896-1905. 
8-10. Bearbeitet von W. Stein. . . .— 1899-1907. 

King (Wilson) Chronicles of three free cities : Hamburg, Bremen, Liibeck. 
. . . With an introduction by . . . J. P. Mahaffy and . . . illustrations 
by Mrs. Wilson King and others. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xx, 464. 

R 37473 

LeVY-BrUHL (Lucien) L*Allemagne depuis Leibniz. Essai sur le de- 
▼eloppement de la conscience nationale en Allemagne, 1 700- 1 848. 
Paris, 1890. 8vo, pp. iv, 490. R 28296 

Lighten BERGER (Henri) Germany and its evolution in modem times. 
. . . Translated from the French by A. M. Ludovici. Second impres- 
sion. London, 1913. 8vo, pp. xxv, 440. R 38397 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 319 

943 HISTORY : MODERN : GERMANY. 

Netherlands. Niederlandische Akten und Urkunden zur Geschichte 
der Hanse und zur deutschen Seegeschichte. Herausgegeben vom 
Verein fiir Hansische Geschichte. Bearbeitet von Rudolf Hapke. 
Miinchen und Leipzig, \^\'h. 1vol. 4to. In progress. ^yh'hyh 

Saint Paul (Horace) Count, A journal of the first two campaigns of 
the Seven Years* War. Written in French. . . . Edited by George 
Grey Butler. . . . [With maps and portraits.] Cambridge, 1914. 
8vo, pp. Ixiv, 432. R 38695 

Strauss (Bettina) La culture fran^aise a Francfort au XVIII^ siecle. 
[Bibliotheque de Litterature Comparee.] Paris, 1914. 8vo, pp. 292. 

R 38403 

TreITSCHKE (Heinrich von). Germany, France, Russia, and Islam. 
[Translated from the German.] [With portrait.] London, \9\b. 8vo, 
pp. 327. R 38070 

Usher (Roland Greene) Pan- Germanism. . . . [New impression.] 
London, 1914. 8vo, pp. 284. R 38387 

VaSILI (Paul) Comte, pseud. La societe de Berlin. Augmente de lettres 
inedites. Vingt-cinquieme edition. Paris, 1885. 8vo, pp. 262. 

R 37001 

VerGNET (Paul) France in danger. . . . Translated by Beatrice Barstow. 
London, 1915. 8vo. pp. xx, 167. R 38542 

Verein fuer Hansische Geschichte. Inventare hansischer Archive 

des sechszehnten Jahrhunderts. Herausgegeben vom Verein fiir Han- 
sische Geschichte. Miinchen und Leipzig, 1913. 4to. In progress. 

R 30864 

3. Danzig. Danziger I nventar, 1531-91. Bearbeitet von P. Simson. Mit einem Akten- 
Anhang.— 1913. 

Hansische Geschichtsquellen. Herausgegeben vom Verein fiir 

Hansische Geschichte. Halle, etc., 1875-1906. 10 vols. 8vo. In 
progress. R 32895 

1. Stralsund. Das Verfestungsbuch der Stadt Stralsund. Von O. Francke. Mit einer 
Einleitung von F. Frensdorff, — 1875. 

2. Wismar. Die Rathslinie der Stadt Wismar. Von F. Cruli. . . .— 1875. 

3. Dortmund. Dorlmunder Statuten und Urtheile. Von F. Frensdorff.— 1 882. 

4. Luebeck. Das Buch des lubecklschen Vogts auf Schonen nebst . . . Beilagen. Mit 
. . . Tafeln und . . . Karlen. Von D. Schafer.— 1 887. 

5. Revel. Revaler Zollbiicher und-Quittungen des 14 Jahrhunderts. Von . . . W. 
Stieda. . . . — 1887. 

r^ ,^' .^^^'^J'f [Miscellaneous Public Documents.— I. Collections.] Hanseakten aus 
England, 1275 bis 1412. Bearbeitet von K. Kunze.— 1891. 

^^r^J' Moscow Berichte und Akten der hansischen Gesandtschaft nach Moskau im Jahre 
1603. Von O. Bliimcke.— 1894. 
Neue Folge. 
, \'n Ly«!^ck — Rigafahrer. Geschichte und Urkunden der Rigafahrcr in Lubeck im 16 
wnd 17 Jahrhundert. Bearbeitet von . . . F. Siewert.— 1897. 

« 2. Luebeck.— Bergenfahrer. Die lubecker Bergenfahrerund ihre Chronistik. Von F. 
Bruns. — 1900. 

3. Wismar. Die Btirgersprachen der Stadt Wismar. Von F. Techen.— 1 906. 



320 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

943 HISTORY: MODERN: GERMANY. 

VeREIN FUER HaNSISCHE GeSCHICHTE. Abhandlungen zur Ver- 
kehrs-und Seegeschichte. Im Auftrage des Hansischen geschichtsvereins 
herausgegeben von Dietrich Schafer. . . . Berlin, 1913-14. 8vo. In 
progress. R 26596 

7. Brinner (L.) Die deutsche Gronlandfahrt.— 1913. 

8. Juergens (A.) Zurs chleswig-holsteinischen Handelsgeschichte des 16 und 17 Jahr- 
hunderts. — 1914. 

943 HISTORY: MODERN: AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY. 

Crosse (Andrew F.) Round about the Carpathians. [With map.] Edin^ 
bu7'gh and London, 1878. 8vo, pp. viii, 375. R 31650 

GaYDA (Virginio) Lltalia d'oltre confine : le provincie italiane d' Austria. 
[Civilta Contemporanea, 20.] Torino, 1914. 8vo pp. xix, 490. 

R 38734 

VaSILI (Paul) Comte, pseud. La societe de Vienne. Augmente de lettres 
inedites. Cinquieme edition. Paris, 1885. 8vo, pp. 446. R 37000 

944 HISTORY: MODERN: FRANCE. 

AUBIGN^ (Fran^oise d*), afterwards SCARRON (Frangoise) Marquise de 
Maintenon. Correspondance generale de Madame de Mciintenon. 
Publiee . . . sur les autographes et les manuscrits authentiques avec 
des notes et commentaires par Theophile Lavallee. Precedee d'une 
etude sur les lettres de M™« de Maintenon publiees par La Beaumelle. 
Paris, 1865-66. 4 vols. 8vo. R 38225 

*»* No more published. 

BaX (Ernest Belfort) Jean-Paul Marat, the people's friend. . . . With 
illustrations. Second edition. London, 1901. 8vo, pp. xvi, 353. 

R 28314 

BeckE (A. F.) Napoleon and Waterloo ; the Emperor*s campaign v^ith 
the armee du nord, 1815. A strategical and tactical study. . . . With 
. . . maps. London, 1914. 2 vols. 8vo. R 39062 

Benedetto (Luigi Foscolo) Madame de Warens. D'apres de nouveaux 
documents. Avec un portrait et un fac- simile. Paris,\9\4. 8vo, pp. 
328. R 38858 

BraDBY (E. D.) The life of Barnave. . . . [With frontispieces.] Ox- 
ford, ]9\ 5. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38834 
CaRLYLE (Thomas) The French revolution : a history. . . . With illus- 
trations by Edmund J. Sullivan. . . . London, 1910. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 38555 

Clement (Jean Pierre) Histoire de la vie et de Tadministration de Col- 
bert, controleur general des finances. . . . Precedee d'une etude 
historique sur Nicolas Fouquet, surintendant des finances; suivie de 
pieces justificatives, lettres et documents inedits. Paris, 1846. 8vo,^ 
pp. xiii, 520. R 30279 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 321 

944 HISTORY: MODERN: FRANCE, 

ClERON (Joseph Othenin Bernard de) Comte d' Haussonville. Ma 
jeunesse, 1814-30: souvenirs. Paris, 1885. 8vo, pp. 342. 

R3138S 

The salon of Madame Necker. . . . Translated from the French 

by Henry M. Trollope. . . . London, 1882. 2 vols. 8vo. R 31493 

CORDIER (Joseph Louis fetienne) La France et I'Angleterre ; ou re- 
cherches sur les causes de prosperites et les chances de decadence des 
deux nations, et propositions de reformes. Paris, 1843. 8vo, pp. xiv, 
422. R 28355 

CORNI^LY (Jean Joseph) Notes sur I'affaire Dreyfus. Edition du Figaro. 
Paris, [1899]. 8vo. pp. 643. R 28354 

DaNTON (Georges Jacques) (Euvres de Danton. Recueillies et annotees 
par A. Vermorel. Paris, [1866]. 8vo, pp. 316. R 38401 

DeMOLINS (Edmond) Les Franqais d'aujourd'hui. . . . [With maps.] 
Prtm. [1898]. 8vo. In progress. R 29008 

1 . Les types sociaux du midi et du centre. 

France. Discours du roi, a Touverture du Lit de justice, tenu a Ver- 
sailles, le 8 Mai 1 788. (Discours de . . . le garde des sceaux, pour 
annoncer I'ordonnance du roi, sur Tadministration de la justice. — Or- 
donnance du roi, sur Tadministration de la justice. — Discours de . . . 
le garde des sceaux, pour annoncer I'edit du roi, portant suppression des 
tribunaux d'exception. — Edit du roi, portant suppression des tribunaux 
d'exception. — Discours de . . . le garde des sceaux, pour annoncer la 
declaration du roi, relative a I'ordonnance criminelle. — Declaration 
du roi, relative a I'ordonnance criminelle. — Discours de . . . le 
garde des sceaux, pour annoncer I'edit du roi, portant reduction d'offices 
dans sa cour de parlement de Paris. — Edit du roi, portant reduction 
d'offices dans sa cour de parlement de Paris. — Discours de . . . le 
garde des sceaux, pour annoncer I'edit du roi, portant retablissement de 
la cour pleniere. — Edit du roi, portant retablissement de la cour pleniere. 
— Discours de . . . le garde des sceaux, pour annoncer la declaration 
du roi, sur les vacances. — Declaration du roi, sur les vacances. — Dis- 
cours du roi, a la fin du Lit de justice, tenu a Versailles, le 8 Mai 1 788.) 
[ Versailles, \ 788.] 4to. R 38745 

*»* These pieces seem to form a collection and, with the exception of the first, and last, 
are connected with a running number. 

Compte rendu au roi, au mois de mars 1 788, et public par ses ordres. 

Paris, 1 788. 4to, pp. xiv, 183. R 38746 

Collection des memoires presentes a I'assemblee des notables. 

Premiere et seconde division. Versailles, \ 1%1 . 4to, pp. viii, 84. 

R 37841 

Discours du roi, prononce a I'assemblee de notables, du lundi 

23 avril 1787. {Versailles, 1 787.] 4to, pp. 4. R 38774 

*»* The title is taken from the caption. 



322 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

944 HISTORY: MODERN: FRANCE. 

France. Discours prononce de Tordre du roi et en sa presence par . . . 
de Calonne, controleur general des finances, dans I'assemblee des notables, 
tenue a Versailles, le 22 fevrier 1 787. Versailles, \1^1 . 4to, pp. 34. 

R 38578 

Discours prononces a I'assemblee de notables, du vendredi 25 mai 

1787. Versailles, 1787. 4to, pp. 36. R 38740 

— — Observations presentees au roi par les bureaux de I'assemblee 
de notables, sur les memoires remis a I'assemblee ouverte par le roi, a 
Versailles, le 23 fevrier 1787. Versailles, \1%1 . 4to, pp. 222. 

R 38742 

Proces-verbal de I'assemblee de notables, tenue a Versailles, en 

I'annee M. DCCLXXXVII. Paris, \ 778. 4to. pp. 326. R 38743 

Guerre de 1914. Documents officiels : textes legislatifs et regle- 

mentaires. 31 juillet-15 octobre 1914 (-l^r juin 1915). . . . 
(Public sous la direction de . . . Gaston Griolet . . . Charles Verge. 
. . . Avec la collaboration de . . . Henry Bourdeaux. . . . — Sup- 
plement aux volumes I et II. . . .) Paris, 1914, etc. 5 vols. 8vo. 
In progress. R 38528 

Ministere des affaires etrangeres. Documents diplomatiques. 1914. 

La guerre europeenne. . . . Paris, 1914. Fol. In progress. 

R 37824 

GODLEY (Hon. Eveline Charlotte) The great Conde : a life of Louis II de 
Bourbon, Prince of Conde. . . . With portraits and maps. London, 
1915. 8vo, pp. xii, 634. R 38551 

GREGOIRE (Louis) Geographic physique, politique et economique de la 
France et de ses colonies. . . . Deuxieme edition revue et corrigee. 
Paris, 1874. 8vo, pp. 395. R 31441 

LeHUGEUR (Paul) Histoire de Philippe le Long, roi de France, 1316- 
1322. Paris, \^^1. 8vo. In progress. R 38683 

MaiSTRE Ooseph Marie de) Comte. CEuvres completes de J. de Maistre. 
. . . Contenant ses ceuvres posthumes et toute sa correspondance inedite. 
[With portrait.] Z>^^«, 1884-93. 14 vols. 8vo. R 38549 

MiRON DE L'ESPINAY (Albert) Francois Miron et I'administration muni- 
cipale de Paris sous Henri IV de 1604 a 1606. . . . [With portrait] 
Paris, 1885. 8vo, pp. iii, 437. R 31416 

Murray (James). French finance and financiers under Louis XV. 
London, 1858. 8vo, pp. viii, 357. R 29375 

PrOUDHON (Pierre Joseph) Correspondance de P. J. Proudhon. Pre- 
cedee d'une notice sur P. J. Proudhon par J. A. Langlois. [With por- 
trait.] Paris, \%lb. 14 vols. 8vo. R 38682 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 323 

944 HISTORY: MODERN: FRANCE. 

Robespierre (Maximilien Marie Isidore) CEuvresde Robespierre. Re- 
cueillies et annotees par A. Vermorel. Deuxieme edition. Paris, 1867. 
8vo. pp. vii. 346. R 38402 
(Euvres completes de M. Robespierre. Publiees par Victor Bar- 
bier . . et Charles Vellay . . . [Supplement a la Revue historique 
de la revolution frangaise]. Paris, 1910[-I913]. 8vo. R 24505 

I. [(Euvres judiciaires, 1782-89,] 

SaYOUS (tdouard) La France de Saint Louis d'apres la poesie nationale. 
These presentee a la Faculte des lettres de Paris. Paris, 1866. 8vo, 
pp. vii. 208. R 37918 

SOCI^TE DE L'HiSTOIRE DE FRANCE. [Publications.] [With plates.) 
Paris, \9\4. 8vo. In progress. R 2485 

France. Histoire de la Ligue. (Euvre . . . d*un contemporain. Publiee . . . par C. 
Valois. Vol. 1.— 1914. 

Rochechouart (L. V. de) Due de Vivonne. Correspondance du mar^chal de Vivonne re- 
lative a I'expedition de Messine. Publiee . , . par J. Cordey. Vol I. — 1914. 

SOCIETE DE L'HiSTOIRE DE NORMANDIE. [Ouvrages publics par la 
Societe de THistoire de Normandie.j Paris, \9]3. 4to. In progress. 

R8898 

Rouen. Manuscrits a peintures de I'ecole de Rouen. Livres d'heures normands. Re- 
cueil de fac-similes et texte par G. Ritter, avec la collaboration de J. Lafond. . . . — 1913. 

SOREL (Albert). L' Europe et la Revolution frcuigaise. Discours pro- 
nonces le 29 mars 1905 a la fete donnee en I'honneur de . . . Albert 
Sorel a I'occasion de Tachevement de son ouvrage. Avec une helio- 
gravure. Paris, 1 905 . 8vo, pp. 1 20. R 35 1 67 

Suisse (Jules Francois Simon), afterwards SiMON (Jules Francois) Mignet, 
Michelet. Henri Martin. Paris, 1890. 8vo, pp. 367. R 28180 

Thiers (Louis Adolphe) President of the French Republic. Discours 
parlementaires de . . . Thiers. Publics par . . . CzJmon. Paris, 
1879-89. 16 vols. 8vo. R 39111 

VerGNIAUD (Pierre Victumien) (Euvres de Vergniuad [sic], gensonne, 
guadet. Recueillies et annotees par A. Vermorel. Deuxieme edition. 
Paris, 1867. 8vo, pp. 332. R 38467 

Young (Norwood) Napoleon in exile: St. Helena, 1815-21. . . . With 
. . . frontispieces 8 . . . illustrations mainly from the collection of 
A. M. Broadley. . . . London, [1915]. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38525 

ZeVORT (Edgar) Le marquis d'Argenson et le Ministere des affaires 
etrangeres du 18 Novembre 1744 au 10 Janvier 1747. Paris, 1880. 
8vo, pp. 413. R 28363 

945 HISTORY: MODERN: ITALY. 

COSTELLO (Louisa Stuart) A tour to and from Venice, by the Vaudois 
and the Tyrol. . . . [With plates.] London, 1846. 8vo, pp. vi, 453. 

R 31741 



324 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

945 HISTORY: MODERN: ITALY. 

COTTERILL (Henry Bernard) Medieval Italy during a thousand years, 
305-1313: a brief historical narrative with chapters on great episodes 
and personalities and on subjects connected with religion, art, and litera- 
ture. [With plates and illustrations,! [Great Nations.] London, \9\^. 
8vo, pp. xxviii. 565. R 39124 

G ALLEN G A (Antonio Carlo Napoleone) Country life in Piedmont. Lon- 
don, 1858. 8vo, pp. xvi. 279. R 29912 

GOUMAIN-CORNILLE (A.) La Savoie, le Monte Cenis et I'ltalie septen- 
trionale : voyage descriptif, historique et scientifique . . . Enrichi d'une 
note sur I'histoire naturelle de la Savoie par . . . Boisduval . . . 
Triosieme edition, revue, corrigee et . . . augmentee. Paris, 1866. 
8vo, pp. XX, 422. R 31746 

GlOVIO (Paolo) Bishop of Nocera, the Elder. Pavli lovii . . . Episcopi 
Nvcerini, Historiarvm Svi Temporis Tomvs Primvs, XXIIII Libros 
Complectens. Cvm Indice Plenissimo. [With prefatory letter by A. 
Alciatus.j Lvtetiae Parisiorum, ex officina typographica Michaelis 
Vascosaui Via lacobcea ad insigne Fontis, M.D.LIII. Fol, ff. [4], 
236. [18]. R 35760 

Pavli lovii . . . Episcopi Nvcerini Illvstrivm Virorvm Vitae. 

[Printer's device beneath title.] Florentiae In Officina Laurentii Tor- 
rentini Dvcalis Typographic MDXLIX. Fol., pp. [8], 440 [error for 
438], [2]. R 35761 

HeaDLEY Qoel Tyler). Letters from Italy. London, 1845. 8vo, pp. 
viii, 224. R 31751 

Henry Benedict Mary Clement [Stuart], Cardinal, calling 

himself Duke of York. Diario per I'anno MDCCLXXXVIII di 
Enrico Benedetto Cardinale Duca di Yorck [by . . . Cesarini.] . . . 
ora prima stampato da un manuscritto nella biblioteca di Orazio, Conte 
di Orford. [London], 1876. 4to, pp. 216. R 37451 

HOBHOUSE Oohn Cam) Baron Broughton. Italy: remarks made in 
several visits from the year 1816 to 1854. . . . London, 1859. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 31735 

Italy. Documenti diplomatici relativi al conflitto fra I'ltalia e I'Austria- 
Ungheria presentati al parlamento italiano, nella seduta del 20 maggio 
1915. II libro verde. Milano, 1915. 8vo, pp. 120. R 391 12 

LaVELEYE (Emile Louis Victor de) 1 st Baron. Letters from Italy. . . . 
Translated by Mrs. Thorpe. Revised by the author. [With portrait.] 
London, 1886. 8vo, pp. xi, 298. R 31750 

MaLAGUZZI VaLERI (Francesco) La carte di Lodovico il More. . . . 
lllustrazioni . . . tavole. Milano, 1915. 4to. In progress. 

R 33993 

2. Bramante e L. da Vinci. . . . 

MaZADE (Louis Charles Jean Robert de) Le comte de Cavour. Paris, 
\S77. 8vo, pp. xi, 475. R 36996 



\ 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 325 

945 HISTORY: MODERN: ITALY. 

MURATORI (Lodovico Antonio) Rerum Italicarum scriptores. Raccolta 
degli storici italiani . . . ordinata da L. A. Muratori. Nuova edizione 
... con la direzione di Giosue Carducci e Vittorio Fiorini. CzUd di 
Castello, 1914-15. 4to. In progress. R 1 1 500 

: Archivio Muratoriano. Studi e ricerche in servigio della nuova 

edizione dei " Rerum Italicarum scriptores** di L. A. Muratori. Cittd 
di Castello, 1914. 4to. In progress. R 1 1 500 

RaMAGE (Craufurd Tait) The nooks and by-ways of Italy. Wanderings 
in search of its ancient remains and modern superstitions. . . . Liverpool, 
1 868. 8vo. pp. xiii, 314. R 3 1 744 

SenN-BaRBIEUX (W.) Garibaldi der Freiheitsheld und Menschenfreund. 
Sein Leben, seine Thaten und Abenteuer. Wahrheitsgetreu fiir das 
Volk geschildert. [With frontispiece.] St. Gallen, 1883. 8vo, pp. 
714. R 31417 

SlaDEN (Douglas Brooke Wheelton) How to see the Vatican. . . . With 
. . . plates and a map. London, 1914. 8vo, pp. xxxi, 441. R 38748 

946 HISTORY: MODERN: SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

Field (Henry Martyn) Old and new Spain. [With map.] London, 1888. 
8vo. pp. 303. R 32079 

GaRZ(5n (Francisco de Paula) El padre Juan de Mariana y las escuelas 
liberales : estudio comparativo. Madrid, \ 889. 8vo, pp. 664. 

R 27538 

MeSONERO RoMANOS (Ramon de) El antiguo Madrid, paseos historico- 
anecdoticos por las calles y casas de esta villa. . . . Nueva edicion. 
[With plates.] Madrid, 1 881 . 2 vols, in 1 . 8vo. R 27556 

Robinson (Charles Walker) Lectures upon the British campjiigns in the 
Peninsula, 1 808-1 4 ; introductory to the study of military history. [With 
maps.] London, 1871. 8vo, pp. ix, 240. R 23946 

SaRRAZIN (Jean) General. Histoire de la guerre d'Espagne et de 
Portugal de 1807 a 1814, ornee de la carte d'Espagne et de Portugal 
. . . dressee par . . . Lapie. . . . Seconde edition. Paris, 1825. 
8vo, pp. xii, 366. R 24549 

947 HISTORY : MODERN : RUSSIA. 

Greene (Francis Vinton) The Russian army and its campaigns in Turkey 
in 1877-78. (Atlas.) London, [\S79]. 2 vols. 8vo. R 24150 

HODGETTS (Edward Arthur Brayley) The court of Russia in the nine- 
teenth century. . . . With . . . illustrations. London, [1908]. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 38362 

Muhammad MaHFUZ All The truth about Russia and England : 
from a native's point of view. Lucknow, 1886. 8vo, pp. 2, ii, 111. 

R 38425 



326 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

947 HISTORY: MODERN: RUSSIA. 

Russia : Ministere des affaires etrangeres. Recueil de documents diplo- 
matiques. Negociations ayant precede la guerre 10/23 juillet — 24 juillet/ 
6 aout 1914. retrograde, 1914. 4to, pp. 59. R 37555 

SiLVESTRE (Paul Armand) La Russie. Impressions — portraits — paysages. 
Illustrations de Henri Lanos. [Collection Emile Testard.] Paris, 
1892. 8vo, pp.412. R 38510 

Wiener (Leo) An interpretation of the Russian people. . . . With an 
introduction by Sir D. Mackenzie Wallace. . . . London, \9\5, 8vo, 
pp. xiv, 247. R 38880 

949 HISTORY : MODERN : MINOR COUNTRIES OF EUROPE. 

Le RouX (Hugues) Notes sur la Norvege. Paris, 1895. 8vo, pp. 320. 

R 31755 

PaIJKULL (Carl Wilhelm) A summer in Iceland. . . . Translated by . . . 
M. R. Barnard. . . . Illustrated. London, 1868. 8vo, pp. ix, 364. 

R 32100 

BraKEL (S. van) De Hollandsche handelscompagnieen der zeventiende 
eeuw, hun ontstaan-hunne inrichting. ' s-Gravenhage, 1908. 8vo, pp. 
xxxiii, 189. R 36449 

Kg EN EN (Hendrik Jakob) Geschiedenis van de vestiging en den invloed 
der fransche vluchtelingen in Nederland. . . . [With frontispiece.] 
[Nederlandsche Maatschappij der Lelterkunde. Nieuwe reeks 1.] 
Leiden, 1846. 8vo, pp. xvii. 451. R 38575 

HUTTON (James) James and Philip van Arteveld. Two episodes in 
the history of the fourteenth century. London, 1882. 8vo, pp. xxi, 
356. R 28498 

StRADA (Famianus) De bello Belgico. The history of the Low-Countrey 
warres. Written in Latine by F. Strada ; in Elnglish by S'". Rob. 
Stapylton K^ Illustrated w^ith divers figures. [A translation of Decade I 
only.) London, 1650. 4 pts. in 1 vol. Fol. R 35756 

ACADEMIE ROYALE DE BelGIQUE. Commission royale d'histoire. 
Bruxelles, 1 905- 1 3 . 4to. In progress. R 5 1 73 

Brabant. Les denombrements de foyers en Brabant. XlVe-XVIe siecle. Par J. 
Cuvelier. . . . 2 vols.— 1912-13. 

Flanders. Recueil de documents relatifs a I'histoire de i'industrie drapiere en Flandre» 
publics par G. Espinas et H. Pirenne. Premiere partie. Des origines a Tepoque bourguignonne. 
Tome deuxieme. Deynze-Hulst. — 1909. 

Hemricourt (J. de) CEuvres de J. de Hemricourt, publiees par le chevalier C. de Borman» 
avec la collaboration de A. Bayot. Tome premier. . . . — 1910. 

Liege. Documents sur la principaut^ de Liege, 1230-1532, specialement au debut du 
XVIe siecle : extraits des papiers du cardinal J. Aleandre. . . . Publics par A. Cauchie et 
A. Van Hove. . . . Tome premier. — 1908. 

Liege. — Eglise CoUegiale de Sainjte-Croix. Inventaire analytique des chartes de la col- 
le'giale de Sainte-Croix a Liege. Par E. Poncelet. . . . Tome premier. — 191 1. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 327 

949 HISTORY: MODERN: MINOR COUNTRIES OF EUROPE. 

Liege. Chroniques liegeoises, Edite'es par . . . S. Balau. Vol. 1. — 1913. 

Lodewijk, van Velthem. Lodewijk van Velthem's voortzetting van den Spiegel historiael 
(of Jacob van MaerlantJ, 1248-1316. Opnieuw uitgegeven door H. Vander Linden en W. dc 
Vreese.— 1906. 

Mons. Charles du chapitre de Sainle-Wandru de Mons, recueillies & publi^es par L. 
Devillers. . . . (Publication termince par E. Matthieu. . . .) Tome iroisieme (-quatrieme). 
2 vols.— 1908-13. 

Naples. — Archivio di Stato. Inventaire des archives famesiennes de Naples au point de 
Tue de rhistoire des Pays-Bas catholiques. Public' par A. Cauchie . . . et L. Van Der 
Essen. . . .— 1911. 

Parma. — Archivio di Stato. Les archives farne'siennes de Parme au point de vue de 
rhistoire des anciens Pays-Bas catholiques. Par L. Van der Essen. . . . — 1913. 

Spain. Le registre de F. Lixaldius, tresorier general de I'armee espagnole aux Pays-Bas, 
de 1567 a 1576. Public par . . . F. Rachfahl. . . .— 1902. 

Stavelot,— Abbaye de Saint-Pierre et de Saint- Remade. Recueil des chartes de I'abbaye 
de Stavelot-Malmedy. Public par J. Halkin . . . et C. G. Roland. ... I vol.— 1909. 

Ypres. Comples de la viile d'Ypres de 1267 a 1329. Publics par G. Des Marez et E. 
de Saghcr. . . . Tome premier (-dcuxiemc). 2 vols. — 1909-13. 

Belgium : Ministere des affaires etrangeres. Correspondance diploma- 
tique relative a la guerre de 1914. 24 juillet-29 aout. Reimpression 
textuelle publiee par la legation de Belgique a la Haye. La Haye, 1914. 
Fol. R 37556 

*»* The title is taken from the wrapper. 

German legislation for the occupied territories of Belgium : official 

texts. Edited by Charles Henry Huberich . . . and Alexander Nicol- 
Speyer. . . . The Hague, 1915. 8vo, pp. viii, 108. R 38330 

Inventaires des archives de la Belgique. Publics par ordre du 

Gouvernement sous la direction de Tadministration des Archives generales 
duroyaume. Bruxelles. 1910-13. 5 vols. 8vo. R 36154 

Inventaire des chartes et cartulaires des duches de Brabant et de Limbourg et des payi 
d'Outre-Meuse. Par A. Verkooren . . . Premiere partie. Chartes originales et vidimeei. 
Tome Icr(.V).— 1910-13. 

King Albert's book : a tribute to the Belgian king and people from 

representative men and women throughout the world. [With plates.] 
\London\,\\^\^\. 4to. pp.187. R 38191 

Victoria University, afterwards the Victoria University of 

Manchester. Publications. Manchester, 1915. 8vo. In progress. 

Historical series. 

27. Pirenne (H.) Belgian democracy ; its early history. . . . Translated by J. V. 
Saunders R 33343 

WhiTEHOUSE (John Howard) Belgium in war : a record of personal ex- 
periences. [With introduction by D. LI. George.] [With plates.] 
Cambridge, 1915. 8vo, pp. 28. R 38187 

TURCHI (Nicola) La civilta bizantina. . . . [Piccola Biblioteca di Scienze 
Moderne, 233.] Torino, 1915. 8vo. pp. vii, 327. R 38589 

J EBB {Sir Richard Claverhouse) Modern Greece : two lectures delivered 
before the Philosophical Institution of Edinburgh ; with papers on '* The 
progress of Greece" and "Byron in Greece". . . . London, 1880. 
8vo, pp. vi, 183. R 31436 

22 



328 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

949 HISTORY: MODERN: MINOR COUNTRIES OF EUROPE. 

Albania. Acta et diplomata res Albaniae mediae aetatis illuslrantia. 

Collegerunt et digesserunt . . . Ludovicus de Thalloczy, . . . Con- 

stantinus Jirecek et . . . Emilianus de Sufflay. . . . VmMonae, ]9\3. 

4to. In progress. R 33807 

1 . Annos 344- 1 343 tabulamque geographicam continens. 

ChaRMES (Gabriel) L'avenir de la Turquie — le panislamisme. Paris, 
1883. 8vo, pp. 317. R 37757 

DWIGHT (Henry Otis) Turkish life in war time. London, 1881. 8vo, 
pp. X, 428. R 23945 

Field (Henry Martyn) The Greek islands and Turkey after the war. 
[With maps and plates.] London, [1886]. 8vo. pp. 228. R 32085 

International Commission to inquire into the Causes and Conduct 
of the Balkan Wars. Report. [With maps and illustrations.] [Car- 
negie Endowment for International Peace. — Division of Intercourse and 
Education. 4.] Washington, 1914. 8vo. pp. 413. R 37907 

Warner (Charles Dudley) In the Levant. . . . Fifth edition. London, 
[187-?]. 8vo, pp. viii, 391. R 31625 

Baker (B. Granville) The walls of Constantinople. [With plates.] Lon- 
don, \9\0. 8vo, pp. 261. R 38356 

SaMUELSON (James) Bulgaria past and present, historical, political, and 
descriptive. . . . Illustrated with a map . . . and . . . woodcuts . . . 
engraved from original sketches by the author. . . . London, 1888. 
8vo, pp. xiv. 247. R 31663 

SerVIA. Servia by the Servians. Compiled and edited by Alfred 
Stead. . . . With a map. London, 1909. 8vo, pp. xii, 377. 

R 38364 

950 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA. 

CHINA. — Little (Archibald John) Gleanings from fifty years in China. 
. . . Revised by Mrs. Archibald Little. [With foreword by R. S. 
Gundry.] [With plates.] London, [1910]. 8vo, pp. xvi, 335. 

R 26374 

MeDHURST {Sir Walter Henry) the Younger. The foreigner in far 
Cathay. . . . With map. London, 1872. 8vo, pp. 192. 

R 32043 

Wilson (Andrew) The ** ever-victorious army " : a history of the Chinese 
campaign under . . . C. G. Gordon . . . and of the suppression of the 
Tai-ping rebellion. . . . With . . . maps. Edinburgh and London, 
1 868. 8vo, pp. xxxii, 395 . R 3 1 5 1 3 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 329 

950 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA. 

Sh ERRING (Charles A.) Western Tibet and the British borderland, the 
sacred country of Hindus and Buddhists : with an account of the govern- 
ment, religion, and customs of its peoples. . . . With a chapter by T. 
G. Long staff . . . describing an attempt to climb Curia Mandhata. 
With illustrations and maps. London, 1906. 8vo, pp. xv, 376. 

R 39207 

JAPAN. — Crow (Arthur H.) Highways and byeways in Japan. The 
experiences of two pedestrian tourists. [With map and plate.] London^ 
1883. 8vo, pp. xvi, 307. R 32037 

Japan. An official guide to eastern Asia. Trans- continental connections 
between Europe and Asia. . . . [With maps and illustrations.] Tokyo, 
1914. 2 vols. 8vo. In progress, R 37359 

2. South-Western Japan.— 1914. 

3. North-Eastern Japan. — 1914. 

Lowell (Percival) Noto : an unexplored corner of Japan. Boston, 189L 
8vo. pp.261. R 32032 

ARABIA.— Bury (G. Wyman) Arabia infelix or the Turks in Yamen. 
. . . With illustrations and maps. London, 1915. 8vo, pp. x, 213. 

R 38381 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

OENERAL.— Ali HusSUN, Khan Bahadur. Brief history of the 
chiefs of Rampur in Rohilkhand, N.-W. Provinces. [With plates.] 
Calcutta, 1892. 8vo. pp. ii, 70. R 38423 

ASJA. Memoirs of the late war in Asia. With a narrative of the 

imprisonment and sufferings of our officers and soldiers : by an officer 

of Colonel Baillie's detachment [i.e. W. Thomson]. [With map.] 

London, 1788. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38428 

BairD (5/> David) \stBart. The life of General ... Sir D. Baird, 
Bart. . , . [With maps and portrait.] London, 1832. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 38462 

Balfour {Lady Elizabeth Edith) The history of Lord Lytton's Indian 
administration, 1876 to 1880: compiled from letters and official papers. 
[With map and portrait.] London, 1899. 8vo, pp. viii, 551. 

R 38457 

BlDDULPH OoHn) Stringer Lawrence : the father of the Indian army. 
[With map and plates.] London, 1901. 8vo, pp. 133. R 38456 

BiRDWOOD (^zr George Christopher Molesworth) The industrial arts of 
India. . . . With map and woodcuts. [South Kensington Museum Art 
Handbooks.] [London], [1880]. 8vo. pp. xvi, 344. R 38458 

Sva . . . Edited by F. H. Brown. . . . [With portrait.] London, 

\ 91 5. 8vo, pp. xxxi, 366. R 38373 



330 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

Bolts (William) Considerations on Indian affairs ; particularly respecting 
the present state of Bengal and its dependencies. To which is prefixed 
a map of those countries. . . . The second edition with additions. 
London, 1772. 4to, pp. xxiv. 228, 184. R 38430 

Broome (Arthur) History of the rise and progress of the Bengal army. 
Volume the first. [With maps.] Calcutta, 1850. 1 vol. 8vo. 

R 38433 

* ^ No more published. 

BUSTEED (Henry Elmsley) Echoes from old Calcutta, being chiefly re- 
miniscences of the days of Warren Hastings, Francis, and Impey. 
Calcutta, 1882. 8vo, pp. 304. R 38434 

Campbell (Sir George) Modem India : a sketch of the system of civil 
government. To which is prefixed, some account of the natives and 
native institutions. London, 1852. 8vo, pp. xii, 560. R 38435 

Campbell (George Douglas) Duke of Argyll. The Afghan question 
from 1841 to 1878. [Reprinted from "The Eastern question".] 
London, [1879]. 8vo, pp. ix, 288. R 38417 

CarACCIOLI (Charles) The life of Robert Lord Clive, Baron Plassey. 
Wherein are impartially delineated his military talents in the field ; his 
maxims of government in the cabinet, during the two last wars in the 
East Indies, which made him arbiter of empire, and the richest subject in 
Europe. With anecdotes of his private life, and the particular circum- 
stances of his death. Also a narrative of all the last transactions in 
India. [With portrait] London, [1775-77]. 4 vols. 8vo. 

R 38768 

CheSNEY (George Tomkyns) Indian polity : a view of the system of ad- 
ministration in India. . . . Second edition. [With map.] London, 
1870. 8vo, pp. xxvi, 496. R 38438 

Clive (Robert) Baron Clive. Lord CHve's speech in the House of 
Commons, 30th March, 1 772, on the motion made for leave to bring in 
a bill for the better regulation of the affairs of the East India Company, 
and of their servants in India, and for the due administration of justice in 
Bengal. London, [1772]. 4to, pp. 61. R 38769 

COOMARASWAMY (Ananda K.). The Indian craftsman. . . . With a 
foreword by C. R. Ashbee. . . . [Probsthain's Oriental Series.] 
London, 1909. 8vo, pp. xv, 130. R 38440 

DeuSSEN (Paul). Erinnerungen an Indien . . . Mit . . . Karte . . . 
Abbildungen und einem Anhange : *' On the philosophy of the Vedanta 
in its relations to occidental metaphysics '. Keil und Leipzig, 1904. 
8vo, pp. viii, 256. R 39205 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 331 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

Dubois Qean Antoine) A description of the character, manners, and 
customs of the people of India ; and of their institutions, reHgious and 
civil. . . . Second edition, with notes, corrections, and additions by . . . 
G. U. Pope. . . . Translated from the French manuscript. [With 
plates.] Madras, 1862. 8vo, pp. xxxii, 410, v. R 38285 

East India Company. An address to the proprietors of East India 
stock, upon the important points to be discussed among them at the next 
meeting of the General Court, to be held on Monday the 1 2th inst. at 
the South-Sea House. [By J. Cooke?]. London, 1764. 4to, pp. 18. 

R 38772 

Authentic papers concerning India affairs which have been under 



the inspection of a great assembly [of the East India Company] . London, 
1771. 8vo, pp. vii, 214. R 38770 

A defence of the United Company of Merchants of England, 

trading to the East Indies, and their servants, particularly those at Bengal, 
against the complaints of the Dutch East India Company: being a 
memorial from the English Company to His Majesty on that subject. . . . 
London, 1762. 4to, pp. 71. R 38441 

Letters to and from the East India Company's servants, at Bengal, 

Fort St. George, and Bombay, relative to treaties and grants from the 
country powers, from the year 1 756 to 1 766, both years inclusive : also 
a letter from the Nabob of Arcot to the Company, and the Company's 
answer : with an appendix consisting of four papers relative to the 
Company's late bargain with Government. London, 1772. 4to, pp. 
74, xxvi. R 38739 

Papers respecting pensions granted to certain individuals for . . . 

services during the late charter ; also an account of pensions above two 
hundred pounds per annum now payable by the Elast India Company. 
London, 1814. 4to, pp. 16. R 38774 

Papers respecting the Pindarry and Mahratta wars. Printed in con- 
formity to the resolution of the court of proprietors of Elast India stock of 
the 3d March, 1824. (Treaties and engagements with native princes 
and states in India, concluded for the part in the years 1817 and 1818.) 
{London, 1824.] Fol., pp. xii, 466, cxxxv. R 38287 

Report on the negociation, between the . . . East India Company 

and the public, respecting the renewal of the Company's exclusive privi- 
leges of trade, for twenty years from March, 1 794. By John Bruce. . . . 
(Printed by authority of the Honourable Court of Directors. . . .) London. 
1811. 4to, pp. viii, 287, xlix. R 3877 1 

EdwaRDES {Sir Herbert Benjamin) and MeRIVALE (Herman). Life 
of Sir Henry Lawrence. . . . Second edition. London, 1 872. 2 vols . 
8vo. R 38278 

ElPHINSTONE {Hon, Mountstuart). The history of India. . . . London^ 
1841. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38446 



332 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

England : Papers relating to East India affairs. . . . Ordered, by the 
House of Commons, to be printed, 22 June 1813. [London, 1813]. 
Fol., pp. 137. R 38765 

Report from the select committee of the House of Commons on the 

affairs of the East India Company, 16th August, 1832. (Printed by 
order of the Honourable Court of Directors.) London, 1 833. 4to, pp. 
56 [2]. R 38445 

Report from the select committee on the affairs of the East India 

Company; with minutes of evidence. . . . Communicated from the 
Commons to the Lords, 21st June, 1833. Ordered to be printed 20th 
August, 1853. [London, 1853]. Fol., pp. 410. R 38764 

East India, Cabul, and Affghanistan. Return to an order of . . . 

the House of Commons, dated 13 July, 1858; for, copies "of the cor- 
respondence of Sir Alexander Burnes with the Governor-General of 
India, during his mission to Cabul, in the years 1837 and 1838, or such 
part thereof as has not already been published: " "and, of the corres- 
pondence of the Governor-General of India with the president of the 
board of control and with the secret committee of the East India Company, 
from the 1st day of September, 1837, to the 1st day of October, 1839, 
relative to the expedition to Affghanistan, or of such part thereof as has 
not been already published. . . . Ordered, by the House of Commons, 
to be printed, 8 June, 1859. [London, 1859]. Fol., pp. v, 319. 

R 3842 1(1) 

Correspondence relating to the affairs of Persia and Affghanistan. 

[London, 1 839 ?] . Fol., pp. 2, 206. R 38421 (2) 

*»* The title is taken from the caption. 

Papers respecting the negotiation with his Majesty's ministers on 

the subject of the East India Company's charter and the government of 
his Majesty's Indian territories, for a further term after the 22d April, 
1 834, together v^th a copy of the bill as passed by . . . the House of 
Commons and ... the House of Lords, for effecting an arrangement 
with the East India Company, and for the better government of his 
Majesty's Indian territories till the 30th day of April, 1854 ; also of the 
bill for regulating the trade to China and India. (Printed by order of 
the Court of Directors.) London, 1833. 4to, pp. xii, 629. R 38444 

GOLDSMID (Sir Frederic John) James Outram : a biography. . . . With 
illustrations and maps. . . . Second edition. London, 1881. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 38796 

Cough {Sir Charles John Stanley) and InNES (Arthur Donald) The 
Sikhs and the Sikh wars : the rise, conquest, and annexation of the 
Punjab state. . . . [With maps.] London, 1897. 8vo, pp. xiv, 304. 

R 38776 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 333 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

Griffin (Sir Lepel Henry) The rajas of the Punjab ; being the history 
of the principal states in the Punjab and their political relations with the 
British government. . . . Lahore, 1870. 8vo, pp. viii, 17, 661, xvi. 

R 38294 

Hastings (Francis Rawdon) \st Marquis of Hastings. The private 
journal of the Marquess of Hastings, Governor-General and Commander- 
in-Chief in India. Edited by his daughter the Marchioness of Bute. 
London, 1858. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38295 

Hastings (Warren) Governor-General of India. The history of the 
trial of W. Hastings . . . late Governor-General of Bengal, before the 
High Court of Parliament in Westminster-Hall, on an impeachment by 
the Commons of Great-Britain, for high crimes and misdemeanours. 
Containing the whole of the proceedings and debates in both houses of 
Parliament, relating to that celebrated prosecution, from February 7, 1 786, 
until his acquittal, April 23, 1 795. To which is added, an account of 
the proceedings of various general courts of the Honourable United East- 
India Company, held in consequence of his acquittal. [With plates.] 
London, 1796. 8 pts. in 1 vol. 8vo. R 38779 

The letters of W. Hastings to his wife. Transcribed . . . from 

the originals in the British Museum. Introduced and annotated by 
Sydney C. Grier \pseud., i.e. Hilda Caroline Gregg]. . . . [With 
portraits.] Edinburgh and London, \ 905. 8vo, pp. vi, 484, 4. 

R 38778 

HODSON (William Stephen Raikes) Twelve years of a soldier's life in 
India : being extracts from the letters of . . . W. S. R. Hodson : in- 
cluding a personal narrative of the siege of Delhi and capture of the king 
and princes. Edited by . . . George H. Hodson. . . . [With 
portrait.] London, 1859. 8vo. pp. xvi, 365. R 38782 

Hunter (Sir William Wilson) Life of Brian Houghton Hodgson, British 
Resident at the court of Nepal. . . . [With plates.] London, 1896. 
8vo, pp. ix, 390. R 38276 

A life of the Earl of Mayo, fourth viceroy of India. . . . Second 

edition. Lojidon, \^l(:i. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38790 

HUSAIN *AlI, Kirmani. The history of Hydur Naik, otherwise styled 
Shums ul Moolk, Ameer ud Dowla, Nawaub Hydur Ali Khan Bahadoor, 
Hydur Jung ; Nawaub of the Karnatic Balaghaut. . . . Translated 
from an original Persian manuscript, in the library of Her . . . Majesty, 
by . . . W. Miles. . . . [Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain 
and Ireland.] London, 1842. 8vo, pp. xxxi, 513. R 38459 

ImpeY (Elijah Barwell) Memoirs of Sir Elijah Impey . . . First Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature, at Fort William, Bengal ; 
with anecdotes of Warren Hastings, Sir Philip Francis, Nathaniel 
Brassey Halhed . . . , and other contemporaries ; compiled from authen- 
tic documents, in refutation of the calumnies of . . . Thomas Babington 
Macaulay. London, 1847. 8vo, pp. xxxi, 438. R 38277 



334 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

India. Archaeological surtey of India. Four reports made during the 
years 1862-63-64-65. (Report for the year 1871-72 [-1883-84]), by 
(under the superintendence of) Alexander Cunningham. . . . Simla 
and Calcutta, \^1\-%1. 21 vols. 8vo. R 392% 

General index to the reports of the Archaeological survey of India, 

Vols. I to XXIII, published under the superintendence of . . . Sir A. 
Cunningham. ... By Vincent Arthur Smith. . . . With a glossary 
and general table of contents. Calcutta, 1887. 8vo, pp. xviii, 216. 

R 39296 

Imperial Record Department. Calendar of Persian correspondence. 

Being letters, referring mainly to affairs in Bengal, which passed betw^een 
some of the Company's servants and Indian rulers and notables . . . 
1759-67(-9). [Compiled by E. D.Ross.] Calcutta, 1911-14. 2 
vols. 8vo. R 38842 

An authentic copy of the correspondence in India betw^een the 

country powers and . . . the East India Company's servants . . . 
together with the minutes of the Supreme Council at Calcutta. The 
whole forming a collection of the most interesting India-papers, which 
were laid before Parliament in the session of 1786. London, 1787. 
6 vols. 8vo. R 38452 

History of all the events and transactions which have taken place 

in India : containing the negotiations of the British Government, relative 
to the . . . success of the late war. Addressed to the Honorable 
Secret Committee of the Honorable Court of Directors of the East India 
Company, by . . . the Marquis of Wellesley, Governor-General of 
India. . . . Loyidon, 1805. 4to, pp. 263. R 38291 

The legislative acts of the Governor-General of India in Council, 

from 1834 to the end of 1867 (1868) ; with an analytical abstract pre- 
fixed to each act . . . the letters patent of the High Courts, cind acts of 
Parliament authorizing them. ... By William Theobald. . . . Calcutta, 
1868-69. 6 vols. 8vo. R 38303 

A collection of treaties, engagements, and sanads relating to India 

and neighbouring countries. Compiled by C. V. Aitchison. . . . 
Revised and continued up to the 1st June, 1906, by the authority of the 
Foreign Department. [With maps.] Calcutta, \ 909. 1 3 vols. 8vo. 

R 38326 

Papers relating to military operations in Afghanistan. Presented 

to both Houses of Parliament, by conmiand of her Majesty, 1843. 
London, [1843]. Fol, pp. viii, 431. R 38421 (3) 

Selections from the letters, despatches, and other state papers pre- 
served in the Bombay Secretariat. Home series, [1630-1788]. . . . 
Edited by George W. Forrest. . . . Bombay, 1 887. 2 vols. 4to. 

R 38292 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 335 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

India. Selections from the letters, despatches, and other state papers pre- 
served in the Bombay Secretariat. Maratha series. . . . Edited by 
George W. Forrest. . . . Bombay^ 1885. 1 vol. in 2. 4to. 

R 38447 

Irvine (William) The army of the Indian Moghuls : its organization and 
administration. London^ 1903. 8vo, pp. xii, 324. R 38298 

LaLAVIHARI De. Bengal peasant life. . . . [A novel.] London, \%1^. 
8vo, pp. xii. 383. R 29606 

Lawrence {Sir Henry Montgomery) Essays, military and political, 
written in India. London, 1859. 8vo, pp. ix, 483. R 38464 

LaWSON {Sir Charles Allen) The private life of Warren Hastings, first 
Governor-General of India. . . . With . . . portraits and . . . illustra- 
tions and facsimiles. [Second edition.] London, 1905. 8vo, pp. viii, 
254. R 38781 

Lowe (Thomas) Central India during the rebellion of 1857 and 1858 : a 
narrative of operations of the British forces from the suppression of mutiny 
in Aurungabad to the capture of Gwalior under ... Sir Hugh Rose, 
G.C.B. ... and Sir C. Stuart, K.C.B. [With map.] London, 1860. 
8vo, pp. xiii, 369. R 38306 

Malcolm {Sir John) Observations on the disturbances in the Madras 
army in 1809. London, 1812. 8vo, pp. vii, 238. R 38307 

Muhammad All Thoughts on the present discontent. Reprinted from 
the "Times of India" and the "Indian Spectator". Bo^nbay, 1907. 
8vo, pp. xvii, 70. R 38424 

MUIR {Sir William) The Honourable James Thomason, Lieutenant- 
Governor N.-W.R, India, 1843-53 A.D. . . . Calcutta Review, 1853. 
. . . [With portrait.] Edinbtirgh, 1897. 8vo, pp. 101. R 38283 

MUNRO (5^> Thomas) i?^r^. The life of . . . Sir T. Munro, Bart . . . 

Governor of Madras. With extracts from his correspondence and 

private papers. By . . . G. R. Gleig. . . . [With map and portrait.] 
London, 1830. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38281 

NaGENDRA NaTHA Ghosh a. Memoirs of Maharaja Nubkissen 
Bahadur. . . . [With plates.] Calcutta, 1901. 8vo, pp. vi, 241. 

R 38448 

Oakley (E. Sherman) Holy Himalaya: the religion, traditions, and 
scenery of a Himalayan province, Kumaon and Garhwal. [With plates.] 
Edinburgh and London, 1905. 8vo, pp. 319. R 39201 

Oman (John Campbell) Indian life: religious and social. London, 1889. 
8vo, pp. 320. R 39190 

PaNDIAN (T. B.) Indian village folk : their works and ways. [With plates.] 
London, 1897. 8vo, pp. viii, 212. R 29313 



336 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

PaTTULLO (Henry) An essay upon the cultivation of the lands, and im- 
provements of the revenues of Bengal. London, Mil. 4to, pp. 34. 

R 3873a 

Petri E (William) A statement of facts delivered to . . . Lord Minto, 
Governor-General of India ... on his late arrival at Madras. . . . 
With an appendix of official minutes. London, 1810. 8vo, pp. 64, 
36. R 38789 

PiGOT (George) Baron Pigot, Defence of Lord Pigot. Damnatus 

absens. [Drawn up by Lind.] London, 1777. 4to, pp. 332, 72. 

R 38802 

PraMATHANaTHA VaSU. a history of Hindu civilisation during British 
rule. ... In four volumes. Calcutta, 1894-96. 3 vols. 8vo. 

R 38431 

PrINSEP (Henry Thoby) the Elder. History of the political and military 
transactions in India during the administration of the Marquess of Hastings, 
1813-23. . . . Enlarged from the narrative published in 1820. . . . 
[With maps and plates.] London, \%lb. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38311 

RaJENDRALALA MiTRA. Buddha Gaya, the hermitage of Sakya Muni. 
. . . Published under orders of the Government of Bengal. [With 
plates.] Calcutta, 1878. 4to, pp. xiii, 257. R 39184 

RaMAKRISHNA (T.) Life in an Indian village. . . . With an introduction 
by . .". Sir M. E. Grant Duff, G.C.S.I. London, 1891. 8vo, pp.212. 

R 39189 

Ramsay (James Andrew Broun) Marquis of Dalhousie. Private letters 
of the Marquess of Dalhousie. Edited by J. G. A. Baird. With 
portraits and illustrations. Second impression. Edinburgh and London, 
1911. 8vo, pp. xi, 448. R 38275 

SCRAFTON (Luke) Reflections on the government of Indostan. With a 
short sketch of the history of Bengal, from MDCCXXXVIIII to 
MDCCLVI ; and an account of the English affairs to MDCCLVIIL 
London, \11^. 8vo, pp. 121. R 38800 

Scurry (James) The captivity, sufferings, and escape, of Jcunes Scurry, 
who was detained a prisoner during ten years, in the dominions of Hyder 
Ali and Tippoo Saib. Written by himself. . . . [With portrait.] 
London, 1824. 8vo, pp. 268. R 38309 

Shore (Charles John) 2nd Baron Teignniouth. Memoir of the life and 
correspondence of John Lord Teignmouth. [With portrait.] London, 
1843. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38282 

Smyth (George Monro Carmichael) A history of the reigning family of 
Lahore, with some account of the Jummoo rajahs, the Seik soldiers, and 
their Sirdars ; edited by ... G. Carmichael Smyth. . . . With notes 
on Malcolm, Prinsep, Lawrence, Steinbach, McGregor and the Calcutta 
review. [With map and plates.] Calcutta, 1847. 8vo, pp. xxx, 263, 
xl. R 38300 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 337 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

StRATTON (George) Governor of Madras. Defences of G. Stratton 
. . . and the majority of Council at Madras, in answer to the accusatioa 
brought against them for the supposed murder of Lord Pigot. Contain- 
taining also a concise narrative of the proceedings of Lord Pigot, which 
occasioned his arrest and suspension from the government ; stating the 
conduct of the different parties on that occasion with their motives for 
continuing his lordship under restraint ; and shewing the nature of that re- 
straint. Likewise the separate defence of Brigadier-General Stuart, for 
himself and for the military under his command. Extracted from Original 
papers lately published. London, 1 778. 4to, pp. 53. R 38804 

SULIVAN (John) Observations respecting the circar of Mazulipatam in a 
letter from J. Sulivan ... to the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company. [London], 1780. 4to, pp. 47. R 38775 

TaNJORE. Original papers relative to Tanjore : containing all the letters 
which passed, and the conferences, which were held, between . . . the 
Nabob of Arcot and Lord Pigot, on the subject of the restoration of 
Tanjore. Together with the material part of Lord Pigot*s last dispatch 
to the East India Company. The whole connected by a narrative, and 
illustrated with notes. . . . (Appendix). London, 1 777. 2 vols, in 4. 
4to. R 38803 

Thomson (Samuel John) The real Indian people : being more tales and 
sketches of the masses. . . . With illustrations. Edinburgh and London, 
1914. 8vo, pp. xiii, 345. R 38100 

Trotter (Lionel James) The life of John Nicholson, soldier and admini- 
strator. Based on private . . . documents. . . . With portraits and 
maps. Third edition. London, 1898. 8vo. pp. x, 333. R 38794 

Warner {Sir William Lee) The life of the Marquis of Dalhousie, 
K.T. . . . IWith maps and plates.] London, 1 904. 2 vols. 8vo. 

R 38252 

WiLKINS (William Joseph). Daily life and work in India. . . . With 
. . . illustrations. London, 1888. 8vo, pp. 288. R 39206 

PROVINCES.— Hunter {Sir William Wilson) Famine aspects of 
Bengal districts. London, 1874. 8vo, pp. xii, 204. R 29636 

BenDALL (Cecil) A journey of literary and archaeological research in 
Nepal and northern India, during the winter of 1884-85. [With plates 
and folding tables.] Cambridge, 1886. 8vo, pp. xii, 100. R 39191 

Hough (William) A brief history of the Bhopal principality in central 
India. From the period of its foundation, about one hundred and fifty 
years ago, to the present time. Calcutta, 1845. 8vo, pp. ix, 133. 

R 38296 



338 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

954 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: INDIA. 

Madras. A sortie from Fort St. George ; being a narrative of the ser- 
vices of the Madras troops under . . . Whitlock, K.C.B., during the 
war in Central India, in the years 1 858-59. By one who served in the 
campaigns. Reprinted from the Madras Daily Times. . . . Madras, 
1860. 8vo. pp. iii, 125, ix. R 38736 

Malcolm {Sir John) Sketch of the Sikhs ; a singular nation, who inhabit 
the provinces of the Penjab, situated between the rivers Jumna and Indus. 
[Reprinted from " Asiatic researches," Vol II.] London, 1812. 8vo, 
pp. 197. R 38304 

FaRRER (Reginald) In old Ceylon. . . . Illustrated. London, 1908. 
8vo, pp. ix, 351. R 39209 

Forbes (Jonathan) Eleven years in Ceylon. Comprising sketches of the 
field sports and natural history of that colony, and an account of its 
history and antiquities. . . . Second edition, revised and corrected. 
[With plates.] London, 1 84 1 . 2 vols. 8vo. R 392 1 

Knighton (William) The history of Ceylon from the earliest period to 
the present time ; with an appendix, containing an account of its present 
condition. London, 1845. 8vo, pp. xii, 399. R 39211 

PerEIRA (John) The history of Ceylon, from the earliest period to the 
present time. [Sinhalese.] Colombo, 1853. 8vo, pp. x, 331. 

R 39161 

PlERIS (Paulus Edward) Ceylon : the Portuguese era, being a history of 
the island for the period 1 505-1 658. [With maps and plates.] Colombo, 
1913-14. 2 vols. 8vo. R 39181 

955-59 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: PERSIA, ETC. 

Stewart (Charles Edward) Through Persia in disguise ; with remini- 
scences of the Indian Mutiny. . . . By . . . C. E. Stewart. . . . 
Edited from his diaries by Basil Stewart. . . . [With an introduction 
by A. N. Stewart.] With . . . illustrations . . . maps. . . . London, 
1911. 8vo, pp. xxiii, 430. R 38366 

SykES (Percy Molesworth) A history of Persia. . . . With maps and 
illustrations. . . . London, 1915. 2 vols. 8vo. R 38497 

GalLOIS (Eugene) Asie-Mineure et Syrie : sites et monuments. Paris, 
[1907]. 8vo, pp. 245. R 37890 

Stewart (Basil) My experiences of Cyprus : being an account of the 
people, mediaeval cities and castles, antiquities and history of the island 
of Cyprus ; to which is added a chapter on the present economic and 
political problems which affect the island as a dependency of the British 
Empire. . . . Illustrated. . . . First edition, revised, with additional matter. 
London, 1908. 8vo, pp. 268. R 38365 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 339 

955-59 HISTORY: MODERN: ASIA: PERSIA, ETC. 

Bell (Gertrude Lowthian) Syria : the desert and the sower. . . . With 
. . . illustrations and a map. New . . . edition. London, 1908. 
8vo, pp. xvi. 347. R 38358 

Norman (Charles Boswell) Armenia, and the campaign of 1877. . . . 
With . . . maps and plans. London, 1878. 8vo, pp. xx, 484. 

R 31971 

CZAPLICKA (M. A.) Aboriginal Siberia : a study in social anthropology. 
. . . With a preface by R. R. Marett. . . . [With maps and plates.] 
Oxford, 1914. 8vo, pp. xiv, 374. R 38531 

GERRARE (Wirt) Greater Russia : the continental empire of the old 
world. . . . With illustrations and a map. New . . . edition. 
London, 1904. 8vo. pp. xiii, 317. R 38360 

NiEMOJOWSKI (Ludwik) Siberian pictures. . . . Edited, from the 
Polish, by . . . Szulczewski. . . . London, 1883. 2 vols. 8to. 

R 31991 

*AbD Al-RaHMAN Khan, Amir of Afghanistan. The life of Abdur 
Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan. . . . Edited by . . . Sultan Mahomed 
Khan. . . . With portrait, maps, and illustrations. London, 1900. 
2 vols. 8vo. R 38416 

Sale (Sir R. H.) The defence of Jellalabad, by . . . Sir R. H. Sale, 
G.C.B. Drawn on stone by W. L. Walton. (Lady Sale's narrative 
of her prison and fellow prisoners ; also descriptions of several views.) 
[With dedication signed W. Sale.] London, [1846]. Fol. R 38799 

SnodGRASS (John James) Narrative of the Burmese war, detailing the 
operations of . . . Sir Archibald Campbell's army, from its landing at 
Rangoon in May, 1 824, to the conclusion of a treaty of peace at Yan- 
daboo, in February, 1826. . . . Second edition. [With map and 
plates.] London, 1827. 8vo, pp. xvi, 319 R 38314 

ClaUDEL (Paul) The Elast I know. . . . Translated by Teresa Frances 
and William Rose Benet. [With an appreciation of R Claudel by P. 
Chavannes.] New Haven, 1914. 8vo, pp. xiii, 199. R 38869 

962 HISTORY: MODERN: AFRICA. 

EGYPT.— CONTEMPORAINE, /J^^^^. [i.e. Ida de Saint-Elme]. La Con- 
temporaine en Egypte (La Contemporaine a Make et a Alger). Pour 
faire suite aux Souvenirs d'une femme, sur les principaux personnages de 
la republique, du consulat, de Tempire et de la restauration. . . . Paris, 
1831. 6 vols. 8vo. R 25874 

WeigALL (Arthur Edward Pearse Brome) A history of events in Egypt 
from 1798 to 1914. [With plates.] Edinburgh and London, 1915. 
8vo, pp. ix, 312. R 39083 



340 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

962 HISTORY: MODERN: AFRICA. 

HURGRONJE (Christiaan Snouck) Der Mahdi. [Extract from the Revue 
coloniale internationale, 1885.] [Amsterdam, 1885.] 8vo, pp. 25-59. 

R 38036 

*^* The title is taken from the caption. 

ABYSSINIA. — GlaSER (Eduard) Die Abessinierin Arabien und Afrika. 
Auf Grund neuentdeckter Inschriften. Miinchen, 1895. 8vo, pp. xii, 
210. R 37931 

MOROCCO.— BaRTLETT {Sir Ellis Ashmead) The passing of the 
Shereefian empire. [With maps and plates.] Edinburgh and London, 
1910. 8vo, pp. xii. 532. R 38355 

Harris (Lawrence) With Mulai Hafid at Fez : behind the scenes in 
Morocco. With a frontispiece . . . and . . . illustrations. London, 
1909. 8vo. pp. xvi. 270. R 38361 

PeRRIER (Amelia) A winter in Morocco. . . . [With plates.] London, 
1873. 8vo, pp. viii. 365. R 31924 

Weir (Thomas H.) The shaikhs of Morocco in the XVIth century. . . . 
With preface by James Robertson . . . With a map. Edinburgh, 
1904. 8vo, pp. xlvii, 316. R 37446 

SOUTH AFRICA.— BleLOCH (W.) The new South Africa : its value 
and development. . . . With illustrations, maps. . . . Second edition, 
revised. London, 1902. 8vo, pp. xxvi, 435. R 38359 

Mueller (Elmest Bruce Iwan-) Lord Milner and South Africa. . . . 
With . . . portraits. London, 1902. 8vo, pp. xxxii, 751. R 38363 

970 HISTORY: MODERN: AMERICA. 

GENERAL. — BALDWIN (John Denison) Ancient America, in notes on 
American archaeology. . . . With illustrations. London, 1872. 8vo, 
pp. xii. 299. R 31602 

HOVGAARD (William) The voyages of the Norsemen to America. With 
. . . illustrations and . . . maps. [American- Scandinavian Founda- 
tion. — Scandinavian Monographs, 1.] New York, 1914. 8vo, pp. xxi, 
304. R 37779 

NORTH.— Wrong (George Mackinnon) The fall of Canada : a chapter 
in the history of the Seven Years* War. [With maps and plates.] 
Oxford, 1914. 8vo, pp. 272. R 37486 

ROUSSET (Ricardo V.) Datos historicos y geotopograficos de la Isla de 
Cuba, ilustrados con un mapa en don de se detallan las provincias o 
cacicazgos que se encontraban en 1512, cuando empezo la conquista, 
con las alteraciones de su territorio hasta el presente. Habana, 1914. 
8vo, pp. 23. R 38893 

Best, afterwards BeSTE Qohn Richard), afterwards BeSTE Qot'n Richard 
Digby) The Wabash : or, adventures of an English gentleman's fcunily 
in the interior of America. . . . [With plate.] London, \^bb. 2 vols. 
8vo. R 31900 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF RECENT ACCESSIONS 341 

970 HISTORY: MODERN: AMERICA. 

Bingham (Hiram) 3rd of the Name. The Monroe doctrine : an obsolete 
shibboleth. New Haven, 1913. 8vo, pp. vii, 153. R 35121 

Bishop (Nathaniel Holmes) Four months in a sneak-box. A boat voyage 
of 2600 miles down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and along the Gulf 
of Mexico. [With maps and illustrations.] Boston, 1879. 8vo, pp. 
xii. 322. R 31874 

Boies (Henry Martyn) Prisoners and paupers : a study of the abnormal 
increase of criminals, and the public burden of pauperism in the United 
States ; the causes and remedies. [With plates.] New York, London, 
1893. 8vo, pp. XV, 318. R 29291 

BOLLES (Frank) Land of the lingering snow : chronicles of a stroller in 
New England from January to June. Boston and New York, 1891. 
8vo, pp. 234. R 31884 

Dunning (William Archibald) The British Empire and the United States : 
a review of their relations during the century of peace following the 
treaty of Ghent. . . . With an introduction by . . . Viscount Bryce 
. . . and a preface by Nicholas Murray Butler. . . . London, [1914]. 
8vo, pp. xl, 381. R 38101 

GiLLMORE (Parker) Prairie farms and prairie folk. [With plates.] 
London, mi. 2 vols. 8vo. R 31901 

GrOHMAN (William Alfred Baillie) Camps in the Rockies. Being a 
narrative of life on the frontier, and sport in the Rocky Mountains, with 
an account of the cattle ranches of the west. . . . With illustrations and 
. . . map. . . . London, 1882. 8vo, pp. viii, 438. R 24186 

LaUGEL (Antoine Auguste) Les Etats-Unis pendant la guerre, 1861-65. 
Paris, 1866. 8vo, pp. xvi, 363. R 28453 

Long (Armistead Lindsay) Memoirs of Robert E. Lee : his military and 
personal history. . . . Together with incidents relating to his private 
life, also a large amount of historical information hitherto unpublished. 
Collected and edited with the assistance of Marcus J. Wright. . . . 
Illustrated. London, 1886. 8vo, pp. 707. R 38398 

LOSSING (Benson John) The Hudson, from the wilderness to the sea. . . . 
Illustrated . . . from drawings by the author. . . . Troy, N.Y.^%ii^\. 
4to, pp. vii, 464. R 31882 

Marry AT (Frederick) A diary in America, with remarks on its institutions. 
Paris, 1839. 8vo, pp. 345. R 31899 

Olmsted (Frederick Law) A journey through Texas ; or, a saddle-trip 
on the south western frontier : with a statistical appendix. [Edited by 
J. H. Olmsted.] [With frontispiece and map.] [Our Slave States, 2.] 
New York, 1857. 8vo, pp. xxxiv, 516. R 31871 



342 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

970 HISTORY: MODERN: AMERICA. 

SOMERS (Robert) The southern States since the war, 1870-71. . . . With 
map. London and New York, 1 87 1 . 8vo, pp. xii, 286. R 3 1 876 

SmEDES (Susan Dabney) Memorials of a southern planter [T. S. G. 
Dabney.] . . . Second edition. [With portraits.] Baltimore, 1888. 
8yo, pp. 342. R 31875 

TiSSANDIER (Albert) Six mois aux Etats-Unis : voyage d*un touriste dans 
I'Amerique du Nord, suivi d'une excursion a Panama. Texte et dessins 
par A. Tissandier. . . . [Bibliotheque de la Nature.] Paris ^ [1886]. 
8vo.pp. 298. R 31836 

Usher (Roland Greene) The rise of the American people : a philosophical 
interpretation of American history. London, 1915. 8vo, pp. 413. 

R 38370 

Wright (Robert) A memoir of General James Oglethorpe, one of the 
earliest reformers of prison discipline in England, and the founder of 
Georgia, in America. . . . London, 1867. 8vo, pp. xvi, 414. 

R 29448 

SOUTH. — Moses (Bernard) The Spanish dependencies in South America : 
an introduction to the history of their civilisation. . . . London, 1914. 
2 vols. 8vo. R 37680 

990 HISTORY: MODERN: OCEANICA. 

Money (James William B.) Java ; or, how to manage a colony ; showing 
a practical solution of the questions now affecting British India. London, 
1861. 2 vols. 8vo. R 31597 

HiGHT (James) and BaMFORD (H. D.) The constitutional history and 
law of New Zealand. Christchurch, N.Z., [1914]. 8vo, pp. xii, 418. 

R 38519 

New South Wales. An epitome of the official history of New South 
Wales, from the foundation of the colony, in 1 788, to the close of the 
first session of the eleventh parliament under responsible government, 
in 1883. Compiled chiefly from the official and parliamentary records 
of the colony, under the direction of Thomas Richards. . . . [With 
map and table.] Sydney, 1883. 8vo, pp. xii, 790. R 38579 

MaWSON {Sir Douglas) The home of the blizzard : being the story of the 
Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-14. . . . Illustrated . . . 
also with maps. London, [] 9] 5], 2 vols. 8vo. R 38081 



ABERDEEN : THE UNIVERSITY PRESS {2756) 



BULLETIN OF 

THE JOHN RYLANDS 

LIBRARY 

MANCHESTER 



.^^ 



Vol. 3 JANUARY- APRIL, 1917 No. 4 

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS. 

AT the January meeting of the Council of Governors the seven- 
teenth annual report was presented, in which THE YEAR 
the work of the Kbrary during the past year '^'^• 
was reviewed, and it will not be out of place, in these pages, briefly 
to summarize such portions of its contents as are likely to be of 
interest to our readers. 

As we looked forward, at the commencement of the year, it was 
not unnatural to anticipate a decline in the library's activities, and it is 
gratifying, therefore, to be able to report that those fears have in no 
sense been realized. From whatever point of view the work of the 
library is viewed, in spite of the absorbing and overwhelming fact of the 
great war, there are such unmistakable evidences of progress, that the 
governors have cause to congratulate themselves upon the success which 
has attended their efforts, not merely to "carry on'* the regular 
activities, but, wherever possible, to open out new avenues of service. 

It is true that the war has withdrawn still more of our male 
readers for national service, yet the number of readers using the library 
has actually shown an increase, and a great deal of important research 
work is being conducted not only by students from our own university, 
but by others from a distance. 

The resources of the library have been developed along lines 
which hitherto have been productive of such excellent GROWTH 
results, and the efforts to reduce the number of lacunae rary RE-^' 
upon its shelves have again met with gratifying success. SOURCES. 
In this respect the officials renew their acknowledgments of the valu- 
able assistance which they have received from members of the Council 
of Governors, Professors at the University, as well as readers, who, 
m the course of their investigations, have been able to, call atten- 
tion to the library's lack of important authorities. In most cases these 
deficiencies have been promptly supplied, whilst in the case of works 

23 



344 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

of rarity, which are not readily procurable, no effort has been spared 

to obtain them with the least possible delay. Suggestions of any kind 

which tend to the improvement of the libraiy are welcomed, and 

receive prompt and sympathetic attention. 

The additions to the library during the year, which number 3370 

volumes, include many rare and interesting items, a few ^^^ 

of which, taken almost at random, may be mentioned, YEARS AC- 

. . CESSIONS 

as furnishing some idea of the character of the accessions 

which are constantly being obtained. The printed books include : the 
first edition of John Bunyan's " A discourse upon the pharisee and 
the publicane," 1685 ; Dante's ** Divina commedia," 1555, the first 
edition in which the prefix ** divina ** is used ; John Florio*s ** Second 
frutes," 1591 ; *' Worlde of wordes,'* 1598; and "Queen Anne's 
new world of words," 1611; the first edition of Montaigne's " Essayes 
done into English by John Florio," 1 603 ; John Harington's transla- 
tion of Ariosto's ** Orlando furioso," 1591 ; Richard Brathwayte's 
** Natures embassie," 1621 ; "Times curtaine drawne," 1621 ; 
** Essaies upon the five senses," 1635 ; *' An epitome of the Kinge 
of France," 1639; "Lignum Vitae," 1658; and " Panthalia, or 
the Royal Romance," 1659 ; Bamabe Barnes' " Foure bookes of 
offices," 1606; Culpeper's "The idea of practical physic," [The 
Herbal], 1661 ; William Alexander, the Earl of Stirling's "Re- 
creations with the muses," 1637 ; "A treatise of the cohabitacyon 
of the faithfull with the unfaithfuU," 1535 ; Prisse d'Avenne's 
" L'art arabe," 4 vols., folio, 1870-80 ; " Collection des textes pour 
servir a I'etude de I'histoire," 49 vols., 1880-1913 ; Cesar Daly's 
" L'architecture privee au I9me siecle," 8 vols., folio, 1870-80 ; one 
of the five only known copies of "Statuta Lugdunensia,' [Lyons, 
1485 ?] ; " Ordinances made by Sir Francis Bacon," 1642 ; "The 
official records of the Union and Confederate armies in the War of 
the Rebellion in America,' 130 vols. ; "The Psalms of David," 
translated by King James 1, 1631 ; a number of works on Celtic 
language and literature from the library of the late Standish O'Crady, 
including a set of the proofs of his unfinished " Catalogue of Irish 
Manuscripts in the British Museum," which was never published ; 
Guillaume de Guilleville's " Pelerinage de Tame," Paris, Verard, 
1499 ; and a number of works dealing with the history of British 
India, selected with the help of Professor Ramsay Muir. 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 



345 



The manuscript purchases include : Eight Syriac and Greek 
codices containing several important inedited texts, from the library of 
Dr, Rendel Harris ; a collection of manuscripts, numbering forty 
pieces, of undetermined antiquity, in the language of the Mo'so 
people, a non- Chinese race scattered throughout Southern China, 
which were acquired through the instrumentality of Mr. George 
Forrest, who obtained them in the remote and little-known country 
of their origin, whence he returned a few months ago. ** Le cous- 
tumier du pays du duche de Normandie," in a fifteenth century French 
hand ; Charles II : Letters Patent to Sir W. Killegrew, 1662, with 
a fine impression of the Great Seal attached ; " English Monumental 
inscriptions in Salisbury Cathedral,'* copied by T. H. Baker, 1903, 
2 vols., fol. ; " Antiquitates Suffolciensis ; " heraldic and genealogical 
collections relating to the county of Suffolk, with 500 shields of arms 
drawn and emblazoned by the Rev. G. B. Jermyn, 4 vols. 

In the following list of donors, which contains 121 names, wc 
have fresh proof of the sustained and ever increasing ^.rn^c t^ 
practical mterest m the library, and we take this oppor- THE LIB- 
tunity of renewing our thanks, already expressed in 
another form, for these generous gifts, at the same time assuring the 
donors that these expressions of interest and goodwill are a most wel- 
come source of encouragement to the governors. 



John Ballinger, Esq. 

W, K. Bixby, Esq. 

Bodley's Librarian. 

Miss K. F. Brothers. 

The Right Rev. Dr. Casartelli. 

George Watson Cole, Esq. 

D. G. Crawford, Esq. 
Henry Thomas Crofton, Esq. 
Frank Cundall, Esq. 

Andrew Macfarland Davis, Esq. 
Robert Dick, Esq. 

E. S. Dodgson, Esq. 
A. J. Edmunds, Esq. 

Mrs. Emmott. In memoiy of the 
late Professor G H. Emmott 
of Liverpool University. 



Senor Fidelino de Figueiredo. 
Sir H. G. Fordham. 
Garcia Rico y Cia. 
S. Gaselee, Esq. 

Trustees of E. J. W. Gibb Me- 
morial. 
Lawrence Haward, Esq. 
Jesse Haworth, Esq. 
Messrs. Hodgson & Co. 
Robert S. Howarth, Esq, 
Charles Hughes, Esq. 
Secretaiy of State for India. 
R. Jaeschke, Esq. 
Lieutenant Wm. Jaggard. 
A. K. Jolliffe, Esq. 
The Rev. L. H. Jordan. 



346 



THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 



Frank Karslake, Esq. 

The Rev. Dr. Kilgour. 

H. O. Lange, Esq. 

Sir Sidney Lee. 

F. S. Lees, Esq. 

John Lees, Esq. 

WilKam Lees, Esq. 

Monsieur Paul Le Verdier. 

H. C. Levis, Esq. 

The Librarian. 

Sir G. W. Macalpine. 

James O. Manton, Esq. 

Dr. A. Mingana. 

Sir WilKam Osier, Bart. 

Julian Peacock, Esq. 

Joseph de Perott, Esq. 

Edgar Prestage, Esq. 

W. R. Prior, Esq. 

PubHshers of J. M. Head's Cata- 
logue of portraits relating to 
W. Penn. 

J. H. Reynolds, Esq. 



W. Wright Roberts, Esq. 

J. B. Robinson, Esq. 

Miss M. Sharpe. 

Dr. H. O. Sommer. 

A. Sparke, Esq. 

E. V. Stocks, Esq. 

Miss Josephine D. Sutton. 

Arthur Swann, Esq. 

The Rev. Canon W. Symonds. 

H. W. Thompson, Esq. 

Mrs. J. C. Thompson. 

Louis C. Tiffany, Esq. 

Dr. Paget Toynbee. 

Aubrey de Vere, Esq. 

Guthrie Vine, Esq. 

The Rev. D. R. Webster. 

George Westby, Esq. 

Dr. G. C. Williamson. 

John Windsor, Esq. 

G. P. Winship, Esq. 

Thomas J. Wise, Esq. 



Aberystwyth. National Library of Wales. 

Australian Government. 

Barcelona. Catalans Institut d*Estudis. 

Birmingham. Assay Office. 

Cambridge University Library. 

Cardiff Public Library. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

Chicago. John Crerar Library. 

Chicago University Press. 

Chicago. The Western Theological Seminary. 

The Clarendon Press. 

Copenhagen. Det Store Koneglige Bibliothek. 

Cornell University Library, 

Durham University Library. 

Edinburgh University Library. 

Groningen . Rijks- Uni versiteitbibliothek. 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 347 

Habana. Academia Nacional. 

Habana. Biblioteca Nacional. 

Hyderabad Archaeological Society. 

Limoges. Bibliotheque. 

Lisbon. Academia das Sciencias. 

Madras Government Museum. 

Madras Government Press. 

Manchester. Egyptian and Oriental Society. 

Manchester. Free Reference Library. 

Manchester. Municipal School of Technology. 

Manchester. Victoria University. 

Michigan University Library. 

National Special Schools Union. 

New Zealand. Government Statistician's Office. 

New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Order of the Cross, Paignton. 

Paris. Ministere de la Justice. 

Paris. Office des universites fran^aises. 

Pennsylvania University Library. 

Research Defence Society. 

Rochdale Art Gallery. 

Rome. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. 

Sheffield. Hunter Archaeological Society. 

South Australia Public Library. 

Stockholm. Kongelige Bibliotheket. 

Swedenborg Society. 

Toronto Public Library. 

Utrecht. Rijks-Universitats-Bibliothek. 

Washington. Congressional Library. 

Washington. Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington. United States National Museum. 

Washington. Surgeon General's Office Library. 

Washington University Library, St. Louis, Mo. 

Yale University Library. 

Special reference should be made to the gift of Mrs. Emmott, of 
Birkenhead, who has generously presented to the library a collection 
of works dealing with Roman law, and comparative law and juris- 



348 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

prudence, numbering nearly 300 volumes, in memory of her husband, 
the late Professor Emmott, who filled the Queen Victoria Chair of 
Law, first in University College, and later in the University of Liver- 
pool, from 1896 down to the time of his lamented death, in the hope 
that it may encourage others to take interest in a study in which the 
late Professor was himself so deeply interested, and upon which he 
was so great an authority. This collection forms a most welcome 
addition to our shelves, since it enables us to strengthen an important 
section of the library, which hitherto has been but very inadequately 
developed. 

We have also received from the Secretary of State for India, 
through the kind offices of Prof. Ramsay Muir, and Mr. William 
Foster, the Superintendent of Records, a set, numbering nearly 500 
volumes, of all the available Government reports and other publica- 
tions, whether printed in this country or in India, relating to India. 
Furthermore, the library is to receive copies of all future publica- 
tions from the same source. This has enabled us to lay excellent 
foundations of a collection of research material for the history of India, 
which will be developed as opportunities occur. 

Interest in the public lectures, which were given in the library 
with the accustomed regularity, and which have come to LECTURES 
be regarded as one of the established institutions of demoN- 
Manchester, has continued with but little abatement STRATIONS. 
throughout the year. The evening audiences were not quite so 
crowded as in pre-war times, but the attendances more than justified 
the arrangements made. The attendances at the afternoon lectures, 
were, if anything, larger than usual. The syllabus included eight 
evening and three afternoon lectures, covering a wide and interesting 
range of subjects. The lecture of Dr. Rendel Harris on " The Origin 
of the Cult of Aphrodite " is printed in the present issue, whilst those 
of Professor Peake on "The Quintessence of Paulinism" ; of Pro- 
fessor Elliot Smith on "Dragons and Rain Gods"; of Professor 
Tout on " Mediaeval Town Planning '* ; and of Professor Herford 
on " The Poetry of Lucretius " will be given the permanence of print 
in these pages in due course. 

Special lectures and demonstrations were also arranged at the 
request of a number of societies, craft guilds, training colleges, and 
schools of Manchester and the surrounding towns, and served to assist 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 349 

those who attended to obtain a better knowledge of the contents of 
the library, and how it could serve them in their respective studies. 

The exhibition which was arranged in the early part of the year, 
to commemorate the Three-hundredth Anniversary of 
the Death of Shakespeare, and which we described in SPEARE 
our last issue, remained on view throughout the year, tenary 
and was visited by a large number of people, including jj^^'^*" 
numerous groups of students from the schools and col- 
leges in and around Manchester, with evident enjoyment, and avowed 
benefit. 

The descriptive and illustrated handbook, which was issued with 
the object of increasing the educational value of the exhibition, was 
greeted with unstinted praise by the press, not only in this country, 
but also in America, and in France. The volume affords full and 
accurate information as to the bibliographical peculiarities, and other 
features of interest possessed by the various exhibits, which included 
not only the works of Shakespeare, but those of many of his contem- 
poraries and predecessors. It extends to 1 80 pages, is furnished with 
a sixteen-page list of works for the study of Shakespeare, and sixteen 
facsimiles of the title-pages of some of the rarer works, and may still 
be obtained from the usual agents, at the price of one shilling. 

With the present issue we complete the third volume of the 
Bulletin, and if we may judge by the welcome which PUBLICA- 
has been accorded to it, in its revived form, both in this j^^^ 
country and abroad, we are encouraged to believe that LIBRARY, 
we have succeeded in realizing our aim, to secure for it the perman- 
ence of a literary organ, by the publication of a regular succession of 
original contributions to literature in addition to the regular features 
of a library periodical. We regret that it has not been found possible 
to publish it with the desired regularity during the past year. This 
is accounted for by the difficulties which have arisen through the 
shortage of labour, and also of paper ; but we shall employ every 
effort in the future to secure its regular appearance each quarter. 

During the year we commenced the publication of a series of re- 
prints of the principal articles appearing in our pages, with the object 
of giving them a much wider publicity, and at the same time of rescu- 
ing them from the fate of so many other important contributions to 
literature, which each year are simply buried and neglected for want 



350 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

of similar treatment, because by an accident of birth they appear in 
the heart of some volume of transactions or other periodical publica- 
tion. These reprints, of which six have already made their appear- 
ance, are bound in paper boards with cloth back, and may be procured 
from the usual publishers and agents at the price of one shilling each. 

We have also republished in one volume (price 5s. net), under 
the title ** The Ascent of Olympus," the four interesting aiticles by 
Dr. Rendel Harris, on the Greek cults, which have appeared at inter- 
vals in the BULLETIN. They are reproduced as nearly as possible 
in their original form, but with some corrections, expansions, justifica- 
tions, and additional illustrations. In a short prefatory note Dr. Harris 
points out that it would have been easy to spread them over a much 
larger area ; but perhaps they may suffice for the presentation of 
ideas which are to some extent novel, and, almost as certainly, to 
some persons distasteful. 

On the one hand, says Dr. Harris, I have to meet the criticism 
of my wise friend and inspiring leader, who is priest of the mytho- 
logical Nemi, and guardian of its " Golden Bough," until some one 
catches him unawares and dispossesses him. He tells me that he 
despairs of the solution of the riddle of the Greek Mythology, he 
who does not despair (and with better right than Haeckel) of the 
solution of the riddle of the Universe ! 

On the other hand, continues Dr. Harris, there aie those who, 
having unfortunately been familiar with the Greek gods from their 
earliest years, and never really detached from traditional faith in them, 
cannot avoid contemplating the author of these lectures as an iconoclast, 
and put upon him the task, under which Socrates as well as the 
early Christians alike laboured, of proving to a suspicious bench of 
magistrates that they were really not atheists. So far faom this being 
the case, it may be hoped that when one succeeds, if one does suc- 
ceed, iij evolving Artemis out of a wayside weed, or Aphrodite out 
of a cabbage, and, in general, all things lovely out of things that are 
not at first sight beautiful, one may claim to belong to the brother- 
hood, whatever its name may be, that has the vision of 

That far-off divine event 
To which the whole creation moves. 

The first volume of the new and standard edition of the *' Odes 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 351 

of Solomon," edited by Dr. Rendel Harris, and Dr. A. Mingana. 
made its appearance in October. It furnishes, for the first time, a 
facsimile of the original Syriac manuscript, now in the possession of 
the John Rylands Library, which is accompanied by a retranscribed 
text, with an attached critical apparatus. 

The second volume, which may be looked for in the course of the 
year, will comprise a new translation of the " Odes " in English 
versicles, with brief comments by way of elucidation, an exhaustive 
introduction dealing with the variations of the fragment in the British 
Museum, with the original language, the probable epoch of their com- 
position, their unity, the stylistic method of their first writer, the 
accessory patristic testimonies, a summary of the most important 
criticisms that have appeared since its first publication in 1909, a 
complete bibliography of the subject, and a glossary to the text. 

The price of each volume is half-a-guinea net. 

Elsewhere, in the present issue (pages 408-442), we print the fifth 
list of contributions to the new library for the University LOU VAIN 
of Louvain. This does not by any means complete the recoN- 
record of gifts to date, but we are compelled, from con- STRUCTION 
siderations of space, to hold over a list of at least equal length of the 
more recent contributions until our next issue. 

In thanking the various donors for these generous and welcome 
expressions of interest in our scheme of reconstruction, we have taken 
the opportunity on another page to renew and to emphasize our 
appeal for offers of suitable books, or contributions of money, to 
assist us in this endeavour to restore, at least in some measure, the 
resources of the crippled and exiled University. 

The ** View of London, 1610," which faces page 218 in our last 
issue, was inadvertently described as by Hollar, whereas a CORREC- 
it is by Hondius. TION. 

In a recent issue of the " Boston Evening Transcript," " the 
Bibliographer " calls attention to the discovery of a per- 
fect copy of the first American edition of " The Pilgrim's AMERICAN 
Progress," the title-page of which reads : THE %^L^^ 

The I Pilgrim's Progress | from | this World, | to g^P^^' 
] That which is to come ; | Delivered under the 
Similitude of a | DREAM. | Wherein is Discovered the 
Manner | of his setting out, the dangerous | Journey, | and | 



352 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Safe Arrival at the Desired Countrey. | (Rule) | By John 
Bunyan. | (Rule) | I have used Similitudes. Hosea 12. 10. 
I (Rule) I Boston in New- England | Printed by Samuel Green 
upon As- I signment of Samuel Sewall : and | are to be sold 
by John Usher | of Boston. 1681. 

By this discovery the Boston Public Library loses the distinction, 
it has enjoyed hitherto, of possessing the only known copy of this in- 
teresting edition of John Bunyan 's ** chef d*oeuvre". This edition 
made its appearance three years after the publication of the original 
English edition, which was issued in 1678, and of which an excellent 
copy is preserved in the John Rylands Library. The copy of the 
American edition under notice measures 31 by 51 inches, and con- 
tains the two blank leaves preceding the title-page, the leaf of ad- 
vertisements, and the blank leaf at the end. The advertisement leaf 
lends additional interest to the copy, since it includes the announce- 
ment of the original edition of " The Captivity of Mrs. Mary 
Rowlandson," of which apparently no copy is at present known to 
have survived. 

We are indebted to the same writer for information concerning 
the fate of the Britwell Court collection of " Americana,*' the BRIT- 
purchased recendy from Mr. Christie- Miller for Mr. ameri- 
Henry E. Huntington of New York. It would appear, ^^NA. 
that in purchasing the Britwell collection, Mr. Huntington was 
actuated by the same spirit which led the Second Earl Spencer, the 
founder of the famous Althorp Library, to ransack Europe in his 
eagerness to enrich his already famous collection with whatever was 
fine and rare, even to the purchase of duplicates, so that he might 
exercise the choice of copies. In this way he acquired entire libraries 
in order that he might improve his collection of early English books 
by the addition of specimens of famous presses not hitherto repre- 
sented, and in some cases by the substitution of copies which were 
better than those he had previously possessed. If we may judge by 
Mr. Huntington's recent purchase he shares with the late Elarl 
Spencer the appreciation of the external beauties of a choice book, 
with a just and keen estimate of its intrinsic merits. It was the prac- 
tice of Lord Spencer after making these advantageous substitutions 
and additions, promptly to send the residue of his purchase to the 
auctioneers for sale. He never cherished the selfish delight of some 



LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS 353 

eminent collectors in putting two identical copies of an extremely rare 
book on his own shelves, expressly in order that neither of them 
should (ill a gap in the library of another collection. 

In this respect, also, we venture to believe that Mr. Huntington 
has followed Lord Spencer's example in deciding to sell by auction 
the residue of the Britwell books, together with the substituted copies 
from his own library. 

As we go to press, the welcome news of the fall of Baghdad 
reaches us, and considering the immeasurable importance ^j.^. 
of the event, we have thought it not inappropriate to FALL OF 
ask Dr. Mingana to favour our readers with his views 
on certain aspects of its significance. Dr. Mingana writes with the 
authority of one who is intimately acquainted not only with the city 
of Baghdad, but also with the surrounding country of Mesopotamia,^ 
where he has spent a great part of his life. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE/ 
By J. RENDEL HARRIS, MA., Litt.D., etc., 

HON. FELLOW OF CLARE COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 

WE have in previous essays shown that it v^as possible to dig 
down to the ground form of a number of the cults of the 
divinities which go to make up the Greek pantheon. 
Dionysus has been traced back to the ivy on the oak, and we can go 
no further in the direction of origins than this ; we are actually at the 
starting-point of the cult, whatever other elements, ritual or orgiastic, 
may be combined with the Ivy Cult. In the same way Apollo has 
been traced to the mistletoe on the apple-tree, which is a secondary 
form of the mistletoe on the oak, and we have shown that his skill as 
a healer and master in wizardry is due to the all -healing powers of 
his mistletoe and to certain other plants in his medical garden. From 
these conceptions the Apollo Cult must proceed, and although there is 
still some unresolved complexity in the cult, the major part of it is 
translucent enough. Artemis, too, with her woman's medicines, and 
garden of herbs helpful and of herbs hurtful, is now a much more in- 
telligible figure, though still containing perplexities for further study 
and resolution. She, too, is, in the first instance, personified medicine. 
We now pass on to the Cult of Aphrodite, and find ourselves 
face to face with a problem in which our previous investigations ap- 
pear not to lend any assistance. She is a daughter of Zeus by tra- 
dition, apparently of Zeus and Dione, but there seems no way of 
attaching her to the sky, either bright or dark, or to the oak-tree, or 
to the woodpecker, or to the ivy or the mistletoe, or to a medical 
garden. Moreover, by common consent, she is ruled out of the com- 
pany of gods with Greek originals. She is an immigrant in the Greek 
pantheon, an alien, however desirable, and however much at home. 
Her luggage has Cyprus labels on it, to say nothing of other islands 
where she has made stay ; and this has not unnaturally led to the view 
that she is Oriental and not Greek at all. In spite of the interest 

^ A lecture delivered in the John Rylands Library, 17 October, 1916. 

354 




Mandrake 
(From Sibthorp's "Flora Graeca") 

a Calyx cum pistillo. b Corolla, arte explanata, cum staminibus. c Pistillum 
seorsim. d Bacca matura. e Semen. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 355 

which she takes in other people's business, she has no direct cult-re- 
lations with the rest of the gods, she does not share temples nor 
honours except in rare and insignificant cases ^ ; her worship is con- 
ventional as far as the sacrifices are concerned, and no special animal, 
not even the dove, betrays by its presence the links which connect the 
great goddess of Love with her past : and yet we are sure that she had 
a past, even if we do not at first know in what direction to lookfor'it. 
The Greek mythology tells us nothing : the poets play with her name 
and perpetrate philological impertinences to show why she is born of 
the foam (dc^/ods), and only lead us from the truth, instead of towards 
it, by their industrious myth- spinning. We evidently must begin this 
enquiry de novo, both as regards the ancient mythologists and their 
modern representatives. We will not even assume too hastily that 
she is a foreigner : for that requires the underlying assumption that the 
Greeks had no god or goddess of Love of their own and had no 
necessity for one, which I, for one, find extremely difficult to believe. 
Cyprus and Cythera may turn out to be not so far from the mainland 
after all : and even if she did originate in Cyprus or Cythera, we have 
still to be told the story of her birth. Is she a personified force of 
nature, a vegetable demon of fertility, some person or thing that makes 
for growth and multiplies products ? Can we look on her as another 
view of the Corn- Mother, or as a spirit of physical inebriation, like 
Dionysos ? or is it possible that she, too, may be like Apollo and 
Artemis, the virtue of a plant ? 

As we have said, her relation to Zeus is merely ornamental : so 
that if she has a vegetable origin, it can hardly be found in the oak or 
its parasites. It would have to be sought in that part of the botanical 
world that is supposed to have sexual virtues. Now a little enquiry 
into the history of medicine, which we have shown to be for the most 
part the history of plants, will tell us that the ancients were very 
interested in determining what plants would make people fall in love 
with one another ; they used their observation leisurely and their 
imagination industriously, and in the end they evolved all that branch 
of magic which has for its object the manufacture of philtres and 
potions, and, as Fal staff would say, '* medicines to make me love him ". 

^ The case of Dodona is not included: for here Aphrodite is hardly 
to be distinguished from Dione ; the Dodona Cult is about the oldest thing 
in Greek religion. 



356 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

Now it is clearly not an impossible thing that Aphrodite may have 
something to do with this wizardry : and, therefore, we will not too 
hastily assume that she is altogether out of kinship with Apollo and 
Artemis- Hekate. Something, for instance, of a medical nature must 
be involved in the fact that "at Oropus she shared an altar with 
Athena the healer, and the daughters of Asklepios ".^ 

We cannot, however, help feeling that this medical element which 
put her in the medical school of Athens is something unusual, and 
that she might more properly be called Panalgeia than Panakeia. 

Suppose, now, we ask of the herbalist the question as to which of 
his simples is likely to operate most powerfully on the affections. If 
he belongs to the ancient world, he will reply without a moment's 
hesitation that Mandragora, or Mandrake, is the thing for our money : 
if he belong to the modern world, he will say that mandragora is 
only an opiate and not a stimulant. We leave the modem wizards 
on one side, and interrogate the ancient. What have they to say of 
this ** drowsy syrup " ? The answer is full and marvellous. The 
mandrake is a root which shrieks terribly when you pull it out of the 
ground ; it is, indeed, so dangerous that you must not try to pull it : 
better tie a dog to the stalk and then entice the dog towards you with 
a boniie boitche : stop your ears by way of precaution, and use your 
eyes to see the last dying agonies of the dog who has pulled the root 
for you. Then go and pick it up. To your surprise, you will find 
the root to have a human form, sometimes male, and sometimes 
female : it is, in fact, like FalstafTs *' forked radish,'* a little parody 
of man : for the description of the youthful Justice Shallow as a 
*' forked radish " led on to the comparison of him with a mandrake. 
The experts will tell you that it is rarely to be found except under 
the gallows, and that it is the humours and juices of the suspended 
person, especially if the victim of the law be innocent, that have given 
it the human form. 

Naturally one asks whether this is really ancient lore : is it not a 
myth made in English out of the first syllable of mandrake ? Then 
we recall how Medea, when she wished to make Jason secure from 
the brazen bulls that breathed fire on him, supplied him with an 
unguent made from a flower that had been fed with the ichor of the 

^ Farnell, Cults, ii. 657. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 357 

innocent, martyred Promethetis ; so we feel certain that we are, in 
the main, dealing with primitive matters. 

So we must interrogate the herbalists and see where mandrake is to 
be found, and what can be done with it when you find it. The first 
thing one comes across is the well-known story in Genesis where little 
Reuben brings home to his mother Leah some pretty apples which he 
has found in the field : and Leah, who has no special need for such 
stimulants, trades them off to her sister Rachel for a consideration. 
The same love-apples turn up among the flora of the Song of Solomon, 
where we learn that in the spring-time they give an agreeable scent, a 
point upon which all nasal artists are not by any means agreed.^ Let 
us see what old Gerarde has to say on the question of Mandrake : he 
tells us (p. 357) : " There hath been many ridiculous tales brought up 
of this plant, whether of old wives, or some runnagate surgeons, or 
physicke-mongers I know not (a title bad enough for them) but sure 
some one or moe that sought to make themselves famous or skilful 
above others were the first brochers of that erroui* I speake of : [the 
supposed human form of the Mandrake]. They adde further that it 
is never, or very seldome, to be found growing naturally but under a 
gallowse, where the matter that hath fallen from the dead body hath 
given it the shape of a man ; and the matter of a woman the sub- 
stance of a female plant, vrith many other such doltish dreams. They 
fable further and affirme, That he who would take up a plant thereof 
must tie a dog thereunto to pull it up, which will give a great shreeke 
at the digging up : otherwise if a man should do it, he should surely 
die in short space after. Besides many fables of loving matters, too 
full of scurrilitie to set forth in print, which I forbeare to speak of. All 
which dreames and old wives tales you shall from henceforth cast out 
of your books and memory ; knowing this, that they are all and 
everie part of them false and most untrue : for 1 myselfe and my 
servants also have digged up, planted and replanted very many, and 
yet never could either perceive shape of man or woman, but sometimes 
one straight root, sometimes two, and often six or seven branches 
coming from the maine great root, even as Nature list to bestow upon 

^ Howbeit Levinus Lemnius saith, in his discourse on the Secret 
Miracles of Nature, that the " male Mandrake bearelh a lovely pleasant 
and sweet-scented Apple, like to the yelk of a Hen's Egg, by the entice- 
ment whereof Rachel was allured " (p. 264, Anglice). 



358 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

it, as to other plantes. But the idle drones that have little or nothing 
to do but eate and drinke, have bestowed some of the time in carving 
the roots of Brionie, forming them to the shape of men and women : 
which falsifying practise hath confirmed the errour amongst the simple 
and unlearned people, who have taken them upon their report to be 
true Mandrakes." 

Evidently we want to know some of the fables of loving matters, 
to which Gerarde refers. Meanwhile, we note that this story of 
plant-extraction by dogs is a very old belief. That it was, in early 
times, considered dangerous to dig up the plants may be seen from 
the directions which Pliny gives to the excavators to keep to the 
windward of the plant, and then, after tracing round it three circles 
with the sword, to dig it up with one's face turned to the West.^ 

As to the supposed virtues of the plant which Gerarde derides, 
it is sufficient to establish the antiquity of the belief in them, and 
we can then safely infer a corresponding antiquity of the associated 
practices. 

Dioscorides lets the cat out of the bag by saying " that some people 
call the mandrake by the name Circaea, because its root is thought to 
be an efficacious philtre : — 

€7r€t8i7 SoKel 7) pL^a (^i\Tpo}v eli'at TroirjTLKTJ. 

Theophrastus has the same statement, and appears to be the source 
from which Pliny took his account of the manner of obtaining the 
root : — 

nepLypaKJietv he /cat top fiavSpayopav et? rpls ft<^et, Tefiveiv 
Se 77/009 kcnripav ^Xeiroi/ra • top 8' eTepov kvk\<o Trepiop^eicrBai,^ 
/cat \iyeiv a»s TrXetcrra irepX d(f)poSLcri(ov. 

Theophrastus : De genere plantarum. 

We are to talk love at the top of our bent when digging the love-apple. 
So we need have no hesitation in saying that the mandrake was the 
love-apple of the ancients. Its Hebrew name Dudai is referred to 
the saune stem (Dod or Dodo) from which the beloved David and 
Dido come, and gives the sense of fruit-of-love or love-apple exactly, 

^ Pliny, HM, xxv. 13 (94). Cf. the cutting of the mistletoe on the 
sacred oak of Elrrol after it has been gone round three times sun-\vise. 
Cf. also Theophrastus, infra, 

^ Diosc, De Mat Med. iv. 76. 



2>h 




Discovery Presenting the Mandrake to Dioscorides 
(From the Leiden Facsimile of the "Vienna Dioscorides") 




lU'.W \ 



I /ioc/ c/>oci-^;^JuVi^ \ iT'jr v^ra J yi^iirk (o/^ 



Discovery Presenting the Mandrake to Dioscorides 
(From the "Vienna Dioscorides," as reproduced in Lambecius' '• Commentariorum . . .") 



\ _M^ < ii pi i ^ 




Discovery Holding the Mandrake 
^Frotn the Leiden Facsimile of the ** Vienna Dioscorides "^ 




Discovery Holding the Mandrake 
(From the "Vienna Dioscorides," as reproduced in Lambecius' " Commentariorum . . .") 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 359 

especially when we note how the Septuagint translate the Dudahn 
by the term /xiJXa fiavSpayopotv or 7nandrake-apples. The fruit is 
not unlike a yellow apple in appearance, and Parkinson says it is " Of 
the bigness of a reasonable pippin and as yellow as gold when it is 
thoroughly ripe ".' Parkinson follows Gerarde in his scorn for the 
popular beliefs in the physical effects of the mandrake in other than 
soporific directions, but while he refuses to go into the matter in detail, 
and tells us to consult Matthiolus if we want to know, he lets us in- 
cidentally into one little secret, by saying" that "great and strange 
effects are supposed to be in the Mandrake to cause women to be 
fruitfull and to beare children, if they shall but carry the same 
neare unto their bodies ". Evidently the plant was worn as a charm 
about the waist, or in the girdle, and could produce its effect with- 
out being taken internally either as root or apple. 

Our next question is whether this love-apple can in any way be 
connected with Aphrodite, in the same way as we connected Apollo 
with the apple and the mistletoe and Artemis with the mugwort. 
The answer comes from an unexpected quarter. Hesychius has 
amongst his glosses an explanation of the term fiap8payoplrL<; {She 0/ 
the Mandrake) and he interprets it to mean Aphrodite. 

That would be quite conclusive if it were not for the fact that it is 
preceded by another gloss to the effect that Mai/S/)ayopo9 means 
Zeus. We find accordingly, 

MavSpdyopas — Zeus. 
MavSpayoplri^ — Aphrodite. 
Clearly we have to explain why Zeus is " He of the mandrake,*' as 
well as why Aphrodite is the lady of the mandrake. At first sight 
this looks difficult. It almost requires a Zeus- Aphroditos which would, 
to the ancient world, sound like a contradiction in terms. 

Evidently, then, we do not yet know the ancient mind with regard 
to the plant with sufficient accuracy, and we must delve a little deeper 
and employ a little more canine skill in the extraction of the root. 
We shall discover that the mandrake was regarded by the early 
botanists as existing in two species, which they called male and 
female ^ ; next, that when you pulled a mandrake, the human form 

1 Theatr. Botan. p. 343. '^ l.c p. 353. 

' Thus Levinus Lemnius : ** Theophrastus and other searchers into the 
2iature of plants have wisely divided them into Males and Females, by the 

24 



360 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

which you extracted was, again, either male or female ; and lastly, 
that Aphrodite herself had a cult-figure, according to which she was 
both male and female, and this representation existed in Cyprus, the 
original home of the goddess : to which may be added the fact that 
the persons who traded off fictitious mandrakes on a too credulous 
world adorned their frauds with hair and beard after the fashion of the 
Cypriote image already referred, to. 

We begin with Aphrodite and her possible bi-sexuality. Mac- 
robius tells us as follows : — ^ 

Signum autem eius est Cypri barbatum corpore, sed vesti muliebri, 
cum sceptro ac natura virili ; et putant eandem marem ac feminam 
esse. Aristophanes eam 'Ac^pdStroi^ appellat. Laevius etiam sic ait : 
Venerem igitur almum adorans, sive femina sive mas est, ita uti alma 
Noctiluca est. 

Here we have some astonishing statements. A bearded Venus 
in Cyprus, hardly female at all except for her dress : thought indeed 
by the Cypriotes to be both male and female. It is the plant evi- 
dently that is responsible for this ambiguity ; and Macrobius goes on 
to quote a jest of Aristophanes about Aphroditos, and a statement of 
another author about the adoration of an almus Venus (male or 
female, fish or flesh as the case may be), and concerning her shining 
by night. Here again, we seem to be on the track of the plant ; 
Venus is affirmed to shine by night, as in the case of the magic fern- 
seed, and other treasure-disclosing vegetables.- 

reason that some are fruitful and bear seed, but others are barren and bring 
forth none. . . . The Female Mandragora is either barren or bears very 
small fruit." — Secret Mh'acles of Nature^ p. 264. 

1 Sat. iii. 8, 3. 

^That there was a bearded goddess in Cyprus is also attested by 
Hesychius, who reports that the author of the history of Amathus in Cyprus 
says that the goddess was represented in the Island in the form of a man : — 

' A<f)p6SLT0<; • 6 he ra ire pi ^AjjLadovvra yey pa(l)a)<i 
dvSpa Tr]v deov io")(^r]/jLdTt(rOai, ev Kvirpw Xiyei,' 

Hesychius, s.v. ^A<pp6BiT0<;. 

For the goddess' beard we have also the attestation of Suidas : — 

'A<f)poBLT7) ' irXcLTTovai he avTrjv /cal yeveiov exova-av. 

Hesychius also points out that it is this bearded Aphroditos that gave rise to 
the later Hermaphrodites, which leads us to infer that the mandragoros 
which Hesychius identifies with Zeus ought more correctly to have been 
called Hermes. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 361 

Meanwhile, there is no need to trouble any further over 
Hesychius and his Zeus Mandragoras : he is only the conjugate of 
the vegetable Aphrodite : a male counterpart had to be found for the 
plant of inconstant sex, and Zeus will do for this requirement quite 
as well as, shall we say, Hermes.' We may, therefore, identify 
Aphrodite with the mandrake, provided we can carry back the 
traditions to a sufficiently early date ; for of course we must not 
manufacture early deities out of late folk-lore. That the mandrake is 
man-formed is, certainly, a very early tradition. Dioscorides tells us 
that Pythagoras called it avdpoiiro^Lop^ov, The same writer tells us 
that the Romans called the fruit viala canina, which betrays the 
tale of its extraction by a dog. 

The reference to the human form of the mandrake is due, in the 
first instance, to the bifurcation of the root (cf. the " forked radish " 

Servius on Vergil, Aeii. ii. 632, has the same tradition of the bearded 
goddess, and discusses the use of the masculine Qeo^ as applied to a goddess : 
as follows : — 

Ac ducente deo : secundum eos qui dicunt utriuscjue sexus participationem 
habere numina. nam et Calvus : pollentemque Deuin Venerem. item 
Vergilius (vii. 498) : nee dextrae erranti deus abfuit : cum aut Juno fuerit, 
aut Alecto. est etiam in Cypro simulacrum barbatae Veneris [corpore et 
veste muliebri cum sceptro et natura virili ;] quod ^ A^pohirov vocatur, (cui 
viri in veste muliebri, mulieres in virili veste sacrificant ; quanquam veteres 
deiim pro magno numine dicebant. Sallustius : ut tanta mutatio non sine 
deo videi-etur) et hoc ad Graecorum imitationem, qui 6 Qeo^ koX t) Oeo^; 
dicunt, sicut 6 dvOpwirof; koI 77 avOpwTro^, vir et femina. 

It is interesting that, according to Servius, the image of the goddess is 
called ^A<f>p6hiTov. 

^ The reason why Zeus was selected as the male consort may, however, 
be divined with some degree of probability. If Aphrodite was to have a 
consort in Cyprus it should certainly have been Adonis. Now if we look 
at Dioscorides and his description of the male and female mandrake, we 
shall find him speaking of a third variety which he calls ^lopcov (morion). 
This mysterious fiopiop is nothing else but the Syriac word for ** Our Lord *' 
transliterated into Greek, and in Cyprus its proper equivalent is Adonis. 
Apparently someone has misunderstood the reference and called the man- 
drake by the name of Zeus, to whom the term '* Our Lord " might more 
properly be held to apply. So we suspect that originally the male and 
female mandrake were Adonis and Aphrodite. The difficulty is that in the 
popular tradition Adonis has not yet developed a beard. (If our interpre- 
tation is right, it will carry with it the meaning of Adonis-town for the 
Cypriote city Marion, near to Amathus, where the bearded goddess was 
worshipped. In Amathus itself, according to Pausanias (9, 41, 2), the 
goddess and Adonis had one temple). 



362 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

of Shakespeare) ^ ; it was this bifurcation that led to the finding of a 
head and arms in the plant to match the legs and all other necessary 
accessories. Columella accordingly described the root as half-human. 

Quamvis semihominis vesano gramine foeta 
Mandragorae pariat flores. 

Dere rustica, x. 19, 20. 

But what appeared to the philosopher as manlike, and to the 
professor of agriculture as half-human, was easily carried by the 
vulgar into a more exact delineation of the human form. 

Thus in the earlier printed herbal s we have actual representations 
of the emerging human forms, as the plant is plucked out of the 
ground. T\\e Hortiis sani/a^ts, ior example, of 1491 gives us the 
accompanying representations, which have mythology written across 
their very face. One can see Aphrodite rising out of the ground 
a great deal more clearly than the Greeks saw her rising out of the 
sea. 

We must not say that our ancestors had nothing to work upon 
in their representations. If we were to consult Sibthorp*s splendid 
volumes on the Greek Flora, we should find a picture of the mandrake, 
root and all, which is really not unsuggestive of the lower part of 
the human anatomy. Our frontispiece shows a copy of the plate in 
Sibthorp from which it can be judged whether I have overstated the 
case. One way of determining the hold which the ideas about the 
mandrake had upon the human mind is to watch the efforts which the 
more scientific herbalists make to shake these beliefs off. We have 
already alluded to Gerarde : here is an extract from Parkinson who 
insists that there is no danger in the extraction of the root, and nothing 
human in its shape. In his Garden of Pleasant Flowers (a.D. 
1 629), much of which is repeated in the Theainim Botanictim, we 
find as follows : — 

" The Mandrake is distinguished into two kinds, the male and 
the female ; the male hath two sorts, the one differing from the other, 
as shall be shewd, but of the female I know but one. The male is 
frequent in many gardens, but the female in that it is more tender 

^ Dodonaeus, Hist, of Plants, p. 437 : " The roote is great and white, 
not muche unlyke a Radishe roote, divided into two or three partes, and 
sometimes growing one upon another, almost lyke the thighes and leggcs of 
a man **. 



rSBB 







t^pu;rcvxniti^ biffcr tf :tVv:tt aCt^ ^i-vMf; .SiS bit 'vftl'i- ftctvid^c ^^cRa^ 
fcit ;i!i' bic ici)ciiib:'?cr faaun^ctt bVcit^cr incn|hniri vu ^t■^lvr y|^ tc^ 

i;c»i ctijncr niiXdHT {latfcti viib hp-ycji fiu' adc an^vfttn)?. 





jlHflMfloia 
Capituluin 

A I kStc mci 
fcCPc bocrcttt ttllt 

pitcPfiu't>i|]cm* 




_alrunfratn 
♦ rtglmu- 

lamuCicrlhfinc* 
fut I'prcc^cn <tcnter 
btj^rttU'iint^rtS: Mc 
bcr cr(?cit vitb botf 
nit mccn bav von 
vcr^mftiiibcmca? 



Mandrake (Female) 
(From the German "Herbarius". Mainz: Schoeffer^ 1485) 




^1 




ijHatiranoza 
Caiiimlum. 

monwi\m 
Tvlt ) ibic 

3rt ^^ i>u(§5cmmt 

l>w5o:a fy frt& vni 

ccbcpmcifictfl^ni 

Clc^ mcifict (f>rcc^c 
nuQct wcrbc in *^cr 
mcnftc^a&r tvic be 

ma> '2_5tc*^ic met 
mtdJmbc ^ud^cttr 

ttttn?n ^qcfbtmcict 
fctjcii a& manttctt 
iprcct>c^ic mcyflct; 
tvacfxTtvff rm &a 
mcrct fiutvil foCic^ 

nit Mcv cvbc fmi^v fic xv ci'C)c fTCMia<^\ v3 



fanitc'cjrcccanrt^ 
ccoifrtm^icc Cctci 
itici|rcrfprcc^5Ci 

cii'caiitffaffcv|d>it 
vn fpxxSc^ay m^ 
^^Ic6:ft an bc^vit 
if^aud^^icfitcyml 
cc^nc•i^tc fiauwc 
wan^crmaiv tt^ti 
ba^^icfVcuQd^.ftc 
avmv vn^ tiit^tc 

tvuhyiuTiVcyrtna 
ftci' vV|H>nS:i]viKt 
catii|rac» vftipi-c^ 
i5crii>k>Faif|fcruxi' 
|Vttt cjCictvbcfiKii 
vnfiv;TVf•i^i1l^;u 
biXycy foihi^c^ ^cy 
(v vnntr ulfo for 
wti rnclf nvad^iot 



Mandrake (Male) 
(From the German "Herbarius". Mainz: Schoeffer, 1485) 



Xrac<atu0 



A aiia rpcded q nof ami; nstbn^ ad 
miniftra? a cimr^ds qf?>Pofantmaibro 
aliquod mcidcrc;7q5 bibit folaq;. ^dof 
fuffbcas d eft ty riaca Hi i£t ide aua 
:R3fi5. i^ijric niif?i qda cjc anriqs babOo 
nicq^ qdam p ndia pmcditquint^p poms 
inadra5oic;7cedditrincopi53ta.cttot« 
cffecta dt njbicuda.ct qutdcfueucnicns 
cffuditfijgcapmd'' a^nimieDoncc fur 

rontDcradiccciuscaiinpinguadi.ctac 
dditdsficutaccidc fol) boibus ingredi 
cntibusb3lncuinctbibcnb''poft qntum 
vinuinultu-naface^ftjitvulruscoznimif 
mbicandne: i^ iStidcmauct.i>yan. 
:g9diC€madrago:emulQ Dacadamoic^ 




/|\ Sndragoiafcrninc.Scrap.aijct, 

JiCjninaturlandacbiafiuc badacbif 
sotlacnica.Ma in folijs d^ dl fimiUrodo 
Cfi foUjs lactucc;-! funt pinguia 5 uis odo 
n&.7€;ctcnduD^rugfadQntene.imcdi(> 



fblio?do5 dlfimiTf mdpiTi -rdtlofacb. 
7 cdtrini colo.bilsodoK bonu.7 itra 165 
font graiu fimiha granig piro^. 7 babct 
radices magnasmcdiocnrcTou3i3ftrc0 
8dl>crcntcsinaiccejtcri^nigr3d7intai< 
albas, fug qs eft conq: groiTus. ilt bcc 
fpcdc0mandrago:cnon baba ftipitcm 

S /lbandrago:3 fo:ciflimi odon's <lt 
abboineiciuno no colligit ?£> JUm* 
ufq; vie vna dt. flXc cum polcta trita fcr 
uo:f 5 oculo^ 7 Doloice aurifi fcdat. i£ 
l^adijcduscuaccto Rita 7 iUita igiicm fa 
crum curat. ^ Suicoina./flbandra 
go:afomnu^puocat.i!ctqnponi£invino 
vcbcmcntcrincbriat./li^ulmfqj vfus a^ 
7'odojamcntu.faciiit apoplcjria; i5 
lac due cudli ticntigincs.ct pannu fine 
moidicatoc.^Iucdo at cdudt colcra 7 
flcgma; f t^adijc due tri ta ct cil ace 
to impofita fugbmfipilam fanat ca. ^c 
mm dusmatriccm mundificat.vl'vomi 
mmp:ouocat. 




Mandrake (Female) 
(From the Latin " Hortus Sanitfitis". Mainz: Meydenbach, 1491) 



2^racfa(u0 




Ca.ccljrjcv^ 

/|\ aim3;vt3u^mccnnaifr!r<jcca 
I I iJDcnsfupcrlapidaTi.TpUntas.a 
^^JXctfb^t plurcs Ipccics. i omoiata 
cfttcrcm^bin,7riracolt»i fucca^ baofcr 
cftoc fpccicbua cius. i$t ait ^uicenna. 
ill anna omcrfificatur fm Diucrfitatcni 
rerum fu^ qs caditfcipicns ab cis diuct 
fitatcs -7 vmtcg.apud no5 vidi Duas rpc 
cice, vna qua:^ eft granufofa non piuncta 
Sranufis*aha pglobata q arufirio magif 
vidcl fopbifticata Cjt 5ucca:o cocta ct fo 
liisfenequo^ fhjftula inmijtts vident f» 
poionCqui fcnc)oftcndit ^eraJi aggre. 
C3p.mcn:u manna eft ca. 7 abftcrgit i U 
uat.7 cftcaanpmogradurpatabaiditj 
tc^ficcitatcj^t idcmauct.-Rafis oijritcj 
ocmmanacadurugarbotcmq ortams 
rifcus fkut mcL7 qri fadt moiam fug pI5 
tarn iUain albcfcit.fcd quando ibi no mo 
ramr. fed coUigimr cito cum folio ciufcft 
viridis» /i^dio: c)c ca eft cuius colo: € cla 
nj» app:ppiDquas albcdioii ? bj pamni 



ruboM'9»'9Iihi'a0]/ibflniuidf (Omnfd roi$ 
cadenerupl3pidc5 3atarf)o:cm n fit oul 
cid7Coagulaf ficutmcl^i^t C]cficcat iicDt 
gummiquonadmodum tcTcniabin.iCft 
alia fpccics q vocaf tcrcniabin. $ qua \t 
g€ capittulu. jC^roiiabin » 

0pcratione0, 

ISl Serapion.auct.1|lari0;fDueDe(po 
cadit fup arbo:fmtamarircieft bonata 
Ifi/rarpcritatcpcctong.jfloUigitcat^a? 
1 mjrit q^manna caditfug aiboK q or j^3 
KnarifcueficutmcL 36 i^tidcmauc 
ft)abi)c.4ftca.infincpmificca^inqua0 
caliditati.pfcrt rclajcatoi ftomacbi.iab 
ftTingitvcntran,Tpuenit aqcitrincqua 
oobibiturocca.emplaftratvcntcr.ct in 
gTcditur in mcdicinis apoftcmatii* (^ 
j|t qficcatcatan^qnfitcaputpurgium. 
qm mudificat ccreb?. i c^cUit ab to vcri 
tofitatcgflam: ^ iftfoitiftcatmcdi 
cinasqfimircrf cii eisinpotionib^'ct ca 
putpurgijs.Todct apata flcgtica.-r mif 
ccturinpfcctonibus^ptcr cjcccUceioiw 
mcnmmquodcftinea. 




Mandrake (Male) 
(From the Latin " Hortus Sanitatis", Mainz: Meydenbach,- i^gi) 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 363 

and rare, is noursed up but in few. . . . The roote is long and 
thicke, blackish on the outside and white within, consisting many 
times but of one long roote, and sometimes divided into two branches, 
a little below the head, and sometimes into three or more, as nature 
listeth to bestow upon it, as my selfe have often seene by the trans- 
planting of many parts of the rootes, but never found harm in so 
doing, as many idle tales have been set down in writing, and delivered 
up also by report, of much danger to happen to such as should digge 
them up or break them ; neyther have I ever seene any forme of 
man-like or woman-like parts, in the rootes of any ; but as I have 
said, it hath oftentimes two maine roots running down right into the 
ground, and sometimes three, and sometimes but one, as it likewise 
often happeneth to parsneps, carrots, and the like. But many counter- 
feit roots have been shaped to such forms, and publicly exposed to 
the view of all that would see them, and have been tolerated by the 
chief magistrates of this citye, notwithstanding that they have been 
informed that such practices were meere deceit and insufferable ; 
whether this happened through their over credulitie of the thing or of 
the persons, or through an opinion that the information of the truth 
rose upon envy, I know not, I leave that to the searcher of all hearts. 
But this you may be bold to rest upon and assure yourselves, that 
such formes as have bin publickly exposed to be seene, were never so 
formed by nature, but only by the art and cunning of knaves and 
deceivers, and let this be your Galeattcni against all such vaine, idle 
and ridiculous toyes of men's inventions." 

These be very bitter words. Let us see what the knaves and 
deceivers had actually been doing, animated, no doubt, by a Mort- 
age in the supply of mandrake from the Mediterranean or the 
Levant. 

Matthioli, from whom much in Parkinson and Gerarde is derived, 
tells us the story of a man whom he cured in the spital at Rome of a 
certain disease, who in gratitude confided to him the secret of the 
manufacture of fictitious mandrakes ; he said that he made them out 
of bryony roots, and sold them to ladies desirous of offspring ; in order 
to produce the proper hair and beards and the like, which a true 
mandrake ought to show, he used to plant litde grains of millet in 
artificial hollows of the root, and bury the root again until the millet 
seeds had sprouted and thrown out the necessary hirsute additions to 



364 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

the root that was to go upon the market.' These attempts at produc- 
ing a bearded mandrake, etc., are instructive : they show us what 
was the popular acceptation of the plant, and help us again to under- 
stand the bearded Venus of Cyprus of whom Macrobius speaks. 
Matthioli does not, like his followers, deny the bifurcation of the root, 
though he does deny the existence of the human form in the mandrake. 
As his account is valuable because of the traditions which it gathers 
up, I transcribe the main body of his statement on the mandrake. 

Matthioli, Comm. in lib. quartum Dioscondis , pp. 759 ff. Mandra- 
gorae utrumque genus frequens nascitur in compluribus Italiae locis, prae- 
sertim in Apulia Gargano monte, unde radicum cortices, et poma herbarii 
quotannis ad nos convehunt. Habentur et in viridariis spectaculi gratia : 
etenim Neapoli, Romae et Venetiis utramque mandragoram in hortis et 
vasis fictilibus satam vidimus. Sed profecto vanum ac fabulosum est, quod 
mandragorae radices ferant, quae humanam effigiem repraesentant, ut 
ignarum vulgus, et simplices mulierculae certo credunt et affirmant. 
Quibus etiam persuasum est, eas effodi nequaquam posse, nisi cum magno 
vitae periculo, cane qui effodiat radicibus adalligato, et auribus pice ob- 
turatis, ne radicis clamorem audiant effodientes, quod audita voce peri- 
clitentur pereantque fossores. Quippe radices illae, quae humanam formam 
referunt, quas impostores ac nebulones quidam venales circumferunt, 
infoecundas mulieres decepturi, factitiae sunt ex harundinum, bryoniae, 
aliarumque plantarum radicibus. Sculpunt enim in his adhuc virentibus 
tarn virorum quam mulierum formas, infixis hordii et milii granis, iis in 
locis, ubi pilos exoriri volunt ; deinde facta scrobe tamdiu tenui sabulo 
obruunt, quousque grana ilia radices emittant ; id quod fiet viginti ad 
summum dierum spatio. Eruunt eas demum, et adnatas e granis radices 
acutissimo cultello scindunt, aptantque ita ut capillos, barbam et celeros 
corporis pilos referant. Hujus sane rei certam fidem facere possum, quod 
cum Romae essem, impostorem quendam circumforaneum lue Gallica 
correptum nobis curare contigit, qui praeter alias innumeras imposturas, 
quibus circumventis hominibus, multam pecuniam extorquens, docuit et 
artem qua factitias sibi comparabat Mandragoras, quarum complures mihi 
demonstravit, asserens unam tantum interdum divitibus vendidisse quinque 
et viginti, nonnunquam etiam triginta aureis. Quamobrem nos, qui omnium 
utilitati et saluti quantum possumus consulimus, haec silentio haudquaquam 
involvenda duximus, ut palam omnibus fiat, quibus fallaciis et fraudibus 
maximo cum detrimento, et vitae saepe discrimine, homines ab iis impostoribus 
et nebulonibus decipiantur. Qui ut antiquorum quoque authoritate suas 
imposturas abstruant, praedicant Pythagoram vocasse Mandragoram anthro- 

^ So Bacon, Natural History (ed. Spedding, 2, 533) : ** Some plants 
there are, but rare, that have a mossy or downy root ; and likewise tJiat 
have a number of tJireads, like beards ; as mandrakes, whereof witches and 
impostors make an ugly image, giving it the form of a face at the top of 
the root, and leaving those strings to make a broad beard down to the foot ". 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 365 

pomorphon, quod earn humanam formam reddere coluerint. Verum 
sciendum est, non sine rationi mandragoram ita a Pythagora dictam 
fuisse : quippe quod in universum omnes fere mandragorae radices a medio 
ad imum bifurcatae provenianl, adeo ut crura hominum modo habere 
videanlur. Quapropter si illo effodientur tempore, quo fructum gerunt, 
qui mali instar super folia ad terram procumbentia brevi pediculo appensus, 
parum a radice distat, hominis qui brachia desint effigiem quadantenus 
repraesentant. Hanc quidem rem nulli, quod sciam, vel pauci sunt, qui 
recte acceperunt. . . . Sed ut ad fabulam illam redeamus quae periculum 
denuntiat ignaris radices mandragora effodere volentibus . . . ea mihi 
quidem desumta videntur a Flavio Josepho, etc. 

It is amusing to find that Matthiolus thought that he could explain 
a world-wide (or almost world-wide) piece of folk- tradition by a refer- 
ence to Josephus. It will be well to emphasise the diffusion of the 
belief in the digging of the mandrake and its dangers both chronologically 
and territorially. For instance, Josephus with his story of the digging 
of a root which he calls Baaras must be taken as evidence of the folk-lore 
of Palestine. He does not seem to identify the Baaras with the man- 
drake, and no one seems to know about it, nor whether it is used as a 
love-philtre, or only for medical purposes and associated magic. He 
seems to think that the plant is named after a place near the castle of 
Machaerus on the Dead Sea, where John the Baptist was incarcer- 
ated ; the root had a colour like flame, and towards evening sent out 
a ray like lightning. We naturally compare stories of the fern-seed, and 
of the Aphrodite Noctiluca, referred to above. There was danger in 
extracting the root, but, says Josephus, there was a safe way of getting 
it : ** They dig a trench quite round it till the hidden part of the root 
is very small, then they tie a dog to it, and when the dog tries hard to 
follow him that tied him, this root is easily plucked up, but the dog 
dies immediately, as it were, instead of the man that would take the 
plant away ; nor after this would any one be afraid of taking it into 
their hands. . . . If it be only brought to sick persons, it quickly drives 
away those called demons, which are no other than the spirits of the 
wicked, which enter into men that are alive, and kill them, unless they 
can obtain some help against them.'* ^ 

It certainly looks as if it were the mandrake that Josephus and his 
dog had been extracting, and using as a charm against evil spirits. 
The same belief was noted last century in the furthest parts of Armenia. 

^ Jos., Bell. Jud. vii. 6, 3. 



366 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

In 1 822 there was published in London a translation of an Armenian 
work called the Memoirs of the Life of Artemi of Wagarshapal 
near Mt, Ara7'at in Armenia. In this work (p. 99) we find as 
follows : " In the vicinity of the Uschakar are found two remarkable 
roots. With one called toro7i is made a red colour, which is used in 
Russia : and the Russian name of which is Morena : the other, 
laschtak or manrakor (mandrake), bears an exact resemblance to the 
human figure and is used by us medicinally. It grows pretty large. 
A dog is usually employed to draw it out of the ground ; for which 
purpose the earth is first dug from about it, and a dog being fastened 
to it by a string, is made to pull till the whole of the root is extracted. 
The reason of this is, according to the current report, that if a man 
were to pull up this root he would infallibly die, either on the spot or 
in a very short time ; and it is also said that when it is drawn out the 
moan of a human voice is always heard, but I cannot answer for the 
truth of these circumstances, as I never witnessed them, nor indeed do 
I myself believe them." Here we have the same folk- tradition tinged 
with incipient rationalism that we detected in the Ejiglish herbal s, and 
it is expressly said that the root extracted is the mandrake. 

Here is a story which seems to suggest that the mandrake tradition 
was, till recently, extant in Cyprus itself, which for our purposes in the 
interpretation of Aphrodite, is its natural home. 

" I entered into conversation," says Mr. Hume in one of his 
journals, *' with a Russian who had studied medicine in Padua, and 
was now settled in Limosol in Cyprus. In giving me an account of 
the curiosities which he possessed he mentioned to me a root, in some 
degree resembling a human body, for at one end it was forked, and 
had a knob at the other which represented the head, with two sprouts 
immediately below it for the arms. This wonderful root he had dug up, 
he said, in the Holy Land, with no little risque, for the instant it ap- 
peared above ground it killed two dogs, and would have killed him 
also had he not been under the influence of magic*' ^ 

Evidently the Russian doctor at Limosol was treating his guest to 
some of the fancies of that end of the Levant, and retailing mandragora 
stories as they were in circulation in times long anterior to his own. 
He may have even picked them up in Cyprus itself. 

^ Quoted in Walpole, Memoirs of Travels in Turkey, 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 367 

We have now shown sufficiently the diffusion of the legend of the 
mandrake in the Elastern end of the Mediterranean ; its original home 
being certainly not far from Cyprus, the traditional centre of the Cult 
of Aphrodite. Down into the Middle Ages the herbalists tell us 
that the mandrake was imported, seeds, roots, and fruits, from that part 
of the world. For example, Bauhinus in his History of Plants 
(a.D. 165 1) tells us that the flowers and fruits of the mandrake are pro- 
duced in Italy, France, and Spain from seeds and roots imported from 
Crete and the Cyclades.^ 

We come now to a curious alternative in the classification of the 
varieties of the mandrake by the early Greek magicians and doctors. 
A reference to Dioscorides ^ will show that a division into male and 
female was accompanied by another into black and white. The 
female was black and the male was white. The herbalists speculate 
on the reason of this division and suppose that the colour of the leaves 
or of the root is involved : what concerns us is not the reason for the 
colour assigned, but a certain consequence that ought to result from 
the description. If the colour has been accepted by the ancients as a 
part of the botanical summary, we ought to expect that, corresponding 
to the female mandrake, there would be a black Aphrodite : and not 
only so, but since we have assigned Cyprus as the home of the man- 
drake cult, at least for Greek religion, we ought to find the black 
Aphrodite in Cyprus. Now let us see what we actually do find. 
There are traces of the existence of a black Aphrodite in Thessaly, 
(among the Thesprotians) and again by a fountain in Arkadia near 
Mantinea : there is also a black Aphrodite in Corinth. In each case, 
the title of the goddess is Melainis, The title " the black lady " 
suggests a cult that is in some way connected with the world below. 

Now, with regard to this cult, we are told by John Lydus ^ that 
the rites which characterised it were transferred from Corinth to 
Cyprus, a statement which implies the existence of the black goddess 
in Cyprus, though we are not bound to accept the inference as to the 
direction in which the transfer was made. The passage referred to is 
as follows : — 

^He professes (vol. iii. p. 617) to be quoting from Lobelius : "in 
Italiae provinciae Narbonae et Hispaniae hortis florem malaque maturant, 
semine aut radicibus ex Candia et Cycladibus insulis advectis, ut scribit 
Lobelius." 

- De, Mat. Med. iv. 76. ^ Joh. Lyd., 4, 45. 



368 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

ev Se KuTTpft) rrpo^arov /cwSiw icTKeTraorfievov crvviSvov rfj, 
^A(f>po8LTrj ' 6 8e TpoTTO^ TTj^ lepareia*; ivTTj Kvnpco dno Trj<; 
Kopivdov TrapyjXOe it ore. i.e. they used also to sacrifice to Aphrodite 
in Cyprus a sheep, wrapped in its fleece ; and the form of the Cypriote 
ritual must have been introduced at some time or other from Corinth. 

Here we must make a correction to the text which talks of the 
sacrifice of a sheep wrapped in its fleece. It was the worshipper that 
was wrapped in the fleece, and who identified himself with his offering 
by throwing the fleece over his head and shoulders, or by kneeling 
upon it. We must read, then, io-KeTraa-fxevot for icrKeiracrfxevov,^ 
It seems, then, that we have recovered the cult of the black Aphrodite 
in Cyprus, and a fragment of the associated ritual. We need not, 
then, hesitate to draw conclusion from the black mandrake to the 
black goddess. They are the same. 

The result has an interesting corollary. It is well known that 
there exist in some Christian Churches statues of a black Virgin, 
endowed liberally by the Church with the power of working miracles. 
One in S.E. France is especially noteworthy. It has been common 
amongst archaeologists to assume that we have here a survival of the 
miracle-working images of Isis, converted to Christian use, as in many 
similar cases. It appears, however^ from our investigation, that there 
is no need to go to Egypt for the required sanctity ; it may very well 
have been current in the local worship of Aphrodite." 

If we may judge by the comparison between the little chapel of 
the Black Lady at Corinth as compared with the general devotion to 
her white sister, the black Aphrodite is not a cult figure of any pro- 
minence : she came into existence to personify one aspect of a magical 
plant, and would easily become a witch of the deadlier kind, and 
consort vnth Hekate or Medea in her darker moods. In tracing 
her to Cyprus and possibly to Dodona (for the Thesprotian Cult pro- 
bably derives from thence) we do not mean to suggest that either in 
Cyprus or in Dodona the white Aphrodite was not overwhelmingly 
the predominant one. It is, perhaps, this darker side of the cult which 

^ I see that the proposed correction had already been suggested by 
Robertson Smith, and wrongly rejected by Mr. A. B. Cook. See his 
paper on Anhnal Worship in the Myceneaii Age in J.H.S. xiv. 106 and 
n. 145. 

'^ For the reference to local cults, take Pausanias, 9, 27, 4 ; 8, 6, 2, and 
2,2,4; Athenaeus, 13, 588. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 369 

was responsible for the goddess being regarded in some quarters as a 
i//7;)(07rd/bL7ro9, a guide of souls to the other world. 

As soon as we have satisfied ourselves that Aphrodite was originally 
a witch, and not a courtesan, we are almost obliged to infer that, like 
the other witch-goddesses, she had a garden of her own, in which grew 
her mandrake and other rarities and specialities. 

It is not difficult to detect the literary reference to such gardens, 
though they usually appear as mere pleasure-gardens of a disreputable 
type. It may, however, be seen that this is not the whole of the story. 
For instance, Ovid tells us that the apples which beguiled Atalanta 
in her race, were gathered by Aphrodite herself from her own garden 
at Tamassos in Cyprus : — 

Est agar, indigenae Tamassorum nomine dicunt, 
Telluris Cypriae pars optima, quam mihi prisci 
Sacravere senes, templisque accedere dotem 
Hanc jussere meis ; medio nitet arbor in arvo, 
Fulva comam, fulvo ramis crepitantibus auro, 
Hinc tria forte mea veniens decerpta ferebam 
Aurea poma many : 

Ovid. Met, X. 644-650. 

Here it is clear that the apples grew in a sacred enclosure, and were 
plucked golden from a golden bough. The reference to the dotation 
from ancient time reminds one of the " ancient garden of Apollo". If 
this fruit belongs to the earlier ritual in the old-time garden, it ought to 
be the mandrake-apple that was plucked : and then it would be love- 
magic and not mere covetousness that caused Atalanta to surrender the 
race to Hippomenes. Ovid tells us plainly that she was in love with 
him. 

Now let us see how the mandrake story has coloured the medicine 
and religion of Northern and Western Europe. We shall show first 
that amongst our Teutonic ancestors it was the subject of much v^zardry, 
and that it had the same name as the witch who operated with it. Next 
we shall go on to show that the legend developed on French soil in 
such a way as to produce a belief in a fairy-form, female in character, 
answering to Aphrodite at the other end of the evolutionaiy scale, and 
again named after the plant. We take these points in order, they are 
of great importance, because of the difficulty which some people will 
feel in accepting the identification of the primitive plant with the 
archaic divinity : the difficulty is a real one : we may have to admit 



370 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

the original equivalence of Apollo and the apple, and we certainly 
cannot explain the ncone of the apple as a by-product from the name 
of the god : but is it as evident that we can equate Artemis the 
woman's doctor with artemisia the woman's medicine ? May not the 
latter be a true adjective to the former ? And why should we assume 
an equivalence between Aphrodite and mandragora which would 
almost require us to explain the former as a linguistic representation of 
the latter ? These difficulties have been, in part, met already, as for 
example by the Hesychian equation between Aphrodite and the man- 
drake, and by the parallelism between the bearded mandrake and the 
bearded Venus of Cyprus : if, however, we can show that in Germany 
the witch and the plant have the same name, and that in France, after 
the original witch had disappeared from the legend, a female fairy was 
produced, it will be clear that the equivalence of the plant with the 
potency that controls it lies in the very nature of the case. 

Let us then take up the German evidence. Bauhinus in his His- 
toria Plantaruni already cited, will tell us that amongst the Germans 
the plant is called Alraun Maenkin, but amongst the Belgians, Man- 
dragora Alanneken ; amongst the Italians, Mandragora Masckio ; 
amongst the French, Mandragora or Mandegloire, The names 
are very suggestive ; we have before us the belief that there was a 
mannikin in the root, that mandrake was in two kinds, male and 
female, and that in French by an easy linguistic perversion, it came to 
be called Hand of Glory ^ of which more presently. 

In German, then, it was known as alrau7i and this is one of the 
names of the Teutonic witches, or, if we prefer it, goddesses. An 
^/r/*«^-maiden is a witch who operates with alraun : she was the 
plant in the first instance, of necessity she remains closely connected 
with it.^ 

There is no more powerful German magic than the alraun : it 
was a birth-helping medicine, amongst other potencies ; for instance, 
in some lines of Frauenlob,^ we are told as follows : — 

^ We may take the statement of the equivalence of the names of the 
witch and the medicine from Ducange: **Ita vocavere Gothi veteresque 
Germani magas suas : sed et alrunae nomen inditum fuisse mandragorae radi- 
cibus, quod praestantis usus in arte magica superstitiosis esse videretur" 
(Loccenius in Antiq. Sue. Goth.). ** Hodie etiam a Germanis alrunen 
magas vocare constat." 

^Ed. Ettmiiller, minneleich 15, p. 26. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 371 

Sit, wip, der siieze ersuezen viirbaz reichet, 
ouch, alsam der alriinen glanz 
der berendigen vrouwen schranz, 
berliche biirde weichet, 

upon which Ettmiiller remarks that *' people seem to have believed 
that mandragora facilitated parturition. Perhaps it was the potency 
of the human alniTie (the witch, the enchantress) that had passed 
over with the witch to the plant." The observation is interesting, 
though the transfer of name and potency was probably in the opposite 
direction. It shows that the mandrake had its cult in Germany where 
it even discharged some of the functions of the artemisia, as if 
Aphrodite had taken over the duties of Artemis and acted as her 
locum teriens. The same thing comes out in a passage from Lonicer's 
KraiUerbiuh (a.D. 1582)^: "Alraun rinder dienet zu augen- 
arzneyen. Dieser rinder drey heller gewicht schwer fiir den frawen 
gemacht (sc. genitalia) gehalten, bringet ihnen ihre zeit, treibet aus die 
todte geburt." The language is decidedly Artemisian. 

Grimm tells us further that a man who had alratm about him 
could change his form from childhood to age, or conversely at his 
pleasure. Still more remarkable is the statement that the mandrake 
had to be dressed like a doll, and fed twice a day. We shall refer 
to this again, as it is important for the development of the image wor- 
ship associated with the inherent deity of the plant : dolls may easily 
become gods, and of course, conversely. There can be no doubt as to 
the belief in the human form of the mandrake when that belief expresses 
itself in the concrete forms of a cult requiring food and raiment. 

A few remarks may further be made with regard to the property 
of rejuvenescence attributed above to the mandrake, accompanied by 
a converse power in the case of young persons. It is precisely this 
power (interpreted of course sexually) that is attributed to Aphrodite, 
and furnishes one of her titles. For instance, she is called AmbO" 
logera, the Postponer of Old Age : a term which has its perfect 
explanation in a passage of Plutarch : — 

/cat T7/xa? outtoj Trai^raTrao-tv 17 " K^pohiry] 7r€(f)evyeVj aXXa kol 
7Tpo(r€v^6fi€0a BTjTTOvOev, \4yovTt^ iv toI^; t(ov Oean/ u/xi/ot? • 
Ai/d^aXe dvoj to yrjpa^ 

Oi KoKd *A<f}poSLT7). 

— Plut., Sy7npos, 3, 6, 4, 
^ P. 106. Quoted by Grimm, Myth. iy. 1673 (Eng. tr.). 



372 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

It appears that a prayer for the adjournment of old age may have 
been actually incorporated in the ritual of the goddess. With this, 
we may take another petition addressed to the goddess in an epigram 
of Martial : — 

Supplex ille rogat, pro se miserisque duobus, 
Hunc juvenem facias, hunc, Cytherea, virum : 

—Mart. 11.81, 5. 

which will help us to understand the kind of help desired at the 
opposite end of the sexual scale. 

This power of sexual modification is responsible for the belief of 
the middle ages that the man who had the mandrake could be man 
or child just as he would : " swenne er wil so ist er ein kindelin, 
swenne er wil sS mac er alt sin " (Grimm, ut supra). 

Now let us come to the French traditions. We have the belief 
that the ** hand-of-glory " can be dug up under a gibbet, both in 
England and France. This " hand-of-glory '* is the ^;/^w^ rt!<? ^^^V^ 
evolved linguistically out of Mandragore. We have already ex- 
plained that for mandrake to be effective it must be digged from under 
the gallows on which an innocent victim had been hanged : and we 
pointed out the same folk- tradition in Medea's gathering of the plant 
that had been fed with the ichor of the wronged and suffering Pro- 
metheus. The mam de gloire became on the one side, an actual 
hand to be dug out, and on the other side it evolved into a French 
fairy named Magloire^ who could presumably do all that the man- 
drake was expected to do : Magloire was a French alruna-vadii^txi^ 
a resuscitated Aphrodite. The importance of this for the equation of 
the mandragora and the goddess is obvious. 

Now for some bits of evidence. 

Cheruel in his Di^Homiaire His tori que des Institutions 
Moeurs, et Cotltumes de la France (a.D. 1855, ii. 726) tells us 
that mandragora is a plant to which the peasants in some of the 
provinces attribute a marvellous virtue. He then quotes from the 
Journal d^un bourgeois de Paris in the fifteenth century with regard 
to the mandrake : " que maintes sottes gens gardaient et avaient si grand 
foi en cette ordure, que pour vrai ils croyaient fermement que tant 
comme ils Tavaient, pourvu qu'il fut en beaux drapeaux de soie ou de 
lin enveloppe, jamais ils ne seraient pauvres ". 

Here again we have the mandrake dressed up (remember that in 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 373 

the original Aphrodite Cult the goddess was always draped), and this 
well-dressed mandrake would make one rich, had in fact the key to 
hidden treasures. Cheruel goes on to show that this belief lasted 
into the nineteenth century, and quotes an extraordinary story from 
St. Palaye of a conversation he had with a peasant as to the existence 
of the 7nain de gloire at the foot of a mistletoe-bearing oak ! The 
main de gloire or mandrake was for this peasant a kind of mole at 
the root of the tree, which had to be regularly fed, and would always 
make you rich by returning twice as much as you spent upon it. But 
woe to the man who neglected to supply the mandrake with its 
proper nutriment ! The plant had become an animal, but was still 
parlous stuff to deal with. For convenience of reference we transcribe 
the description : " II y a longtemps qu'il regne en France une super- 
stition presque generale au sujet de Mandragores : il en reste encore 
quel que chose parmi les pay sans. Comme je demandais un jour a un 
paysan un gui de chene, il me conta qu'on disait qu'au pied des chenes 
qui portent du gui, il y avait une main de gloire (c'est a dire en leur 
langage une mandragore), qu'elle etait aussi avant dans la tene que le 
gui etait eleve sur Tarbre ; que c'etait une espece de taupe ; que celui 
qui la trouve etait oblige de lui donner de quoi la nourrir, soit du 
pain, de la viande, ou toute autre chose ; et que ce qu'il lui avait 
donne une fois il etait oblige de lui donner tons les jours et dans la 
meme quantite, sans quoi elle faisait mourir ceux qui y manquaient. 
Deux hommes de sons pays qu il me nomma en etaient morts, disait-il ; 
mais en recompense cette main de gloire rendait au double le lende- 
main ce qu on lui avait donne la veille. Si elle avait regu aujourd'hui 
pour un ecu de nourriture celui que le lui avait donne en trouvait deux 
le lendemain, et ainsi de toute autre chose : tel paysan qu'il me nomma 
encore et qui etait devenu fort riche, avait trouve a ce qu'on croyait, 
ajouta-t-il, une de ces mains-de-gloire." ^ 

Mt is amusing to see the way in which the '* Hand of Glory " is worked 
up in the poetry of the Ingoldsby Legends, and with what fidelity to tradi- 
tion, excepting only that the main de gloire is taken from the actual 
murderer on the gibbet and not dug up from beneath it. The author 
produces the following spell : — 

Now open lock 

To the Dead Man's knock ! 

Fly bolt and bar and band ! 

Nor move nor swerve. 

Joint, muscle, or nerve. 



374 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

I have not yet succeeded in determining the meaning of the 
relation between the mandrake and the mistletoe-bearing oak. There 
is something here waiting to be unravelled. We have also to find out 
how the oak became a gibbet.^ The legend of the mandrake appears 
to be crossed at certain points by that of the mugwort : both of them 
have in common with the springwort (whatever that was) the power 
of enriching their possessors. The mandrake, like the other famous 
plants, was magic as well as medicine. 

In spite of the crossing of cults to which we have referred, the 
main point remains clear ; viz. : that mandragora is magic rather 
than medicine ; and that it is peculiarly a love-magic. It is as old as 
the Book of Genesis, whatever may be the date to which that book 
of Hebrew traditions is ultimately assigned. It has lasted as a love- 
medidne to our own times. As Isaac Vossius said in the seventeenth 
century, 

" Mandragorae putatur vis inesse amorem conciliandi ".'" 

The superstition referred to was noticed by Sibthorp to prevail 
amongst the young Athenians, at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, who kept pieces of mandrake root about their persons in 
little bags for amatory reasons. " 

Our next step is to ask whether the apple of Love turns up in the 
figured representations of Aphrodite, in the same way as we showed 
the apple to occur in coins representing Apollo, and elsewhere in 
connection with the god. One recalls at once that some of the most 
famous statues of Aphrodite represent her with an apple in her hand. 
The Venus of Melos, for example ; or the famous statue of the 
sculptor Kanachos in Sikyon of which Pausanias says that it was 
made of gold and ivory and that the hands held, one a poppy 
and the other an apple. Here the selected fruit and flower are 

At the spell of the Dead Man's hand ! 
Sleep all who sleep ! Wake all who wake ! 
But be as the Dead for the Dead Man's sake ! 

This is not bad. The hand of glory operates on the one hand as a spring- 
wort, and on the other as the soporific anaesthetic mandragora. 

^ We might compare the hanging of victims (or, at least, their heads) 
upon a sacred oak. See A. B. Cook, European Sky-god^ p. 397. 

^ Vossius, De. idol, lib. v. 

" ** Radicis frustula, in sacculis gesta, pro amuleto amatono hodie, apud 
juyenes Atticos, in usu sunt " [Sibthorp, Flora Graeca (a.D. 1819), iii. 16]. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE. CULT OF APHRODITE 375 

suggestive, for the mandragora is a sort of combination of poppy and 
apple, from the old Greek medical point of view. The apple inherits 
its magical power, the poppy its soporific value. 

Then we have " a terra-cotta figure from Corinth, of which both 
hands are held against the breast, with a dove in the right hand, an 
apple in the left I' ^ or we might refer to '* the bronze in the Biblio- 
theque Nationale in Paris, representing her as holding the hem of 
her robe in the left hand, and an apple in the right, and wearing a 
flower-wrought crown." ' Then there is the well-known statue called 
the Venus Genetrix in the Louvre, reproducing some religious image 
of the divinity of vegetation, as we may believe that the hand with 





Venus Genetrix 
Venus, with Sceptre and Apple ^p^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^j^^ ^^ S^^j^^^ ^^^ 

(From copper coin of imperial date in wife of Hadrian, in the collection of 

British Museum. From Aphrodisias Mr. A. B. Cook) 

in Caria) 

the apple is a correct restoration.^ Other artistic representations may 
be quoted, but these will suffice. It appears that Aphrodite, then, 
resembles Apollo in one of her leading cult symbols, the apple. Not 
only so, but she appears to have occasionally taken a title from the 
symbol, parallel to Apollo Maleates, for in a coin of Magnesia on 
the Maeander she appears as 'Ac^poStxTy Mr^Xeta, and this is the 
apple- Aphrodite and not the Aphrodite of Melos.^ 

How, then, are we to explain this concurrence in cult symbol 
between Apollo and Aphrodite ? We know the meaning of 
Apollo's apple ; it has been shown to be the sacred tree which is 
Apollo's self : it is, however, impossible that this can be true of 
Aphrodite ; she is not the apple-tree nor the mistletoe. The explan- 

\ Farnell. Cults, ii. 673. - Ibid. 692. 

•^ Ibid,^ The coin representing Venus with sceptre and apple is a 
copper coin of imperial date, in the British Museum, from Aphrodisias 
in Caria. The Venus Genetrix coin is a silver denarius of Sabina the wife 
of Hadrian, in the Collection of Mr. A. B. Cook. 

' See Zeit. f. Num. 1885, t. 12, p. 318, pi. 13'. 

25 



376 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

ation is that her apple is a substitute for the mandrake-apple ; she is, 
as Hesychius explains, the ** Lady of the Mandrake " ; and when 
we put this apple back into her hand, well ! that is her way of telling 
us her past history I The two apples, the Apolline and the Aphro- 
disian are respectively the oracular apple and the love-apple, and the 
apple, as a symbol of love, is derived from the earlier fruit. The 
oracular apple will survive in folk-lore as a means of determining, by 
its rind or its pips, what one's luck in love is like to be. 

Now let us see whether we can find any evidence for the substitu- 
tion of the Apolline-apple for the original love-apple in the Aphrodite 
Cult. How are we to transfer the symbolic fruit from Delphi or Delos 
to Cyprus ? The answer is as follows : — 

There was a mythical story current preserved to us by Servius, or 
one of his interpolators, in his commentary on Vergil, according to 
which a certain young man, named Melos, went from Delos to Cyprus, 
in the days of King Cinyras, the father of Adonis : he became bosom 
friend of Adonis and married a young Cypriote lady, a priestess of 
Aphrodite. After the death of Adonis, the heart-broken Melos and 
his companion hanged themselves upon a tree. Aphrodite, in pity, 
turned Melos into an apple-tree, which was called Melon in memory 
of the tragic event, and his partner into a dove. In this way, then, 
the apple of Delos may be said to have been consecrated in the shrine 
of Adonis. Here is the very passage of Servius, from which mytho- 
logical tradition it is possible to extract some further evidences of the 
way in which religious explanations presented themselves to the mind 
of an educated Greek. 

Serv, in Verg. eel. viii. 37, roscida mala : — 

Matukini roris humore perfusa. (Sane unde Melus Graece traxerit 
nomen, fabula talis est : Melus quidam in Delo insula ortus, relicta patria fugit 
ad insulam Cyprum, in qua eo tempore Cinyras regnabat, habens filium 
Adonem : hie Malum sociatum Adoni filio iussit esse, cumque eum rideret 
esse indolis bonae, propinquam suam dicatam et ipsam Veneri, quae Pelia 
dicebatur, Melo coniunxit : ex quibus nascitur Melus, quem propterea quod 
Venus Adonis amore teneretur, lanquam amali filium inter aras praecipit 
nutriri. Sed postquam Adonis apri ictu extinctus est, senex Melus cum 
dolorem mortis Adonis ferre non posset, laqueo se ad arborem suspendens 
ritam finit, ex cuius nomine Melus appellatus est. Pelia autem coniux eius 
in eo arbore se adpendens necata est. Venus misericordia eorum mortis 
ducta, Adoni luctum continuum praestitit. Melum in pomum sui norainis 
vertit, Peliam coniugem eius in columbam mutavit : Melum autem puerum» 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 377 

qui de Cinyrae genere solus suf>ererat, cum adultum vidisset collecta many 
redire ad Delum praecepit ; qui cum ad insulam pervenisset, et rerum esset 
ibi podtus, Melon condidit civitatem : et cum primus oves tonderi, el vestem 
de lanis fieri instituisset, meruit ut eius nomine oves'/x^Xa appellantur.) 

Thus far Servius, or his interpolator Daniel. It is interesting to 
see the attempt to connect apples with sheep in Greek. Now let us 
return to Aphrodite whom we have justified in apple-stealing from 
Apollo. 

Our next enquiry should be as to the provenience of the mandra- 
gora : how did it come into Greek magic or medicine ? Is it a home 
product, or has it been brought from abroad ? Or was it first brought 
from abroad and then discovered at home ? And did its discovery 
result in the establishment of a garden of Aphrodite, with such plants 
as were likely to further her particular ends ? When we examine the 
herbals we do not get much light on these questions, though it is clear 
we are dealing with a continuous tradition of long standing. Gerarde, 
for example, simply tells us ^ that ** mandrake groweth in hot Regions, 
in woods and mountaines, in Mount Garganus in Apulia, and such like 
places. We have them onely planted in gardens, and are not else- 
where to be foynd in England.*' Upon which Parkinson enlarges as 
follows : '^ " They grow in woods and shadowy places, and the female 
on river-sides in diverse countries, beyond the Alpes, but not on this 
side naturally, as in Graecia, the Isles of Candy, and others in the 
Mediterrafiean Sea, Italy also and Spain : with us they are nursed 
up as rarities in gardens ". 

Now wherever Parkinson took his information from, whether 
from the actual trading botanists of his day, or from early writers, 
does not so much matter. The significant thing is that the mandrake 
is found in the Greek islands. That puts a new light on Aphro- 
dite's migrations, and her cult centres in Cyprus and Cythera. The 
natural inference is that the plant was brought down the Levant by 
Phoenician traders. Aphrodite is the imported mandragora of early 
times, and has undergone divinisation in the same way as Apollo 
and Artemis. 

As soon as Aphrodite has shed her transformation raiment, and 
become a plant again, we see the meaning of the magic cestus which 
she used to wear, with which she did witchcraft on Olympus and 

' p. 352. - Theatr. Botan, p. 344. 



378 THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

elsewhere. It is the belt of mandrake roots which the women of 
ancient times wore next their skin, for reasons detailed above. 

Its magic virtue is clear from the language of Homer. It was 
witchcraft and made its wearer, for the time of wearing, into a witch. 
Hence Hera begs its use that she may operate on Zeus with more 
than normal charms : and it is interesting that in describing the loan 
of the cestus Homer lets us see, behind his designedly obscure 
language, a girdle containing a number of plants used as philtres : the 
passage runs as follows in a translation : — 

Give me the loveliness and power to charm 
Whereby thou reigns't o'er gods and men supreme. 

Then Venus spoke and from her bosom loosed 
Her broidered Cestus, wrought with every charm 
To win the heart ; there Love, there young Desire, 
There fond Discourse, and there Persuasion dwelt. 

—Iliad, 14, 197, tr. Derby. 

These potencies were, we suspect, originally vegetables, and the chief 
of them was the mandrake. Lucian, in his Dialogues of the Gods, 
makes Athene roundly charge Aphrodite with witchcraft, and Athene 
and Hera refuse to take part in the contest for Beauty, unless Aphro- 
dite takes off that thing. How could a young man give a fair verdict, 
and it had to be a man's verdict, if one of the competitors was man- 
draked and talismaned, so as to incapacitate his judgment in advance ! 
Under such circumstances we should all have gone wrong, even if a 
thousand CEnones had called from the bush and told us to give the 
apple to Athene. 

Now comes the most difficult problem of all, the question of the 
name. Is there anything that philology can confidently say on the 
subject? Or have we had so many bad guesses that there is no 
prospect of doing anything more than add one to the number of those 
that already exist ? The one thing that seems clear is that the name 
is not Greek ; and from this it follows as, at all events, a reasonable 
hypothesis, in view of the traditional connection of Aphrodite with 
Cyprus, that the name is Semitic and probably Phoenician. What 
would the goddess be likely to be called if she were really my lady 
Mandragora ? The Hebrew name is Dudaim for the mandrakes 
found in the field, and it is matter of nearly general agreement that 
this has to do with a root that means " Love". Thus " David " is 



THE ORIGIN OF THE CULT OF APHRODITE 379 

said to mean *' Beloved," and Solomon is actually called Jedid-Jah or 
** Beloved of Jahveh," the name being supposed by some to answer to 
a primitive form Dodo, The name of the mandrake Dudai would 
be an adjectival form belonging to this root ; put the word for fruit 
before it and we \idiyt pridudai = ^fc^T^i "'hD. It will be recognised 
that we have here something that might be the ancestor to the Greek 
A-phrodite. Now how would this be expressed in Phoenician ? 
Fruit would be id = phar, and if we may judge by the analogy of 
the forms David (Dod) and Dido, we might expect something like 
phar-didi, from which it is not a long step to the Greek spelling. 
^A(l}po8iT7) would, to reach its primitive form, lose a prefixed vowel 
and change its last consonant from / to ^, so as to read ^po8t8r). 
Now it is curious that there is some sign of wavering in the spelling 
of the name on early Greek vases. We find, for example, Aphro- 
tide. It may be an accidental permutation but it arouses suspicion. 
The form Aphrodide I have not found. 

According to this suggestion, Aphrodite is simply love-apple, 
Graecised out of a primitive Semitic (Phcenician) form. 

I see that this derivation has been in part anticipated, and that a 
number of German scholars have suggested that the first part of the 
goddess' name is connected with the root H'^D (fruit). The idea which 
they thus reach is that of fruitful ness, a very proper idea to be con- 
nected with the more wholesome aspects of human love. It is, how- 
ever, an insufficient explanation. There must be some other idea 
involved than that